digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

The refectory of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal.

A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions. One of the places the term is most often used today is in graduate seminaries. It derives from the Latin reficere "to remake or restore," via Late Latin refectorium, which means "a place one goes to be restored."

Refectories and monastic culture[edit]

Summer Refectory in the Grand Masters' Palace, Malbork Castle.

Communal meals are the times when all monks of an institution are together. Diet and eating habits differ somewhat by monastic order, and more widely by schedule. The Benedictine rule is illustrative.

The Rule of St Benedict orders two meals. Dinner is provided for year-round; supper is also served from late spring to early fall, except for Wednesdays and Fridays. The diet originally consisted of simple fare: two dishes, with fruit as a third course if available. The food was simple, with the meat of mammals forbidden to all but the sick. Moderation in all aspects of diet is the spirit of Benedict's law. Meals are eaten in silence, facilitated sometimes by hand signals. A single monk might read from the Scriptures or writings of the saints aloud during the meals.

Size, structure, and placement[edit]

Refectories vary in size and dimension, based primarily on wealth and size of the monastery, as well as when the room was built. They share certain design features. Monks eat at long benches; important officials sit at raised benches at one end of the hall. A lavabo, or large basin for hand-washing usually stands outside the refectory.

Tradition also fixes other factors. In England, the refectory is generally built on an undercroft (perhaps in an allusion to the upper room where the Last Supper reportedly took place) on the side of the cloister opposite the church. Benedictine models are traditionally generally laid out on an east-west axis, while Cistercian models lay north-south.

Norman refectories could be as large as 160 feet (49 m) long by 35 feet (11 m) wide (as is that in the abbey at Norwich). Even relatively early refectories might have windows, but these became larger and more elaborate in the high medieval period. The refectory at Cluny Abbey was lit through thirty-six large glazed windows. The twelfth-century abbey at Mont Saint-Michel had six windows, five feet wide by twenty feet high.

Eastern Orthodox[edit]

Trapeza (refectory church) at Kiev Pechersk Lavra.

In Eastern Orthodox monasteries, the Refectory (Greek: τράπεζα, trapeza) is considered a sacred place, and even in some cases is constructed as a full church with Altar and Iconostasis. Some services are intended to be performed specifically in the Trapeza. There is always at least one Icon with a lampada (oil lamp) kept burning in front of it. The service of the Lifting of the Panagia is performed at the end of meals. During Bright Week, this service is replaced with the Lifting of the Artos. In some monasteries, the Ceremony of Forgiveness at the beginning of Great Lent is performed in the Trapeza. All food served in the Trapeza should be blessed, and for that purpose, holy water is often kept in the kitchen.

Modern usage[edit]

As well as continued use of the historic monastic meaning, the word refectory is often used in a modern context to refer to a café or cafeteria that is open to the public—including non-worshipers such as tourists—attached to a cathedral or abbey. This usage is particularly prevalent in Church of England buildings, which use the takings to supplement their income.[1]

Many universities in the UK also call their student cafeteria or dining facilities the refectory.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [1][dead link]

References[edit]

  • Adams, Henry, Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres. New York: Penguin, 1986.
  • Fernie, E. C. The Architecture of Norman England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1450. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
  • Singman, Jeffrey. Daily Life in Medieval Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
  • Webb, Geoffrey. Architecture in Britain: the Middle Ages. Baltimore: Penguin, 1956.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refectory — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
10707 videos foundNext > 

Castlevania Lords of Shadow Chapter 6-4 Refectory Part 1 of 2

Item Locations: 2:11 - Brotherhood Knight Scroll, 3:00 - Shadow Gem (red), For the other Shadow Gem (red) in this stage, go here: http://www.youtube.com/watc...

Castlevania Lords of Shadow Detonado "Refectory" [29]

O fim chegou. Uma força maléfica e misteriosa chamada Lords of Shadow — os Senhores das Sombras — ameaça a aliança entre o Céu e a Terra. Portanto, a escurid...

Castlevania: LoS Knight Difficulty - Chapter 6-4 Refectory

This is Gabriel's journey of love, loss, and redemption. Crestfallen from the death of his beloved, he embarks on a dark pilgrimage to the edge of the abyss ...

Castlevania Lords of Shadow Chapter 6-4 Refectory Part 2 of 2

Item Locations: 0:04 - Evil Butcher's Key, 1:13 - Full Dark Crystal, 1:16 - Life Gem (green), 4:02 - Hint/Brotherhood Knight Scroll, 4:50 - Hint Scroll, 5:34...

Let's Play The Elder Scrolls 5: Skyrim - part 305 Forelhost Refectory

This is my Lets Play of The Elder Scrolls 5: Skyrim with live commentary. Playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLD26328B9AD9D8005 Main Channel: htt...

Columbus Food Scene: The Refectory

The Refectory is one of Columbus' culinary gems. For more than 20 years, this restaurant has been pleasing diners with classical French fare made with locall...

Castlevania: Lords of Shadow Walkthrough - Part 29-1 Refectory

Check out Bas Rutten's Liver Shot on MMA Surge: http://bit.ly/MMASurgeEp1 http://www.mahalo.com/castlevania-lords-of-shadow-walkthrough Check out our other C...

REFECTORY BRASS BAND - CULTURE PRIDE 2014

Video improvvisazione in piano sequenza a mano volante, realizzata da Alessandro Maresca, autore e regista indipendente, multipremiato per i suoi corti e le ...

Reading in the Refectory: monastic practice in England from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries

18-02-10 Institute of English Studies John Coffin Memorial Palaeography Lecture - "Reading in the Refectory: monastic practice in England from the eleventh t...

The Monastic Refectory: Meals in the Monastery

The majority of the monks' meals are taken in silence with reading. St. Benedict wrote, "The reader should not be the one who just happens to pick up the boo...

10707 videos foundNext > 

2538 news items

Yorkshire Evening Post

Yorkshire Evening Post
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:03:45 -0800

Though fundamentally a base for its brewery, which covers the ground floor and will churn out thousands of litres of craft ale a year, it also has a refectory and kitchen on the first floor which prove to be an excellent lunch spot for Little Oliver on ...

Columbus Monthly

Columbus Monthly
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 09:15:00 -0800

Head chef Julian Menaged is a soft-spoken and respectful student of classical French cuisine with impressive credentials. He cooked for several years under two of the city's most respected chefs, Richard Blondin at The Refectory and Hubert Seifert at ...

Columbus Crave

Columbus Crave
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:07:30 -0800

I enjoyed a New Year's dinner at The Refectory last year with five courses from a special menu ($89) and wine pairings (extra cost) accompanied by live music. They have the same deal again this year with a new menu of French-inspired dishes with ...
 
Duke Chronicle
Sun, 20 Apr 2014 23:23:35 -0700

The Refectory's contract has not been renewed, said Laura Hall, founder and chief executive of Bon Vivant Catering, which runs the café. The decision comes several months after Hall filed a legal complaint against Duke for its actions regarding the ...

Columbus Crave

Columbus Crave
Wed, 05 Nov 2014 13:11:41 -0800

His knack for making us smile with every dish, paired with an exceptional wine list and attentive service, breaks The Refectory's stuffy stereotype. The Refectory is not sleek and contemporary. There are no Edison light bulbs, no reclaimed barn wood ...
 
Duke Chronicle
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:43:46 -0700

Although some members of the community expressed disappointment over the University's decision not to renew Refectory's contract, Cafe de Novo has had a successful first month in business. “It's been a great first month,” said Director of Dining ...
 
Duke Chronicle
Wed, 18 Jun 2014 10:42:44 -0700

Café de Novo has been announced as the replacement vendor for the space that will be left vacant by the soon-to-depart Law Refectory Café. The new café will be operated by Sam Clowney and Chris Holloway, the partnership behind McClendon Tower's ...

Anglotopia.net

Anglotopia.net
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 09:09:53 -0800

... medieval passage ways. Once we arrived at the top of the Cathedral we were met by a stunning sunset and views over all of Winchester and the Christmas Market below. Following the tour we were invited into the Refectory for mince pies and mulled wine.
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight