digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















A reverse takeover or reverse merger takeover (reverse IPO) is the acquisition of a public company by a private company so that the private company can bypass the lengthy and complex process of going public.[1] The transaction typically requires reorganization of capitalization of the acquiring company.


In a reverse takeover, shareholders of the private company purchase control of the public shell company and then merge it with the private company. The publicly traded corporation is called a "shell" since all that exists of the original company is its organizational structure. The private company shareholders receive a substantial majority of the shares of the public company and control of its board of directors. The transaction can be accomplished within weeks.

The transaction involves the private and shell company exchanging information on each other, negotiating the merger terms, and signing a share exchange agreement. At the closing, the shell company issues a substantial majority of its shares and board control to the shareholders of the private company. The private company's shareholders pay for the shell company by contributing their shares in the private company to the shell company that they now control. This share exchange and change of control completes the reverse takeover, transforming the formerly privately held company into a publicly held company.

In the U.S., if the shell is a SEC-registered company, the private company does not go through an expensive and time-consuming review with state and federal regulators because this process was completed beforehand with the public company. However, a comprehensive disclosure document containing audited financial statements and significant legal disclosures is required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for reporting issuers. The disclosure is filed on Form 8-K and is filed immediately upon completion of the reverse merger transaction.


The advantages of public trading status include the possibility of commanding a higher price for a later offering of the company's securities. Going public through a reverse takeover allows a privately held company to become publicly held at a lesser cost, and with less stock dilution than through an initial public offering (IPO). While the process of going public and raising capital is combined in an IPO, in a reverse takeover, these two functions are separate. A company can go public without raising additional capital. Separating these two functions greatly simplifies the process.[2]

In addition, a reverse takeover is less susceptible to market conditions. Conventional IPOs are risky for companies to undertake because the deal relies on market conditions, over which senior management has little control. If the market is off, the underwriter may pull the offering. The market also does not need to plunge wholesale. If a company in registration participates in an industry that's making unfavorable headlines, investors may shy away from the deal. In a reverse takeover, since the deal rests solely between those controlling the public and private companies, market conditions have little bearing on the situation.

The process for a conventional IPO can last for a year or more. When a company transitions from an entrepreneurial venture to a public company fit for outside ownership, how time is spent by strategic managers can be beneficial or detrimental. Time spent in meetings and drafting sessions related to an IPO can have a disastrous effect on the growth upon which the offering is predicated, and may even nullify it. In addition, during the many months it takes to put an IPO together, market conditions can deteriorate, making the completion of an IPO unfavorable. By contrast, a reverse takeover can be completed in as little as thirty days.


Reverse takeovers always come with some history and some shareholders. Sometimes this history can be bad and manifest itself in the form of currently sloppy records, pending lawsuits and other unforeseen liabilities. Additionally, these shells may sometimes come with angry or deceitful shareholders who are anxious to "dump" their stock at the first chance they get.

One way the acquiring or surviving company can safeguard against the "dump" after the takeover is consummated is by requiring a lockup on the shares owned by the group from which they are purchasing the public shell. Other shareholders that have held stock as investors in the company being acquired pose no threat in a dump scenario because the number of shares they hold is not significant.

On June 9, 2011, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission issued an investor bulletin cautioning investors about investing in reverse mergers, stating that they may be prone to fraud and other abuses.[1][3]

Reverse mergers may have other drawbacks. Private-company CEOs may be naive and inexperienced in the world of publicly traded companies unless they have past experience as an officer or director of a public company. In addition, reverse merger transactions only introduce liquidity to a previously private stock if there is bona fide public interest in the company. A comprehensive investor relations and investor marketing program may be an indirect cost of a reverse merger.[citation needed]

Future financing[edit]

The greater number of financing options available to publicly held companies is a primary reason to undergo a reverse takeover. These financing options include:

  • The issuance of additional stock in a secondary offering
  • An exercise of warrants, where stockholders have the right to purchase additional shares in a company at predetermined prices. When many shareholders with warrants exercise their option to purchase additional shares, the company receives an infusion of capital.
  • Other investors are more likely to invest in a company via a private offering of stock when a mechanism to sell their stock is in place should the company be successful.

In addition, the now-publicly held company obtains the benefits of public trading of its securities:

  • Increased liquidity of company stock
  • Possible higher company valuation
  • Greater access to capital markets
  • Ability to acquire other companies through stock transactions
  • Ability to use stock incentive plans to attract and retain employees


In all of these cases—except for that of US Airways and America West Airlines—shareholders of the acquiree controlled the resulting entity. With US Airways and America West Airlines, US Airways creditors (not shareholders) were left with control.

