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A Schlenk line with four ports. The cold trap is on the right.
Close-up view, showing the double-oblique stopcock which allows vacuum (rear line) and inert gas (front line) to be selected.

The Schlenk line (also vacuum gas manifold) is a commonly used chemistry apparatus developed by Wilhelm Schlenk. It consists of a dual manifold with several ports.[1] One manifold is connected to a source of purified inert gas, while the other is connected to a high-vacuum pump. The inert gas line is vented through an oil bubbler, while solvent vapors and gaseous reaction products are prevented from contaminating the vacuum pump through a liquid nitrogen or dry ice/acetone cold trap. Special stopcocks or Teflon taps allow for vacuum or inert gas to be selected without the need for placing the sample on a separate line.

Schlenk lines are useful for safely and successfully manipulating air sensitive compounds. The high vacuum is also often used to remove the last traces of solvent from a sample. Vacuum gas manifolds often have many ports and lines, and with care it is possible for several reactions or operations to be run simultaneously.

When the reagents are highly susceptible to oxidation, traces of oxygen may pose a problem. Then, for the removal of oxygen below the ppm level, the inert gas needs to be purified by passing it through a deoxygenation catalyst.[2] This is usually a column of copper(I) or manganese(II) oxide which reacts with oxygen traces present in the inert gas.


The main techniques associated with the use of a Schlenk line include:

  • counterflow additions, where air-stable reagents are added to the reaction vessel against a flow of inert gas.
  • the use of syringes and rubber septa to transfer liquids and solutions
  • cannula transfer, where liquids or solutions of air-sensitive reagents are transferred between different vessels stoppered with septa using a long thin tube known as a cannula. Liquid flow is achieved via vacuum or inert gas pressure.[3]

Glassware are usually connected via tightly fitting and greased ground glass joints. Round bends of glass tubing with ground glass joints may be used to adjust the orientation of various vessels.

Filtration under inert conditions poses a special challenge that is usually tackled with specialized glassware. A Schlenk filter consists of sintered glass funnel fitted with joints and stopcocks. By fitting the pre-dried funnel and receiving flask to the reaction flask against a flow of nitrogen, carefully inverting the set-up, and turning on the vacuum appropriately, the filtration may be accomplished with minimal exposure to air.


The main dangers associated with the use of a Schlenk line are the risks of an implosion or explosion. An implosion can occur due to the use of a high vacuum and flaws in the glass apparatus.

An explosion can occur due to the common use of liquid nitrogen in the cold trap, used to protect the vacuum pump from solvents. If a reasonable amount of air is allowed to enter the Schlenk line, liquid oxygen can condense into the cold trap as a pale blue liquid. An explosion may occur due to reaction of the liquid oxygen with any organic compounds also in the trap.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Craig M. Davis and Kelly A. Curran (November 2007). "Manipulation of a Schlenk Line: Preparation of Tetrahydrofuran Complexes of Transition-Metal Chlorides" (abstract page). Journal of Chemical Education 84 (11): 1822–3. Bibcode:2007JChEd..84.1822D. doi:10.1021/ed084p1822. 
  2. ^ C. R. McIlwrick and C. S. Phillips The removal of oxygen from gas streams: applications in catalysis and gas chromatography, Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, 1973, 6:12, 1208-10
  3. ^ Brown, H. C. "Organic Syntheses via Boranes" John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York: 1975. ISBN 0-471-11280-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schlenk_line — Please support Wikipedia.
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13 news items

India Today

India Today
Wed, 23 Sep 2015 00:18:45 -0700

Candidates applying for the post of Research Consultant shoul have done Ph.D in Chemistry with experience in handling air-sensitive compounds by schlenk line technique. Pay scale: Junior Research Fellow (Department of Electronics and Electrical ...

News Nation

News Nation
Thu, 24 Sep 2015 04:26:15 -0700

Research Consultant: Ph.D in Chemistry with experience in handling air-sensitive compounds by schlenk line technique. Pay scale: Junior Research Fellow (Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering): Rs 25,000 per month.

MIT News

MIT News
Mon, 31 Aug 2015 14:08:11 -0700

Working on a Schlenk line, Greco synthesized up to 16 samples of core-shell quantum dots each week. Greco used capillaries to slowly inject the precursors into a three-necked flask over a period of up to four hours. One neck was covered with a rubber ...
科学时报 (博客)
Thu, 17 Oct 2013 23:26:16 -0700

真空/惰性气体多歧管系统,俗称Schlenk line(Schlenk lines),是隔离和处理空气敏感物品的理想选择。它设计简单,只要接上特制玻璃器皿,你可以得到一个好用又灵活的、能承载多种实验装置的系统。因此,在空气敏感化合物 ...
Nature.com (subscription)
Wed, 17 Jan 2007 16:00:00 -0800

In a representative experiment performed on a Schlenk line, we added 0.337 g (1.225 mmol) Ni(cod)2 as a solid (weighed in dry box and taken out in a tightly sealed vial just before adding) to a vigorously stirred solution of 0.125 g (0.612 mmol) of ...
科学时报 (博客)
Thu, 24 Oct 2013 19:03:44 -0700

真空/惰性气体多歧管系统,俗称Schlenkline(Schlenk lines),是隔离和处理空气敏感物品的理想选择。在Schlenk line的设计下化合物的处理和反应能在N2或者Ar这样的惰性气氛下进行。配上带有标准化快速配合开关的特制 ...
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 04:43:52 -0700

Seit einigen Jahren erhalten Babys, die zu früh geboren wurden, Koffein, um einen Atemstillstand zu verhindern. Das Koffein wird ihnen dabei im Brutkasten über eine Sonde zugeführt oder muss gespritzt werden. Beides bedeutet für die noch sehr ...
科学时报 (博客)
Thu, 07 Nov 2013 19:18:58 -0800

真空/惰性气体多歧管系统,俗称Schlenkline,是隔离和处理空气敏感物品的理想选择。在Schlenk line的设计下化合物的处理和反应能在N2或者Ar这样的惰性气氛下进行。配上带有标准化快速配合开关的特制玻璃器皿,你将得 ...

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