digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















Scientific freedom is the idea of freedom (in the sense of Freedom of thought and Freedom of the press) applied to natural science, in particular the practices of scientific research and discourse, mainly by publication. Scientific freedom is promoted by many organizations of scientists, and is the subject of article 15 ¶ 3 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

Defence of scientific freedom[edit]

Michael Polanyi argued that academic freedom was a fundamental necessity for the production of true knowledge.

Although the notion of scientific freedom has a long implicit history, the idea was first clearly formulated in response to the encroachments of the totalitarian state on science for the furtherance of its own goals. For instance, in the Soviet Union, scientific research was brought under strict political control in the 1930s. A number of research areas were declared "bourgeois pseudoscience" and forbidden, notably genetics.[1] (see "Lysenkoism"). The trend toward subjugating science to the interests of the state also had proponents in the West, including the influential Marxist, John Desmond Bernal, who published The Social Function of Science in 1939.

In contrast to this approach, Michael Polanyi argued that a structure of liberty is essential for the advancement of science - that the freedom to pursue science for its own sake is a prerequisite for the production of knowledge through peer review and the scientific method.[2]

In 1936, as a consequence of an invitation to give lectures for the Ministry of Heavy Industry in the USSR, Polanyi met Bukharin, who told him that in socialist societies all scientific research is directed to accord with the needs of the latest Five Year Plan. Demands in Britain for centrally planned scientific research, led Polanyi, together with John Baker, to found the influential Society for Freedom in Science.[3] The Society promoted a liberal conception of science as free enquiry against the instrumental view that science should exist primarily to serve the needs of society.[4]

In a series of articles, re-published in The Contempt of Freedom (1940) and The Logic of Liberty (1951), Polanyi claimed that co-operation amongst scientists is analogous to the way in which agents co-ordinate themselves within a free market. Just as consumers in a free market determine the value of products, science is a spontaneous order that arises as a consequence of open debate amongst specialists. Science can therefore only flourish when scientists have the liberty to pursue truth as an end in itself:

"[S]cientists, freely making their own choice of problems and pursuing them in the light of their own personal judgment, are in fact co-operating as members of a closely knit organization."

"Such self-co-ordination of independent initiatives leads to a joint result which is unpremeditated by any of those who bring it about."

"Any attempt to organize the group ... under a single authority would eliminate their independent initiatives, and thus reduce their joint effectiveness to that of the single person directing them from the centre. It would, in effect, paralyse their co-operation."

See also[edit]

Awards and associations:


  1. ^ Glass, Bentley (May 1962). "Scientists in Politics". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 18 (5): 3. 
  2. ^ Michael Polanyi (1958). Personal Knowledge. ISBN 0-7734-9150-3. 
  3. ^ William McGucken (1978). "On Freedom and Planning in Science: The Society for Freedom in Science 1940–1946". Minerva 16 (1): 42–72. doi:10.1007/BF01102181. 
  4. ^ William McGucken, 1978. 'On Freedom and Planning in Science: The Society for Freedom in Science 1940--1946', Minerva, 16, pp. 42--72.

Further reading[edit]

  • David B. Resnik (1998). The Ethics of Science. Routledge. pp. 54–55. ISBN 9780415166980. 
  • Kenneth F. Schaffner (1982). "Biomedical Knowledge: Progress and Priorities". In William B. Bondeson. New Knowledge in the Biomedical Sciences. Springer. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-90-277-1319-3. 
  • J. T. Edsall (1975). "Scientific Freedom and Responsibility: Report of the AAAS Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility". Science 188 (4189): 687–93 [689]. doi:10.1126/science.11643270. 
  • W. P. Metzger (Spring 1978). "Academic Freedom and Scientific Freedom". Daedalus 107 (2): 93–114. 
  • Kristin Sharon Shrader-Frechette (1994). Ethics of Scientific Research. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780847679409. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_freedom — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

The Ruby by Freedom Scientific for Visual Disabilities

At the Holly Community Inc Assistive Technology Demonstrations Center we will be exploring the Ruby, which is by Freedom Scientific. This product was made fo...

PEARL Reading Solution from Freedom Scientific

A portable scanning and reading solution for those who are low vision or blind. Instantly converts text to speech or Braille. Compact OCR camera deploys in s...

TOPAZ Video Magnifiers from Freedom Scientific

The sleek new TOPAZ® is our most versatile desktop video magnifier yet for low vision users. New 20-, 22-, and 24-inch widescreen models provide a clear, cri...

Dr. Sue Sisley Talks About Medical Marijuana, PTSD and Scientific Freedom

Watch Dr. Sisley discuss how medical marijuana may help symptoms of PTSD. Then visit a newly formed Super PAC, Americans for Scientific Freedom, and donate $...

Demonstration of Freedom scientific jaws screen reader for blind people

Sorry the screen is black but there doesn't really need to be a picture.

Assassin's Creed 4 Freedom Cry DLC - A Scientific Inquiry Full sync walkthrough

This is Part 6 of my walkthrough for Freedom Cry DLC for Assassin's Creed 4 with Full Synchronization. Played on PS3. For PC, XBOX 360, PS4, Xbox one and PS3...

Freedom Scientific's SARA Scanning and Reading Appliance

The SARA is designed to work right out of the box, with no technical experience required. All the user has to do is place a book, magazine, newspaper, bill, ...

Biosecurity dilemmas: dreaded germs, global health and scientific freedom

Which is more dangerous, bioterrorism or biodefense? When do the security risks of pathogen research outweigh the health benefits? Is there too little or too...

Assassin's Creed 4 - Freedom Cry DLC Walkthrough Part 6 - Memory 6: A Scientific Inquiry (100% Sync)

Assassin's Creed 4 Freedom Cry DLC Walkthrough Part 6 Show your support and ▻LIKE◅ the video -- It helps a lot. Memory 6: A Scientific Inquiry (100% Sync) • ...

Errors of the Human Body Movie CLIP - Scientific Freedom (2013) - Michael Eklund Movie HD

Subscribe to TRAILERS: http://bit.ly/sxaw6h Subscribe to COMING SOON: http://bit.ly/H2vZUn Like us on FACEBOOK: http://goo.gl/dHs73 Errors of the Human Body ...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

67 news items

Thu, 26 Jun 2014 06:30:00 -0700

The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) and the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina presented their joint recommendations on “Scientific Freedom and Scientific Responsibility” on 26 June 2014 in Berlin.

Brookings Institution (blog)

Brookings Institution (blog)
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 04:26:15 -0700

It is critical that we protect scientific freedom to explore new ideas, place a priority on expanding our understanding of the natural world, and continue to develop breakthroughs that can not only enhance our lives but solve some of our most pressing ...

Arizona Public Media

Arizona Public Media
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:17:42 -0700

"I just feel pure gratitude so heartened to see all these folks step up and courageously defend both scientific freedom and faculty free speech," she said. Sisley has also submitted an appeal to her dismissal from the UA. The university has 30 days to ...
Sudan Vision
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 10:18:19 -0700

This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research (known as scientific freedom), publishing, press and printing the depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can ...


Mon, 21 Jul 2014 08:58:16 -0700

"It's a few shortsighted administrators at the top that made this decision, not the people at the medical school where I work," she said. "My sponsor and I are prepared to fight, because this is a fight for scientific freedom. It's not just about ...

The Denver Channel

The Denver Channel
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 13:39:52 -0700

“This is such a blow to scientific freedom.” (Update-- 7-20-14). According to a University of Arizona spokesperson, the university will propose a new principal investigator for the study to the research sponsor. It has not cancelled the study ...

Tucson Weekly

Tucson Weekly
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 19:32:02 -0700

No, she said, this is a fight for scientific freedom and veterans—a group of patients she's treated in her telemedicine practice for years. "I'm talking because this is a giant blow to scientific freedom and every story and report helps us shine a ...


Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:41:18 -0700

“I want to believe that the U of A cares about scientific freedom,” Sisley said. At the University of Arizona, spokesman Chris Sigurdson said: "We can't speak on any personnel matters," adding, however, the school remains "committed to ensuring the ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Scientific freedom

You can talk about Scientific freedom with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!