See also[edit]


Reverse Mergers and Other Alternatives to a Traditional IPO, 2d Edition (Bloomberg Press, 2009), by David N. Feldman

  1. ^ a b "Investor Bulletin: Reverse Mergers". U.S. SEC Office of Investor Education and Advocacy. June 2011. 
  2. ^ http://truecapitalfp.com/reverse-mergers The Advantages of a Reverse Merger
  3. ^ Gallu, Joshua (June 9, 2011). "‘Reverse-Merger' Stocks May Be Prone to Fraud, Abuse, SEC Says in Warning". Bloomberg. 
  4. ^ Bloomberg Business NEws (February 14, 1996), "Atari Agrees To Merge With Disk-Drive Maker", New York Times: 1 
  5. ^ "Frederick's of Hollywood goes public with merger." Reuters. December 19, 2006.
  6. ^ http://www.snowworld.com/nl/Corporate/Beursgang

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_takeover — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
68497 videos foundNext > 

What is a Reverse Merger and how to buy a shell?

Jeff Jenson describes the Reverse Merger process, how to buy a shell and talks about things to avoid in doing a reverse merger.

Reverse Takeover

A theory of macroeconomic money-supply growth first postulated by Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton ...

Reverse Takeover | BSD Now 52

Coming up this week, we'll be chatting with Shawn Webb about his recent work with ASLR and PIE in FreeBSD. After that, we'll be showing you how you can creat...

Reverse Takeover

An Easy Overview Of Reverse Takeover.

ARHT Media (TSXV: ART) completed its reverse-takeover of Delebrity Inc.

ARHT Media, previously traded as Vast Exploration, under the symbol VST. Delebrity designs and creates digital representations, which are lifelike digital re...

Corporate Takeovers: Shareholders, Stocks, Capital Structure, Consequences, Financing (1989)

In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder). In UK, the term refers to the acquisition of a publ...

M&A Uses of Going Public with an IPO or Reverse Merger

http://www.reverse-merger.info M&A Uses of Going Public with an IPO or Reverse Merger Using an IPO as an M&A Tool In mergers and acquisitions (M&A), going pu...

Initial Public Offering vs Venture Capital vs Reverse Merger

http://www.reverse-merger-shell.com/ Venture Capital vs. IPO vs. Reverse Merger Disclaimer – This is not legal advice to anyone. Your individual situation will be different. Consult qualified...


KOTD West Coast Presents... **TAKE OVER** Tickets and PPV Available at http://www.kingofthedot.com/events DIZASTER VS CORTEZ THESAURUS VS THE DEADMAN DAYLYT ...

WOWIO Identifies Reverse Merger Vehicle- MoneyTV with Donald Baillargeon

On moneytv with Donald Baillargeon, the CEO of WOWIO, Inc. announces the company had identified a public company vehicle to effect a reverse merger.

68497 videos foundNext > 

3983 news items

The Straits Times
Sun, 21 Dec 2014 18:48:45 -0800

United Envirotech's main-board-listed cash company Memstar Technology has entered into a reverse takeover with the Longmen Group, a Chinese private natural gas developer. In a filing with the Singapore Exchange on Monday, Memstar said it has agreed ...

Channel News Asia

Shanghai Daily (subscription)
Mon, 22 Dec 2014 03:37:30 -0800

SINGAPORE, Dec. 22 (Xinhua) -- China Everbright Water Ltd, formerly known as Hankore Environment Tech Group, was welcomed to the mainboard of Singapore Exchange on Monday following a reverse takeover. In the reverse takeover, China Everbright ...
London South East
Mon, 22 Dec 2014 04:22:30 -0800

LONDON (Alliance News) - LED International Holdings Ltd said Monday that it has entered into a conditional agreement to acquire Shenzen Ruihetai Industry Co Ltd for a maximum consideration of CNY11.3 million, or around GBP1.1 million.


Sun, 14 Dec 2014 22:56:15 -0800

This has created an opportunity for Mosman, which is proposing a reverse takeover for Melbourne-based MEO Australia. Mosman plans to offer one of its AIM-traded shares for every 20 shares in MEO to acquire 100 per cent of the share capital. It plans to ...
Tue, 02 Dec 2014 23:56:00 -0800

Dec 3 (Reuters) - Jantar Development SA : * In relation to previously announced the purchase of the company's shares by EQUIMAXX, LLC the company's management board informs that company plans to undergo reverse takeover process. * Additionally ...
London South East
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 03:37:30 -0800

As the acquisition would constitute a reverse takeover under AIM rules, shares in Xplorer have been suspended from trading. They were last quoted at 12.25 pence. Xplorer said the acquisition of the unspecified assets would be conditional on it raising ...

iGaming Business

Gaming Intelligence Group (registration)
Fri, 05 Dec 2014 01:33:45 -0800

UK-listed 24/7 Gaming Group has initiated the liquidation of its Wannagaming mobile casino and Playlogic publishing operations, as part of a restructuring process in preparation for the company's anticipated reverse takeover with an unnamed binary ...

PR Newswire (press release)

London South East
Mon, 08 Dec 2014 05:18:45 -0800

The deal is being structured as a reverse takeover, and the newly-formed combined company will be called Gama Aviation PLC. It will have a market capitalisation of around GBP120.4 million, Hangar 8 said. Hangar said it also will issue 6.1 million ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight