digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Assorted Salutes (BOOTLEG)

In pyrotechnics a salute is a device primarily designed to make a loud report (a bang), and may or may not have a visual effect. Most salutes will also have a very bright flash and are made from many different formulas depending on manufacturer and desired effect. They may have aluminum, antimony, titanium and other metals added for sparks or flash effects. The salute may be fired on the ground (ground salute) or launched from a mortar as a shell (aerial salute). Salutes are one of the more dangerous type of fireworks. The "guns" (a.k.a. mortar tubes) used to launch the aerial salutes in a commercial fireworks display vary from 1.75 inch diameter up to 8 inch diameter.

Most air and ground salutes are made with flash powder but earlier salutes, primarily the much larger ones called "cannon crackers", would carry a black powder payload. All salutes over 50mg on the ground and 130mg in the air have been outlawed for consumer use since 1966 in the United States. The burn rate of black powder is dependent on confinement and pressure, unlike flash powder which burns at roughly the same rate contained or not contained.

Quantity of flash can vary depending on manufacturer. Some 2 inch long salutes may carry 6 grams while other 2 inch salutes may carry 10. Up to 1% of fumed silica is sometimes added to flash powder as an anti-caking agent.

Comparison to dynamite[edit]

Though both news reporters and black-market dealers often make comparisons between the power of salutes and a particular quantity of dynamite ("1/4 stick" or "as powerful as a fourth of a stick of dynamite"), such comparisons are not grounded in reality. For reference, a typical stick of dynamite contains over 10 times more explosive material than an M-80 (35 grams of nitroglycerin versus 3 grams of KCLO4/AL). Nitroglycerin explodes with a shock wave that moves faster than the speed of sound, whereas the powders used in various salutes deflagrate (burn) at a slower rate and below the speed of sound. This prevents the formation of a detonation wave and is the difference between high explosive and low explosive.

Dynamite (and other high explosives) undergoes detonation whereas flash powder in any quantity undergoes deflagration. Because flash salutes do not generate a detonation (shock) wave, they have a very low brisance and do not exhibit the Munroe effect.

Cherry Bomb[edit]

Cherry Bomb (BOOTLEG)


  • 1/2" to 5/8" Inner Diameter
  • 3/4" to 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Colors were variable throughout the industry but most common are several variations of red like dark red, magenta, maroon or pink.
  • 1 Gram of flash

Also known as kraft salutes, these are made of paper cup sets, coated with several layers of sawdust and animal hide glue (or sodium silicate), often finished with a reddish dye (Sudan Red).[1] The process of coating Kraft salute casings in order to make them round is called panning. The glued casings are tumbled with sawdust while sodium silicate solution is slowly added to the pan. Historically, the core contained a perchlorate, sulfur, and antimony sulfide mixture. Some manufacturers added Aluminum and/or Magnesium Dioxide to this mixture. As sighted by "How to Make Exploding Fireworks by, John Donner", "KENT FIREWORKS" added a small red or green star to their mixture for a color effect.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

Silver Salute / Ash Can / Atomic Salute[edit]

Atomic Salutes (BOOTLEG)
  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 1/2" Inner Diameter
  • 10/16" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Silver with "DO NOT HOLD IN HAND" label
  • 1.5 grams of flash

Silver Salute/Ash Cans were silver, 1-1/2" long and 1/2" in diameter. Around the outside of the tube was printed "DO NOT HOLD IN HAND" in small capital letters in a continuous spiral. Each tube was covered with a dozen warning labels. The ends of the tubes were plugged with either hot glue, sodium silicate /calcium carbonate cement or paper end plugs. Holes were made smaller than the fuse so that the fuse could be twirled in for better adhesion with a small dab of glue. CAUTION: The cement plugged version pose a hazard due to their highly sparing use of cement plugging. Re-enforced plugging if found is advised.

Atomic Salutes were identical but without the labels and were more stout looking. These oldies can be found on Great American Fireworks display posters via internet or various fireworks pyrobillia websites. Bootleg Atomic Salutes are seen more often than the originals and can contain anywhere from 1.5 to 5 grams of flash.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

M-80[edit]

M-80's (BOOTLEG)

Mini

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 9/16" Inner Diameter
  • 11/16" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Glossy Red
  • 3 grams of flash

Standard

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 5/8" Inner Diameter
  • 3/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Flat Red
  • 3 grams of flash

Buyers beware all items sold today under the label "M-80, M-98, M-90, M-600" are total gimmicks. They do not pack 3 grams of flash and do not even exceed 50 milligrams. You would be very lucky to come up on something as vintage as the ORIGINAL M-80. Bootleg's are typically all that is available. In Mexico, these salutes are called "Barrenos".

(MILITARY M-80 VS CIVILIAN M-80) Originally the M-80 was a military training device designed to simulate small arms fire in basic training. The "M-80's" designation was a military product identification code number. The U.S. government contracted with several fireworks makers to produce these hefty salutes. Military issue M-80's are made from a plain brown craft paper tube 1-1/2" long and 9/16" diameter, fitted with a thick stiff, green Visco fuse and packaged in boxes of 50. Each Salute bears the words "M-80 Firecracker" and the date of manufacture "4-64". Careful dissection reveals that each firecracker is double plugged at each end with a paper end plug and disk cap. Military M-80's packed a full load of 80 grains which is equivalent to 5.2 grams of flash powder. "M" for Military and "80" for 80 grains. These differ from most flash salutes, which function optimally with some airspace and loose powder. Perhaps this was done because of some government specification that had little to do with performance or perhaps they knew something others did not. After World War II THE M-80 was marketed as a fireworks item for civilian use. The first ones on the market were war surplus. When some of the fireworks dealers saw how well they were received by the public, they began making civilian copies. These copies were sold by the millions in the 1950s and 1960s. The usual civilian M-80 had a red tube of the original dimensions, bearing the words "M-80 FIRECRACKER DO NOT HOLD IN HAND" printed on the outside in bold letters.


MILITARY FORMULA:

  • potassium perchlorate KCLO
    4
    64%
  • bright pyro aluminum Al 22.5%
  • sulfur S 10%
  • antimony sulfide Sb
    2
    S
    3
    3.5%

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

Double M-80 / Super M-80[edit]

Double M-80/Super M-80 (BOOTLEG).
  • 3" Long
  • 9/16" Inner Diameter
  • 11/16" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Glossy Red
  • 6 grams of flash

Double the power of an M-80 hence the name "Double M-80" or "Super M-80"

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

M-100[edit]

M-100's
  • 2" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Kraft or Red
  • 10 grams of flash

Popularly referred to as the "M-1000" in California but still referred to as "M-100" everywhere else in the United States. Not to be confused with "M-1000 / Full Stick". For details please click on "Full Stick / M-1000's" in the context box above. "California M-1000's" are more popular than the M-80 due to their water resistant quality, high power and pocket size. The top plug and fuse are essentially made in the same step - see photo on right>.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

Block Buster[edit]

Standard Block Buster (BOOTLEG)

Standard Block Buster

  • 2" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Red
  • 1 gram titanium flake
  • 9 Grams of flash

Large Block Buster

  • 2-1/2" Long
  • 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Red
  • 1 gram titanium flake
  • 14 Grams of flash

A block buster is nothing more but a titanium salute except they blow up on the ground. Most popular on the East Coast United States.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

Quarter Stick / M-250[edit]

Quarter Stick Fireworks

Fatty

  • 2-1/2" Long
  • 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Red, Tan or Silver
  • 15 grams of flash

Skinny

  • 3-1/2" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Silver or Red
  • 15 grams of flash

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS: can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

Half Stick[edit]

Half Stick Fireworks
  • 4" to 6" Long
  • 3/4" to 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1" to 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Tan, RWB, Red or Silver
  • 30 grams of flash

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS: can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

Full Stick / M-1000's[edit]

Full Stick 60 Grams
Full Stick 100 Grams
  • 6" Long
  • 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Glossy Red
  • 60 grams of flash

or

  • 4-1/2" Long
  • 1-1/2" Inner Diameter
  • 1-3/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Blue. Red, Yellow, Green, Pink, Tan & other
  • 100 grams of flash

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a loud, low pitched report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KCLO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, atleast being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KLCO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS: can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, resin, hot glue or (fast-set packaging hot glue.)

(Class B) Salutes Mortar / Shells[edit]

  • As opposed to federally banned salutes, these items are legally available only to licensed pyrotechnicians for use in professional fireworks displays.
  • Available in sizes ranging from 1.75" to 8" diameter. Although only available to licensed pyrotechnicians, products have found their way into the black market. Most common are the 2 INCH DS1 & 3 INCH SALUTE SHELLS.
  • Other salutes available to licensed pyrotechnicians may come in multi-fire cakes with labels such as "25 -100 Shot Thunder King."

References[edit]

  1. ^ T. Davis, The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives, Angriff Press, 1972. ISBN 0-913022-00-4

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salute_(pyrotechnics) — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
20791 videos foundNext > 

Red White & Blue Salute Brothers Pyrotechnics 107

Available at Bada Boom Fireworks www.badaboomfireworkspa.com 200 Gram Aerial.

Salute to the South - 500 gram by BIG Fireworks

Here is the 500 gram cake winner Salute to The South by BIG. This was a really nice cake, the comets had great color, and the multiple shots were great with ...

Beraq ma Jidhirx - Invisible Pyrotechnic Salute Shell (dark flash)

ROYAL SALUTE Brothers Pyrotechnics by Red Apple Fireworks

A "Salute" to Veto

When I discovered the remnants of the old M-80 Sliver Salute machine at Presutti Fireworks I felt like I found a lost piece of our pyrotechnics history here in ...

Royal Salute - Brothers Pyrotechnics

Victory Fireworks 2011 Demo Shoot 500 gram Multi-shot victoryfireworksinc.com pyroking.com.

Magic Lights SALUTE candle - White Ass Fireworks

Crazy loud Roman candle lit off at PGI 2014! These were made by White Ass fireworks. They have 5 shots and come six in a pack, pretty much the same thing as ...

How to make a 1 inch salute shell

this is how to make a 1 inch salute, hope you like it :) flash powder flash powder factory guide 2014 flash powder vs black powder flash powder salute flash ...

25 Gun Salute by Fantazia Pyrotechnics

Fireworks shoot into crowd during Avon's Salute to the USA

7.04.2015- 7News Now Saturday AM- Home video shows moment pyrotechnics shot into crowd at Friday night's Salute to the USA held in the town of Avon.

20791 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Salute (pyrotechnics)" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight