digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

The refectory of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal.

A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions. One of the places the term is most often used today is in graduate seminaries. It derives from the Latin reficere "to remake or restore," via Late Latin refectorium, which means "a place one goes to be restored."

Refectories and monastic culture[edit]

Summer Refectory in the Grand Masters' Palace, Malbork Castle.

Communal meals are the times when all monks of an institution are together. Diet and eating habits differ somewhat by monastic order, and more widely by schedule. The Benedictine rule is illustrative.

The Rule of St Benedict orders two meals. Dinner is provided for year-round; supper is also served from late spring to early fall, except for Wednesdays and Fridays. The diet originally consisted of simple fare: two dishes, with fruit as a third course if available. The food was simple, with the meat of mammals forbidden to all but the sick. Moderation in all aspects of diet is the spirit of Benedict's law. Meals are eaten in silence, facilitated sometimes by hand signals. A single monk might read from the Scriptures or writings of the saints aloud during the meals.

Size, structure, and placement[edit]

Refectories vary in size and dimension, based primarily on wealth and size of the monastery, as well as when the room was built. They share certain design features. Monks eat at long benches; important officials sit at raised benches at one end of the hall. A lavabo, or large basin for hand-washing usually stands outside the refectory.

Tradition also fixes other factors. In England, the refectory is generally built on an undercroft (perhaps in an allusion to the upper room where the Last Supper reportedly took place) on the side of the cloister opposite the church. Benedictine models are traditionally generally laid out on an east-west axis, while Cistercian models lay north-south.

Norman refectories could be as large as 160 feet (49 m) long by 35 feet (11 m) wide (as is that in the abbey at Norwich). Even relatively early refectories might have windows, but these became larger and more elaborate in the high medieval period. The refectory at Cluny Abbey was lit through thirty-six large glazed windows. The twelfth-century abbey at Mont Saint-Michel had six windows, five feet wide by twenty feet high.

Eastern Orthodox[edit]

Trapeza (refectory church) at Kiev Pechersk Lavra.

In Eastern Orthodox monasteries, the Refectory (Greek: τράπεζα, trapeza) is considered a sacred place, and even in some cases is constructed as a full church with Altar and Iconostasis. Some services are intended to be performed specifically in the Trapeza. There is always at least one Icon with a lampada (oil lamp) kept burning in front of it. The service of the Lifting of the Panagia is performed at the end of meals. During Bright Week, this service is replaced with the Lifting of the Artos. In some monasteries, the Ceremony of Forgiveness at the beginning of Great Lent is performed in the Trapeza. All food served in the Trapeza should be blessed, and for that purpose, holy water is often kept in the kitchen.

Modern usage[edit]

As well as continued use of the historic monastic meaning, the word refectory is often used in a modern context to refer to a café or cafeteria that is open to the public—including non-worshipers such as tourists—attached to a cathedral or abbey. This usage is particularly prevalent in Church of England buildings, which use the takings to supplement their income.[1]

Many universities in the UK also call their student cafeteria or dining facilities the refectory.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [1][dead link]

References[edit]

  • Adams, Henry, Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres. New York: Penguin, 1986.
  • Fernie, E. C. The Architecture of Norman England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1450. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
  • Singman, Jeffrey. Daily Life in Medieval Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
  • Webb, Geoffrey. Architecture in Britain: the Middle Ages. Baltimore: Penguin, 1956.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refectory — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
10613 videos foundNext > 

Castlevania Lords of Shadow Chapter 6-4 Refectory Part 1 of 2

Item Locations: 2:11 - Brotherhood Knight Scroll, 3:00 - Shadow Gem (red), For the other Shadow Gem (red) in this stage, go here: http://www.youtube.com/watc...

Castlevania Lords of Shadow Detonado "Refectory" [29]

O fim chegou. Uma força maléfica e misteriosa chamada Lords of Shadow — os Senhores das Sombras — ameaça a aliança entre o Céu e a Terra. Portanto, a escurid...

Castlevania Lords of Shadow Chapter 6-4 Refectory Part 2 of 2

Item Locations: 0:04 - Evil Butcher's Key, 1:13 - Full Dark Crystal, 1:16 - Life Gem (green), 4:02 - Hint/Brotherhood Knight Scroll, 4:50 - Hint Scroll, 5:34...

Castlevania: LoS Knight Difficulty - Chapter 6-4 Refectory

This is Gabriel's journey of love, loss, and redemption. Crestfallen from the death of his beloved, he embarks on a dark pilgrimage to the edge of the abyss ...

Columbus Food Scene: The Refectory

The Refectory is one of Columbus' culinary gems. For more than 20 years, this restaurant has been pleasing diners with classical French fare made with locall...

Let's Play The Elder Scrolls 5: Skyrim - part 305 Forelhost Refectory

This is my Lets Play of The Elder Scrolls 5: Skyrim with live commentary. Playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLD26328B9AD9D8005 Main Channel: htt...

Castlevania: Lords of Shadow Walkthrough - Part 29-1 Refectory

Check out Bas Rutten's Liver Shot on MMA Surge: http://bit.ly/MMASurgeEp1 http://www.mahalo.com/castlevania-lords-of-shadow-walkthrough Check out our other C...

REFECTORY BRASS BAND - CULTURE PRIDE 2014

Video improvvisazione in piano sequenza a mano volante, realizzata da Alessandro Maresca, autore e regista indipendente, multipremiato per i suoi corti e le ...

Reading in the Refectory: monastic practice in England from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries

18-02-10 Institute of English Studies John Coffin Memorial Palaeography Lecture - "Reading in the Refectory: monastic practice in England from the eleventh t...

The Birthday Party (Live at University Refectory,Sydney,Australia 06-Jan-82)

The Birthday Party at Refectory, University of New South Wales in Sydney,Australia on 06 January 1982. Setlist: 1.Cry 2.She's Hit 3.The Dim Locator 4.A Dead ...

10613 videos foundNext > 

2579 news items

Batley News

Batley News
Thu, 22 Jan 2015 08:41:15 -0800

The refectory was set up in 1995 with the help of European funding. At that time the church was only open on Sundays and Wednesdays but now the refectory and heritage centre ensure the building is a bustling centre of activity every day of the week.

The Brown Daily Herald

The Brown Daily Herald
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 19:00:00 -0800

The Sharpe Refectory is set to receive several upgrades as part of campus planning efforts outlined in President Christina Paxson's P'19 strategic plan, but a timeline remains undecided, administrators said. Administrators envision the Ratty becoming ...

The Brown Daily Herald

The Brown Daily Herald
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 20:18:45 -0800

Classes are canceled and all administrative and academic offices are closed Tuesday due to a “significant blizzard,” wrote Russell Carey '91 MA'06, executive vice president for planning and policy, in a community-wide email Monday. National Weather ...
 
The Providence Journal
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 11:18:22 -0800

Faculty doing so are responsible for notifying their students directly and for making arrangements for make-up sessions, the university said. Dining Services will centralize their operations on Tuesday at the Sharpe Refectory and will be open from 7:30 ...

The Chattanoogan

The Chattanoogan
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 08:30:29 -0800

The campus speaks of learning and devotion, and with its chapel, secular refectory and dormitory, Pringle and Smith's Baylor is in the spirit of a monastic community for young scholars.” Dr. Craig also includes three interesting architectural ...

Catholic World Report

Catholic World Report
Sun, 25 Jan 2015 18:37:30 -0800

Our recipe was inspired by the traditional refectory ales known as patersbier (“fathers' beer” in Flemish) in Belgium. These sessionable beers are brewed by the monks for their dinner table and are typically only available at the monastery. Spencer is ...

Columbus Crave

Columbus Crave
Wed, 05 Nov 2014 13:11:41 -0800

His knack for making us smile with every dish, paired with an exceptional wine list and attentive service, breaks The Refectory's stuffy stereotype. The Refectory is not sleek and contemporary. There are no Edison light bulbs, no reclaimed barn wood ...
 
Duke Chronicle
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:43:46 -0700

Although some members of the community expressed disappointment over the University's decision not to renew Refectory's contract, Cafe de Novo has had a successful first month in business. “It's been a great first month,” said Director of Dining ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight