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Location in Somalia.
Location in Somalia.
Country  Somalia
Capital Erigavo
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)

Sanaag (Somali: Sanaag, Arabic: سناج‎ ) is an administrative region (gobol) in northern Somalia.[1] Its capital city is Erigavo. Sanaag has a long coastline facing the Gulf of Aden to the north, and is bordered by the Somali regions of Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sool and Bari.

The most important towns in the region are Erigavo, Badhan, Las Khorey, Dhahar, Laako, El Afweyn, Buraan, Kulmiye, Yufle, Hadaftimo, Mindigale, Hingalol, Heis, Yubbe, El Buh, Damale Hagare, Maydh, El Ayo, Armale and Gar Adag.

Local control of Sanaag is disputed between Somaliland, Puntland, and Khatumo State, a newly formed administration which also lays claim to the southern part of the region.[2]


Main article: Warsangali Sultanate

The Sanaag region and northern Somalia in general is home to numerous archaeological sites, with ancient ruins, buildings and cairns found at Haylaan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul, Maydh and Elaayo, among other places. However, many of these old structures have yet to be properly explored, a process which would help shed further light on local history and facilitate their preservation for posterity.[3]

The Warsangali Sultanate was an imperial ruling house centered in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. It was one of the largest sultanates ever established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area historically known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast. The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, and was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin.


The Sanaag region is mainly inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group, The four major population groups in the Sanaag region were respectively the Harti clans Warsangeli and Dhulbahante and the Isaaq clans Habr Je'llo and Habr Yonis, all of which were roughly the same size.[4]


Camel in Almadow Forest, Somalia


Sanaag has four zones: the coastal area, the mountain range, the gypsum karsts plateau and the Sool Haud plateau. The latter is rich in pasture and has better water quality. Except for the elevated area of Erigavo district where rainfall records indicate an annual average of up to 800 mm(see "Cal Madow" topic), rainfall generally does not exceed 150 mm in most of the region.


A severe drought in the region in the early part of the 21st century caused an 80% or greater loss of livestock, though two good rainy seasons in 2004–2005 helped restore the area. Over a 15-year period of analysis, from 1988–2003, there was a 52% loss of forest and a 40% loss of grassland, and a 370% increase in bare land. Soil erosion due to weather and human activities and clearing of wood and brush for such uses as charcoal and fuel are issues leading to a degradation of the environment.[5]


In recent history, the Sanaag region normally maintained a diverse economy, producing and then exporting to other regions, it produced livestock, frankincense, and leather for export, this was happening while the region lacked basic infrastructure, but sadly, after the outbreak of civil war the region’s economy collapsed from loss of markets and dilapidated infrastructure has never helped, and lack of investment. Now the region only supports one main economy, livestock rearing. The Somali livestock ban imposed by Gulf countries in which was Sanaag’s largest market has virtually destroyed the economy in the region, reducing purchasing power and forcing pastoralists in the region to survive on subsistence activities.[6]

Territorial dispute[edit]

Somaliland border dispute with Puntland. As of July 1, 2007, 2/3 of the disputed territory declared the state of Maakhir.

Sanaag is a disputed region, claimed as sovereign territory by the two autonomous Somaliland and Puntland macro-regions of Somalia.

The dispute between Somaliland and Puntland stems from 1998, when Puntland formed and declared the region as part of its territory.[7] Prior to that, it had been claimed but with no control over the region by Somaliland since the 1991 events of the Somali Civil War. In 1994, the historic USP political party was reinstated by Awad Ahmed Asharo, former party Chairmain of the main Warsangeli clan. With the support of Sanaag pro-union civil society, local admin and politicians, USP was subsequently recognized by UNISOM as the legitimate representative of Sanaag.[8]

Beginning in 1998, after Puntland was formed, Sanaag was one of the regions of Puntland, with Sanaag elected politician given the Speaker of the House position in a power sharing agreement. Thus, both the police and army of Puntland were already established in the region based on the desires of the local population for their security and the territorial integrity of Somalia. The separatist Somaliland administration, however, still claimed the territory as part of the original but colonial boundary of British Somaliland. Fighting between the two forces led to casualties and captured prisoners, who were later exchanged.

The dispute with the TFG stems from the passage of the new Charter in November 2004. However, this was not a pragmatic issue until the military successes of the government in the 2006–2007 war in Somalia. Assertions of sovereignty in January 2007 by the TFG leadership sparked riots in Somaliland for reunification with the south.[9]

On July 1, 2007, the state of Maakhir was declared in the area. It claimed autonomy from both Puntland and Somaliland,[10] but was eventually incorporated into Puntland in January 2009.[11]

Recently the elders from this region and nearby region of Sool which is also disputed have issued joint statement submitted to various agencies declaring their position on unity of Somalia and rejecting notion of Somaliland secessionist agenda, however some of native to both regions are in Somaliland administration. [12]


Uniquely designed house in Badhan, Somalia

According to the federal government of Somalia, prior 1991, Sanaag was divided into 5 Districts which are as follows:[13]

Overview of Erigavo.

According to the Puntland administration, the Sanaag region consists of 10 districts with Badhan being the Capital of the region. The Transitional Federal government also recognizes Puntland as an official state so as its regions and districts. The Districts of Sanaag are:

Hadaaftimo, Somalia

According to the Somaliland administration, as of July 2002, Sanaag was formally divided into 10 districts, rated "A" through "D" in terms; districts graded "D" were limited, because "their district councils shall not be elected at first local government elections as their borders have not yet been delineated."[14] Thus, under the 2005 elections for the lower house of Parliament, Sanaag was described as only having six districts.[15] Here is the list of districts of Sanaag and their "Grade":

Hadaaftimo, Somalia

Notable Sanaagians[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Regions of Somalia
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Michael Hodd, East African Handbook, (Trade & Travel Publications: 1994), p.640.
  4. ^ World, Ref. "Report on the Fact-finding Mission to Somalia and Kenya (27 October - 7 November 1997)". Ref World. Danish Immigration Service. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "Environmental Study of Degradation in the Sool Plateau and Gebi Valley: Sanaag Region of Northern Somalia" (PDF). Horn Relief. February 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2007. 
  6. ^ http://www.mbali.info/doc179.htm
  7. ^ "Remarks on the 1998 Charter of Puntland State of Somalia". Somalia Watch. 12 August 2000. Retrieved 18 January 2007. 
  8. ^ "USP and the means of its political weight - Historical Understanding". Somalia Watch. February 1994. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  9. ^ "Pro-government rally take place in northwest Somalia". Shabelle Media Network. 17 January 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2007. 
  10. ^ The Formation of The Maakhir State of Somalia
  11. ^ Worldstatesmen - Maakhir
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ Gwillim Law, "Districts of Somalia ", Statoids, December 31, 1990
  14. ^ "Republic of Somaliland: Regions and Districts Law (Law No: 23/2002)". Translation of Republic of Somaliland government document. 29 July 2002. Archived from the original on 26 November 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2007. 
  15. ^ "Somaliland: Elections for the Lower House of Parliament September 2005" (PDF). Norwegian Centre for Human Rights/NORDEM. September 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2007. [dead link]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 10°46′45″N 48°11′9″E / 10.77917°N 48.18583°E / 10.77917; 48.18583

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanaag — Please support Wikipedia.
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Taariikhda Gobolka Sanaag

Daawo"Muuqaalo Bilicida Gobolka Sanaag Ee Eebe KU Manystay+Kelmadii Dr Siciid Qowadhan

Chennelkan Waxan ugu tala galay in aad kala socotaan wararka iyo warbixinada Guud ahaan Gobolka Sanaag.

Horumarka Badhan Sanaag

ceerigaabo sanaag Somaliland.wmv by xuseen cali

waa sawiro ku laga soo qaday ceerigabo iyo sanaag Ceerigaabo sanaag somaliland!


Sool - Sanaag Song Lyrics (Gulled Ahmed)

Waa Hees Casri Ah Laguna Magcaabo (Sool-Sanaag), Oo Uu Ereyadeeda Hal Abuuray Abwaanka Da'da Yar ee Soomaaliyeed Abwaan Salah Noor Salah ...


Waa hees cusub oo uu tiriyay abwaan Nuuradiin ahmed Dhaadheere Music by Abdisalaan Jiimi ( london Walaalaha Sanaag Band.

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Sool Vs Sanaag.

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Mon, 23 Nov 2015 03:37:30 -0800

The Food and Agricultural Organization's Managed Somalia Land and Water Information Network (SWALIM) says more than 132,000 people have been affected by floods in different parts of Somalia since 19 October. Nearly 42,000 of these were affected by ...

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Mon, 19 Oct 2015 11:02:16 -0700

Maamulka Gobalka Sanaag ee Puntland ayaa sheegay in maanta gelinkii danbe lasii daayey xubno kamid ah Guddiga Doorashada iyo Wacyigelinta Diiwaangelinta Doorashada Somaliland oo shalay lagu qabtay meel u dhaw degaanka Hadaaftinimo ee ...

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Sun, 01 Nov 2015 19:18:54 -0800

Somaliland State does not include Sanaag and Lasanood and Gadabursi clan areas according to some people within those clans and many expressed such sentiments in 2012 London Conference. Please refer to "Between Somaliland and Puntland ...

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Thu, 29 Oct 2015 01:28:19 -0700

Sida uu qabo dastuurka Puntland waxaa Xildhibaanada Baarlamaanka laga doonayaa muddo 30 maalmood gudaheed ah in ay ku dortaan afhayeenkii beddeli lahaa Siciid Xasan Shiri. Ilaa hadda waxaa la og yahay in Xildhibaan ka soo jeeda Sanaag mid ...

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Mon, 20 Oct 2014 05:19:44 -0700

Boqorka Beelaha Daarood Boqor Burhaan Boqor Muuse iyo wafdi uu hogaaminayo ayaa lagu soo dhaweeyey magaalada Baran oo Puntland Xarun ugu ah Gobolka Sanaag, Wafdi boqorka ayaa si weyn loogu soo dhaweeyey afaafka hore ee Magaalada ...

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Sat, 30 Aug 2014 01:12:06 -0700

Mr Galeyr said the attack on Saah Dheer was bare aggression against the people in Sool and Sanaag regions and that his new administration will not accept imposed administration which is against their will. “W want peace and we want good neighborhood ...

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Mon, 24 Mar 2014 08:00:00 -0700

Wasiirka warfaafinta Puntland Cabdiweli Indha-guran oo xalay la hadlay VOA, wuxuu sheegay in Somaliland ay ciidan ku daabulayso gobolka Sanaag taasoo sida uu yiri abuurayso collaad iyo dagaal dhaca, dadka gobolka Sanaag ayaa kacsan waxayna ...
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maqaal Waxaa dhawan magalada laasqoray oo ka tirsan gobolka sanaag safar gaban ku tagay madaxweynaha maamulka soomaaliland axmed maxamed siilaanyo,hadaba safar madxweynaha ayaa waxa uu dhaliyey muran badan oo ka imanaya dhinacyo ...

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