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For a list of known Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges. For the railway station in Wales, see Roman Bridge railway station.
The Alcántara Bridge, Spain, a masterpiece of ancient bridge building

Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built.[1] Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as the basic structure (see arch bridge). Most utilized concrete as well, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges.

Typology[edit]

Known Roman bridges[2]
Country Number
Pons Fabricius in Rome, Italy
Roman pontoon bridge across the lower Danube

As with the vault and the dome the Romans were the first to fully realise the potential of arches for bridge construction.[3]

A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 Roman timber bridges and 54 Roman aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and even used to carry vehicles.[4] A more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges, mostly of stone, in as many as 26 different countries (including former Yugoslavia; see right table).[5]

Roman arch bridges were usually semicircular, although a few were segmental (such as Alconétar Bridge). A segmental arch is an arch that is less than a semicircle.[6] The advantages of the segmental arch bridge were that it allowed great amounts of flood water to pass under it, which would prevent the bridge from being swept away during floods and the bridge itself could be more lightweight. Generally, Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones (voussoirs) of the same in size and shape. The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct. Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e.g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome (62 BC), one of the world's oldest major bridges still standing. Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called Opus caementicium. The outside was usually covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge.

The Romans also introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction. The 330 m long Limyra Bridge in southwestern Turkey features 26 segmental arches with an average span-to-rise ratio of 5.3:1,[7] giving the bridge an unusually flat profile unsurpassed for more than a millennium. Trajan's bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood (standing on 40 m high concrete piers). This was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length, while the longest extant Roman bridge is the 790 m long Puente Romano at Mérida.

The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch.[8]

Arch shapes[edit]

Early Roman arch bridges, influenced by the ancient notion of the ideal form of the circle, often describe a full circle, with the stone arch continuing underground. A typical example is the Pons Fabricius in Rome. Later, Roman masonry bridges rested mostly on semi-circular arches, or, to a lesser extent, on segmental arches.[9][10] For the later design, which shows an early, local concentration in north-eastern Italy, but can be found scattered throughout the whole empire, the Limyra Bridge, the Alconétar Bridge and the Ponte San Lorenzo are prime examples. In addition, a number of other arch forms make rare appearances, in some cases of which later deformations cannot be ruled out. The late antique Karamagara Bridge represents an early example for the use of pointed arches.

Typical characteristics[edit]

  • Many are more than 5 metres wide
  • Most of them slope slightly
  • Many have rustic work
  • The stonework has alternating stretcher and header courses ; i.e. one layer of rectangular stones is laid lengthwise, and the next layer has the ends facing outwards
  • Stones linked with dovetail joints or metal bars
  • Indents in the stones for gripping tools to hold onto

(Source Traianus - An endeavour to identify Roman Bridges built in former Hispania)

Examples[edit]

For outstanding achievements of Roman bridge building, see List of ancient architectural records.

Built in 142 BC, the Pons Aemilius, later named Ponte Rotto (broken bridge) is the oldest Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy.

The biggest Roman bridge was Trajan's bridge over the lower Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which remained for over a millennium the longest bridge to have been built both in terms of overall and span length. They were most of the time at least 2 metres above the body of water.

An example of temporary military bridge construction are the two Caesar's Rhine bridges.

Large river bridging[edit]

Roman engineers built stone arch or stone pillar bridges over all major rivers of their Imperium, save two: the Euphrates which lay at the frontier to the rival Iranian empires, and the Nile, the longest river in the world, which was 'bridged' as late as 1902 by the British Old Aswan Dam.[11]

The largest rivers to be spanned by solid bridges by the Romans were the Danube and the Rhine, the two largest European rivers west of the Eurasian Steppe. The lower Danube was crossed by least two (Trajan's Bridge, Constantine's Bridge) and the middle and lower Rhine by four different bridges (Roman Bridge at Mainz, Caesar's Rhine bridges, Roman Bridge at Koblenz, Roman Bridge at Cologne). For rivers with strong currents and to allow swift army movements, pontoon bridges were also routinely employed.[12] Going from the distinct lack of records of pre-modern solid bridges spanning larger rivers,[13] the Roman feat appears to be unsurpassed anywhere in the world until well into the 19th century.

Gallery[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ O’Connor 1993, p. 1
  2. ^ Galliazzo 1994, p. 2 (Indice). Galliazzo's survey excludes Late Roman or Byzantine structures.
  3. ^ Robertson, D.S.: Greek and Roman Architecture, 2nd edn., Cambridge 1943, p.231: "The Romans were the first builders in Europe, perhaps the first in the world, fully to appreciate the advantages of the arch, the vault and the dome."
  4. ^ Colin O'Connor: "Roman Bridges", Cambridge University Press 1993, p. 187ff. ISBN 0-521-39326-4
  5. ^ Galliazzo, Vittorio (1994), I ponti romani. Catalogo generale, Vol. 2, Treviso: Edizioni Canova, ISBN 88-85066-66-6, cf. Indice
  6. ^ Beall, Christine (1988). "Designing the segmental arch". ebuild.com. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  7. ^ Colin O'Connor: "Roman Bridges", Cambridge University Press 1993, p. 126 ISBN 0-521-39326-4
  8. ^ Galliazzo 1995, pp. 92, 93 (fig. 39)
  9. ^ Galliazzo 1995, pp. 429–437
  10. ^ O’Connor 1993, p. 171
  11. ^ O’Connor 1993, pp. 193–202 (Appendices A and B)
  12. ^ O’Connor 1993, pp. 133–139
  13. ^ Fernández Troyano 2003

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Fuentes, Manuel Durán: La construcción de puentes romanos en Hispania, Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela 2004, ISBN 978-84-453-3937-4
  • Fernández Troyano, Leonardo (2003), Bridge Engineering. A Global Perspective, London: Thomas Telford Publishing, ISBN 0-7277-3215-3 
  • Galliazzo, Vittorio (1995), I ponti romani, Vol. 1, Treviso: Edizioni Canova, ISBN 88-85066-66-6 
  • Galliazzo, Vittorio (1994), I ponti romani. Catalogo generale, Vol. 2, Treviso: Edizioni Canova, ISBN 88-85066-66-6 
  • Gazzola, Piero (1963), Ponti romani. Contributo ad un indice sistematico con studio critico bibliografico, Florence 
  • O’Connor, Colin (1993), Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-39326-4 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_bridge — Please support Wikipedia.
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14 news items

 
Focus News
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:15:00 -0700

As you know, during the construction of the south part of the tunnel a part of an ancient Roman Bridge was found. Experts and archaeologists from the Sofia Museum and the Ministry of Culture worked for two weeks in order to inspect the bridge. Then ...
 
The Edinburgh Reporter
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 16:37:30 -0700

A large crowd gathered by the banks of the River Esk on Monday evening to see Alistair Barclay being sashed Club Captain of The Crusader's Riding Club. The ceremony was performed under the old Roman Bridge by Mr Brian Lees, prior to the annual ...

The Independent

The Independent
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 02:00:00 -0700

It was a lucrative time for the busker playing Rodriguez on the pedestrianised Roman bridge, as people sauntered over the pale stones during the evening passeggiata. A vast ruined water-wheel spoke of the Moors' skills as water engineers. Fine dining ...

Naples Daily News

Naples Daily News
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 12:18:11 -0700

Ronda is noted for its three bridges, The Roman Bridge, the Old Bridge and the New Bridge. The most famous is El Tajo, which spans a deep ravine that splits Ronda in two. The ravine is 650 feet deep and was the tragic scene, during the country's civil ...
 
East Lothian Courier
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 03:30:00 -0700

Riders and spectators gather for the Crusaders' Chase on Monday, which starts at Mall Avenue at 5.45pm, and rubber ducks will be racing from Roman Bridge to Rennie Bridge in the annual battle, starting at 6pm. The Crusaders' Dance is being held in ...

WalesOnline

WalesOnline
Mon, 07 Jul 2014 04:02:05 -0700

On the left, over the Tiber, is the great Roman bridge, the Ponte Molle. Villa Mellini (now an observatory) is on top of the hill to the right with Villa Madama below; St. Peter's is in the centre, with Castel Sant'Angelo to its left. Wilson was ...

Baltimore Post-Examiner

Baltimore Post-Examiner
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 04:37:30 -0700

After a picnic lunch we headed to the Roman Bridge. It turns out this is not a Roman bridge. It was built in the 17th century but it is one of the most distinctive sights of the valley. The official name is the Ponte dei Salti, the Bridge of Jumps. It ...
 
Huffington Post UK
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 09:17:15 -0700

I chose to stay at the stunning Puenta Romano Beach Resort, which is considered to be the best hotel in Marbella - it even boasts a 1st Century Roman bridge. The hotel's extensive grounds stretch all the way to the sea itself and include magnificent ...
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