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Ash Cans

In pyrotechnics, a salute is an explosive device primarily designed to make a loud bang with a very intense flash of light. Salutes are made from flash powder, most commonly a 70:30 mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium powder.[1] Titanium flakes may be added as a special effect 1/10 to the total mix. A salute may be fired on the ground or launched from a mortar as a shell (aerial salute) or (aerial bomb). Salutes are one of the more dangerous type of fireworks. "Mortar tubes" used to launch aerial salute shells in commercial firework displays vary from 1.75 inch to 8 inch diameter. The shells they fire can come in ball or canister form. Ground salutes most commonly come in a paper tube unless it's a Cherry Bomb, then it will be round. Salutes may have aluminum, antimony, titanium or other metals. Flash powder derives max efficiency and power by gas/heat expansion which is the underlining reason all commercial based salute fireworks are filled 2/3 with flash thus leaving 1/3 air space for gas and heat to expand making for a much more efficient and violent explosion. The most common aluminum's used today are Dark Pyro Al or Bright Pyro Al. Dark Al's preferred are Dark German Al or Indian Blackhead Al - 3 Micron. Both are known for being the most reactive/explosive. Bright Flake Aluminum -325 mesh is also used in salute making and is very cheap to come by. Flake Aluminum is the only true pyro aluminum ever used for making flash powder. Spherical Aluminum on the other hand will not work. All ground salutes over 50 mg and air salutes over 130 mg have been restricted by the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and the Child Protection Act of 1966. 99% of all salutes ground and aerial are made with flash powder, but older salutes predating the early 60's carried black powder. These salutes were called "Cannon Crackers". Flash powder is significantly more destructive than black powder (BP). Black powder has a tendency to push objects rather than atomize them which is why gunpowder is the standard for firearms.

Comparison to dynamite[edit]

Ash Cans

Though both news reporters and black-market dealers have compared the M-80 to a 1/4 stick of dynamite, the two are not even close. For reference, a typical stick of dynamite contains over 10 times more explosive material than an M-80 (35 grams of nitroglycerin versus 3 grams of KClO4 and Al). Nitroglycerin detonates with a shock wave that moves faster than the speed of sound, where as flash powder or black powder used in fireworks deflagrate with a shockwave slower than the speed of sound.[2] Detonation and deflagration is the difference between high and low explosive. Quote from pyrouniverse.com: "Another assumption people make is that M-80's have some relation to dynamite; as the terms "quarter-stick" or "M-80 half-stick" are widely used to describe the power of such explosives." The compositions used in M-80's, Cherry Bombs, Ash Cans and other "salutes" described in this page are completely different than explosives that contain nitroglycerin. Flash powder cannot be compared to nitroglycerin - One is a low level explosive while the other is a high explosive.[3]

Cherry Bombs[edit]

Vintage Cherry Bombs
Main article: Cherry bomb
  • 1/2" to 5/8" Inner Diameter
  • 3/4" to 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Colors were variable throughout the industry but most common are several variations of red like dark red, magenta, maroon or pink.
  • 1 Gram of flash

Also known as kraft salutes, these are made of paper cup sets, coated with several layers of sawdust and animal hide glue (or sodium silicate), often finished with a reddish dye (Sudan Red).[4] The process of coating Kraft salute casings in order to make them round is called panning. The glued casings are tumbled with sawdust while sodium silicate solution is slowly added to the pan. Historically, the core contained a perchlorate, sulfur, and antimony sulfide mixture. Some manufacturers added aluminum and or Magnesium Dioxide to this mixture. As sighted by "How to Make Exploding Fireworks by, John Donner", "KENT FIREWORKS" added a small red or green star to their mixture for a color effect. Wax-coated drill bits were used for safety purposes when drilling the fuse hole. KENT FIREWORKS CHERRY BOMB FORMULA: Potassium Perchlorate (KClO4) 50%, Sulfur (S) 7.5%, Antimony Trisulfide (SbS3) 17.5%, German Black Aluminum (Al) 25%, Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) +0.5%[5]

OTHER FLASH FORMULAS

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

Silver Salutes[edit]

Modernistic Versions of original Silver Salutes

Silver Salutes

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 1/2" inner diameter
  • 5/8" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Silver
  • 1.5 Grams of flash
  • Side fused

Silver Salutes were side fused, 1–1/2" long, 1/2" in diameter, 1/16" wall and painted silver. Almost all of them came side fused with 1/8" visco except for ones made by Miller Fireworks during the 1940s. An estimate of six to ten warning labels were printed around the outside of the tube in a continuous spiral; "DO NOT HOLD IN HAND". Depending on the manufacturer, the font would come in black, blue or maroon. Font sizes would also vary depending on manufacturer. When side fusing, the fuse hole was made just under the diameter of the wick in order to make a snug fit with or without special glue. It is not known what kind of glue was used on some of the vintage versions. Some glues were dyed green and had a very thin/runny like consistency while others consisted of a black powder slurry. Caution: beware of sodium silicate /calcium carbonate cement plugged versions. They tend to leak powder everywhere and can ignite in your face when trying to light. Reinforced plugging with hot glue before dusting advised.[5]

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

Ash Cans[edit]

Ash Cans

Ash Cans

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 5/8" inner diameter
  • 3/4" outer diameter
  • Color: Silver
  • 3 Grams of flash
  • Top fused

Ash Cans were top fused, 1–1/2" long, 5/8" in diameter, 3/32" wall and mostly came in silver. Later versions, some bootleg, came in red. They had no label and carried 3 grams of flash. Similar to ash cans were the 1950's Atomic Salutes made by unknown factory during the 1950s before they were banned by CPSC. These oldies can be found on "Great American Fireworks" display posters via the internet or various fireworks pyrobillia websites.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

M-80's[edit]

M-80 Salute

Mini

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 9/16" Inner Diameter
  • 11/16" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Glossy Red
  • 2 Grams of flash
  • Top fused

Standard

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 5/8" Inner Diameter
  • 3/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Flat Red
  • 3 grams of flash
  • Side fused

Military

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 5/8" Inner Diameter
  • 3/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Tan
  • 5.2 grams of flash
  • Side fused

Gimmicks & Deceptions aka 1.4 Consumer firework versions

  • 1-1/2" Long
  • 5/8" Inner Diameter
  • 3/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Variable
  • 50 milligrams of flash
  • Side or top fused

Gimmicks & Deceptions aka 1.4 Consumer firework versions These contain no more than 50 milligrams of flash powder and are sold legally where ever consumer fireworks are allowed. Typical labels: "M-60, M-98, M-90, M-150 or M-600" with very long and descriptive warning labels. These may come in a variety of colors. They may look like M-80's or Silver salutes but are no where near them in power. They hold the same dimensions being 1-1/2"x 5/8", 1/16"wall. Some have even been found carrying a small lady finger firecracker surrounded by bentonite clay inside of a cheaply made convoluted paper tube.[6]

(MILITARY M-80 VS CIVILIAN M-80) Originally the M-80 was a military training device designed to simulate small arms fire in basic training. The "M-80's" designation was a military product identification code number. The U.S. government contracted with several fireworks makers to produce these hefty salutes. Military issue M-80's are made from a plain brown craft paper tube 1–1/2" long and 9/16" diameter, fitted with a thick stiff, green Visco fuse and packaged in boxes of 50. Each Salute bears the words "M-80 Firecracker" and the date of manufacture "4-64". Careful dissection reveals that each firecracker is double plugged at each end with a paper end plug and disk cap. Military M-80's packed a full load of 80 grains which is equivalent to 5.2 grams of flash powder. "M" for Military and "80" for 80 grains. These differ from most flash salutes, which function optimally with some airspace and loose powder. Perhaps this was done because of some government specification that had little to do with performance or perhaps they knew something others did not. After World War II THE M-80 was marketed as a fireworks item for civilian use. The first ones on the market were war surplus. When some of the fireworks dealers saw how well they were received by the public, they began making civilian copies. These copies were sold by the millions in the 1950s and 1960s. The usual civilian M-80 had a red tube of the original dimensions, bearing the words "M-80 FIRECRACKER DO NOT HOLD IN HAND" printed on the outside in bold letters.

Mini and Standard The difference between the 2 are very subtle. One has a slightly larger diameter and carries 0.5 more grams than the other. In Mexico, these salutes are called "Barrenos".

MILITARY FORMULA:

  • potassium perchlorate KClO
    4
    64%
  • bright pyro aluminum Al 22.5%
  • sulfur S 10%
  • antimony sulfide Sb
    2
    S
    3
    3.5%

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments : This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

Super M-80 AKA Double M-80[edit]

Super M-80
  • 3" Long
  • 9/16" Inner Diameter
  • 11/16" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Glossy Red
  • 6 grams of flash

Double the power of an M-80 hence the name "Double M-80" or "Super M-80"

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

BLOWOUT: when "flash powder" isn't given enough time to convert to 100% gas before the "report"...thus blowing out non-exploded "flash" into thin air. Blowout can occur under a number of circumstances: Scenario 1) when the tube is filled to its max or packed tight leaving no room for heat/gas/expansion. This is why 1/3 air space is a must in all flash salutes. 1/3 air space in a confined area will always give "flash" enough time to do what it's supposed to. Scenario 2) when the firecracker exceeds its diameter by length more than 4x and doesn't have its fuse placed in its proper place to compensate, you will get "blowout". Even with 1/3 air space in the tube, flash powder in a really long barrel with its fuse placed down at the end does not have enough time to transform itself from powder to 100% gas before the blast.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

M-100's[edit]

M-100's
  • 2 1/8" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Tan, Gold, RWB, Flat Red or Glossy Red
  • 7 grams of flash

Popularly referred to as the "M-1000" in California but still referred to as "M-100" everywhere else in the United States. Not to be confused with "M-1000 / Full Stick". For details please click on "Full Stick / M-1000's" in the context box above. "California M-1000's" are more popular than the M-80 due to their water resistant quality, high power, affordability and pocket size.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

Block Busters AKA Titanium Ground Salutes[edit]

Large Block Buster/Titanium Salute

Standard

  • 2 1/8" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Red
  • 1 Gram Titanium Flake
  • 7 Grams of flash

Large

  • 2-1/2" Long
  • 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: Red
  • 1 Gram Titanium Flake
  • 20 Grams of flash

A block buster is a large ground titanium salute unlike most titanium salutes that come as re-loadable shells. A "titanium salute", "ti-salute" for short is a flash powder explosive containing small granular flakes of titanium metal that produce a short but intense shower of white sparks. The effect is most commonly seen in pro display 1.3 salute shell fireworks. Block Busters are most popular on the East Coast United States. Some ti-salutes are fully doped with glue from the inside of the tube before being dunked into a bowl of titanium flakes. This method makes a donut ring special effect in the air or on the ground which ever is preferred. Adding metals in anything larger than flake form is considered a weapon or pipe bomb and should never be attempted. The larger block busters may resemble a quarter stick of dynamite but come no where near a true quarter stick of dynamite.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

Quarter Stick M-250[edit]

Quarter Sticks

Skinny

  • 3-1/2" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Tan, Silver, Blue or Flat Red
  • 12-15 grams of flash

Fat

  • 2-1/2" Long
  • 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Tan, Silver, Flat Red or Glossy Red
  • 20 Grams of flash

A 1/4 Stick is a large ground salute known to resemble a quarter stick of dynamite but comes no where near a true quarter stick of dynamite.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

BLOWOUT: when "flash powder" isn't given enough time to convert to 100% gas before the "report"...thus blowing out non-exploded "flash" into thin air. Blowout can occur under a number of circumstances: Scenario 1) when the tube is filled to its max or packed tight leaving no room for heat/gas/expansion. This is why 1/3 air space is a must in all flash salutes. 1/3 air space in a confined area will always give "flash" enough time to do what it's supposed to. Scenario 2) when the firecracker exceeds its diameter by length more than 4x and doesn't have its fuse placed in its proper place to compensate, you will get "blowout". Even with 1/3 air space in the tube, flash powder in a really long barrel with its fuse placed down at the end does not have enough time to transform itself from powder to 100% gas before the blast.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

Half Stick M-500[edit]

Half Sticks

Skinny

  • 6" Long
  • 3/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB
  • 30 Grams of flash

Fat

  • 3-1/2 to 4" Long
  • 1" to 1-1/4" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" to 1-1/2" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Tan or Glossy Red
  • 40 Grams of flash

A 1/2 Stick is a large ground salute known to resemble a half stick of dynamite but comes no where near a true half stick of dynamite.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

BLOWOUT: when "flash powder" isn't given enough time to convert to 100% gas before the "report"...thus blowing out non-exploded "flash" into thin air. Blowout can occur under a number of circumstances: Scenario 1) when the tube is filled to its max or packed tight leaving no room for heat/gas/expansion. This is why 1/3 air space is a must in all flash salutes. 1/3 air space in a confined area will always give "flash" enough time to do what it's supposed to. Scenario 2) when the firecracker exceeds its diameter by length more than 4x and doesn't have its fuse placed in its proper place to compensate, you will get "blowout". Even with 1/3 air space in the tube, flash powder in a really long barrel with its fuse placed down at the end does not have enough time to transform itself from powder to 100% gas before the blast.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

Full Stick M-1000[edit]

FULL STICK M-1000's
  • 6" Long
  • 1" Inner Diameter
  • 1-1/4" Outer Diameter
  • Color: RWB, Flat Red or Glossy Red
  • 50 Grams of flash

A Full Stick M-1000 is a large ground salute known to resemble a full stick of dynamite but comes no where near a true full stick of dynamite.

FORMULA #1 : 50% KNO3 Potassium Nitrate/30% S Sulfur/20% Bright Al Aluminum Comments: This is a relatively safe flash composition. Burns with a brilliant white light in an open tube, or when unconfined. When well confined, it produces a very deep report and a short but intense flash. Thick end plugs required.

FORMULA #2 : 50% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 27% Sulfur powder/ 23% Dark German or Indian aluminum powder (Anything under 4 micron for BEST results). Comments: This is a relatively safe formula that is more powerful than the standard formula but should not be used by first time flash producers, at least being proficient is best. This produces a low/medium pitched report with a nice pressure wave. Thick end plugs may or may not be a requirement depending on the manufacturer of this formula.

FORMULA #3 : 70% KClO4 Potassium Perchlorate/ 30% Dark German Aluminum or Indian Aluminum powder. The easiest flash powder formula to make. A very standard pyrotechnic composition used in the industry of fireworks. Thick end plugs are never a requirement with this composition.

BLOWOUT: when "flash powder" isn't given enough time to convert to 100% gas before the "report"...thus blowing out non-exploded "flash" into thin air. Blowout can occur under a number of circumstances: Scenario 1) when the tube is filled to its max or packed tight leaving no room for heat/gas/expansion. This is why 1/3 air space is a must in all flash salutes. 1/3 air space in a confined area will always give "flash" enough time to do what it's supposed to. Scenario 2) when the firecracker exceeds its diameter by length more than 4x and doesn't have its fuse placed in its proper place to compensate, you will get "blowout". Even with 1/3 air space in the tube, flash powder in a really long barrel with its fuse placed down at the end does not have enough time to transform itself from powder to 100% gas before the blast.

END PLUGS  : paper, plastic, bentonite clay, amber hot glue or white hot glue

(Class B) Salutes[edit]

  • As opposed to federally banned salutes, these items are legally available only to licensed pyrotechnicians for use in professional fireworks displays.
  • Available in sizes ranging from 1.75" to 8" diameter. Although only available to licensed pyrotechnicians, products have found their way into the black market. Most common are the 2 INCH DS-1 SALUTE and 3 INCH SALUTE SHELLS.
  • Other salutes available to licensed pyrotechnicians may come in multi-fire cakes with labels such as "25 -100 Shot Thunder King."

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salute_(pyrotechnics) — Please support Wikipedia.
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