The Persian wheel, c. 1905
A sakia (alternative spelling sakieh, also called "Persian wheel"; Arabic: ساقية, sāqīya), tympanum or tablia is a water wheel, somewhat similar to a noria, and used primarily in Egypt. It is a large hollow wheel, normally made of galvanized sheet steel, with scoops or buckets at the periphery. Its unique characteristic is that water is dispensed near the hub rather than from the top. It is a method of irrigation frequently met within various parts of India.
Schematics of an ideal sakia (Fathi).
Sakias range in diameter from two to five metres. Though traditionally driven by draught animals, they are now increasingly attached to an engine. While animal-driven sakias can rotate at 2–4 rpm, motorised ones can make as much as 8–15 rpm.
A (animal driven) sakia can pump up water from 10 metres depth, and is thus considerably more efficient than a shadoof (which can only pump water from 3 metres).
The earliest evidence of a sakia is from a Hellenistic tomb painting in Ptolemaic Egypt which dates to the 2nd century BC. It shows a pair of yoked oxen driving a compartmented waterwheel, which is for the first time depicted, too. The Greek sakia gear system is already shown fully developed to the point that "modern Egyptian devices are virtually identical". It is assumed that the scientists of the Museum of Alexandria, at the time the most active Greek research center, may have been involved in its invention. An episode from the Alexandrian War in 48 BC tells of how Caesar's enemies employed geared waterwheels to pour sea water from elevated places on the position of the trapped Romans.
Further reading 
- Fraenkel, P., (1990) "Water-Pumping Devices: A Handbook for users and choosers" Intermediate Technology Publications.
- Molenaar, A., (1956) "Water lifting devices for irrigation" FAO Agricultural Development Paper No. 60, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
External links 
Fri, 10 May 2013 23:22:23 -0700
KayC Wharton qualified for the final in the 400 hurdles (61.14), as did Kaulyn Lee-McNeill (61.52) and Bushnell (61.78). UCI's Sakia Sailinuu (4:35.43), Kaycee Holcomb (4:37.04) and Samia Sailinuu (4:39.41) each advanced to Saturday's final in the 1 ...
Fri, 10 May 2013 08:45:20 -0700
Emerging under the name of Popular Liberation Front of Sakia el Hamra and Rio de Oro and current militant political vanguard of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), the group will celebrate the date from the Tindouf refugee camps. "We celebrate ...
Mon, 29 Apr 2013 03:34:11 -0700
Continuing to work and serve where he lives, James cofounded the Newark Pride Alliance in 2003 in the aftermath of the murder of Sakia Gunn, a 14-year-old lesbian who spoke back to a street harasser. As an Alliance Board member, he leads the ...
Prince Albert Daily Herald
Mon, 22 Apr 2013 13:41:58 -0700
Sakia and Darrel concert June 20 at 7 p.m. at Beatty Community Hall. Call Myrna Buckingham 306-752-1803. Back to Beatty Days June 21-23 in Beatty. Register with Orville Dahl 306-699-2296 firstname.lastname@example.org. Dance to Diamonds and Dirt June 22 at 8 ...
Mon, 22 Apr 2013 01:37:14 -0700
After checking prices online, Sakia Begum, 44, was shopping at nearby Sona Mandi jewellers. “Online is one price, and in the shop it's different. I thought, 'Something is up, so let's go buy something,'” Begum said, using her daughter as a translator ...
Thu, 09 May 2013 02:32:12 -0700
... des Affaires étrangères, chargé de la communauté nationale à l'étranger, représentera le gouvernement algérien aux festivités marquant le 40ème anniversaire de la création du Front populaire pour la libération de Sakia El-Hamra et Rio de Oro ...
Mon, 29 Apr 2013 08:16:39 -0700
Espaçoso apartamento T3 localizado na Urbanização Al Sakia, perto de Quarteira. O apartamento foi construido em 2000 e localiza-se no rés do chão. Perfeito como residência permanente. Ref. MS. distrito: Faro; concelho: Loulé; freguesia: Quarteira ...
Fri, 17 May 2013 07:08:55 -0700
Les présidents des conseils régionaux de Guelmim-Es Semara, Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia el Hamra et Oued Eddahab-Lagouira ont, quant à eux, souligné que le renforcement des lignes aériennes aura des répercussions économiques importantes sur le ...
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