A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions. One of the places the term is most often used today is in graduate seminaries. It derives from the Latin reficere "to remake or restore," via Late Latin refectorium, which means "a place one goes to be restored."
Refectories and monastic culture
Communal meals are the times when all monks of an institution are together. Diet and eating habits differ somewhat by monastic order, and more widely by schedule. The Benedictine rule is illustrative.
The Rule of St Benedict orders two meals. Dinner is provided for year-round; supper is also served from late spring to early fall, except for Wednesdays and Fridays. The diet originally consisted of simple fare: two dishes, with fruit as a third course if available. The food was simple, with the meat of mammals forbidden to all but the sick. Moderation in all aspects of diet is the spirit of Benedict's law. Meals are eaten in silence, facilitated sometimes by hand signals. A single monk might read from the Scriptures or writings of the saints aloud during the meals.
Size, structure, and placement
Refectories vary in size and dimension, based primarily on wealth and size of the monastery, as well as when the room was built. They share certain design features. Monks eat at long benches; important officials sit at raised benches at one end of the hall. A lavabo, or large basin for hand-washing usually stands outside the refectory.
Tradition also fixes other factors. In England, the refectory is generally built on an undercroft (perhaps in an allusion to the upper room where the Last Supper reportedly took place) on the side of the cloister opposite the church. Benedictine models are traditionally generally laid out on an east-west axis, while Cistercian models lay north-south.
Norman refectories could be as large as 160 feet (49 m) long by 35 feet (11 m) wide (as is that in the abbey at Norwich). Even relatively early refectories might have windows, but these became larger and more elaborate in the high medieval period. The refectory at Cluny Abbey was lit through thirty-six large glazed windows. The twelfth-century abbey at Mont Saint-Michel had six windows, five feet wide by twenty feet high.
In Eastern Orthodox monasteries, the Refectory (Greek: τράπεζα, trapeza) is considered a sacred place, and even in some cases is constructed as a full church with Altar and Iconostasis. Some services are intended to be performed specifically in the Trapeza. There is always at least one Icon with a lampada (oil lamp) kept burning in front of it. The service of the Lifting of the Panagia is performed at the end of meals. During Bright Week, this service is replaced with the Lifting of the Artos. In some monasteries, the Ceremony of Forgiveness at the beginning of Great Lent is performed in the Trapeza. All food served in the Trapeza should be blessed, and for that purpose, holy water is often kept in the kitchen.
As well as continued use of the historic monastic meaning, the word refectory is often used in a modern context to refer to a café or cafeteria that is open to the public—including non-worshipers such as tourists—attached to a cathedral or abbey. This usage is particularly prevalent in Church of England buildings, which use the takings to supplement their income.
Many universities in the UK also call their student cafeteria or dining facilities the refectory.
- ^ 
- Adams, Henry, Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres. New York: Penguin, 1986.
- Fernie, E. C. The Architecture of Norman England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
- Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1450. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
- Singman, Jeffrey. Daily Life in Medieval Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
- Webb, Geoffrey. Architecture in Britain: the Middle Ages. Baltimore: Penguin, 1956.
||Look up Refectory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Yorkshire Evening Post
Yorkshire Evening Post
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:03:45 -0800
Though fundamentally a base for its brewery, which covers the ground floor and will churn out thousands of litres of craft ale a year, it also has a refectory and kitchen on the first floor which prove to be an excellent lunch spot for Little Oliver on ...
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 09:15:00 -0800
Head chef Julian Menaged is a soft-spoken and respectful student of classical French cuisine with impressive credentials. He cooked for several years under two of the city's most respected chefs, Richard Blondin at The Refectory and Hubert Seifert at ...
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:07:30 -0800
I enjoyed a New Year's dinner at The Refectory last year with five courses from a special menu ($89) and wine pairings (extra cost) accompanied by live music. They have the same deal again this year with a new menu of French-inspired dishes with ...
Sun, 20 Apr 2014 23:23:35 -0700
The Refectory's contract has not been renewed, said Laura Hall, founder and chief executive of Bon Vivant Catering, which runs the café. The decision comes several months after Hall filed a legal complaint against Duke for its actions regarding the ...
Wed, 05 Nov 2014 13:11:41 -0800
His knack for making us smile with every dish, paired with an exceptional wine list and attentive service, breaks The Refectory's stuffy stereotype. The Refectory is not sleek and contemporary. There are no Edison light bulbs, no reclaimed barn wood ...
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:43:46 -0700
Although some members of the community expressed disappointment over the University's decision not to renew Refectory's contract, Cafe de Novo has had a successful first month in business. “It's been a great first month,” said Director of Dining ...
Wed, 18 Jun 2014 10:42:44 -0700
Café de Novo has been announced as the replacement vendor for the space that will be left vacant by the soon-to-depart Law Refectory Café. The new café will be operated by Sam Clowney and Chris Holloway, the partnership behind McClendon Tower's ...
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 09:09:53 -0800
... medieval passage ways. Once we arrived at the top of the Cathedral we were met by a stunning sunset and views over all of Winchester and the Christmas Market below. Following the tour we were invited into the Refectory for mince pies and mulled wine.
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