digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















Photo of one whole and one split mango displaying its seed, which is approximately 1/3 the size of the entire fruit

Recalcitrant seeds (subsequently known as unorthodox seeds) are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation and visa versa.[1] By and large, these seeds cannot resist the effects of drying or temperatures less than 10°C; thus, they cannot be stored for long periods like orthodox seeds because they can lose their viability. Plants that produce recalcitrant seeds include avocado, mango, mangosteen, lychee, cocoa, rubber tree, some horticultural trees,[2] and several plants used in traditional medicine such as species of Virola and Pentaclethra. Generally speaking, most tropical pioneer species have orthodox seeds but many climax species have recalcitrant or intermediate seeds.[3]

Mechanisms of damage[edit]

Germinating lychee seed with its main root

The two main mechanisms of action of damage to recalcitrant seeds are desiccation effect on the intracellular structures and the effect of metabolic damage from the formation of toxic chemicals such as free radicals.[4] An example of the first type of damage would be found in some recalcitrant nontropical hardwood seeds, specifically the acorns of recalcitrant oaks, which can be stored in a nonfrozen state for up to two years provided that precautions be taken against drying. These seeds showed deterioration of cell membrane lipids and proteins after as few as 3–4 days of drying.[5] Other seeds such as those of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) show oxidative damage resulting from uncontrolled metabolism occurring during the drying process.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, USDA. Retrieved 2008-01-09. [dead link]
  2. ^ Marcos-Filho, Julio. "Physiology of Recalcitrant Seeds" (PDF). Ohio State University. Retrieved December 3, 2014. 
  3. ^ Flores, E.M.; J. A. Vozzo Editor. "Ch 1. Seed Biology" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2011-12-24. 
  4. ^ Berjak, Patricia; N.W. Pammenter; J. A. Vozzo Editor. "Ch 4. Orthodox and Recalcitrant Seeds" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  5. ^ Connor, Kristina F (2004). "Update on oak seed quality research: Hardwood recalcitrant seeds". Proc. RMRS (USDA, Rocky Mountain Research Station) P (33): 111–116. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  6. ^ Leprince, Olivier; J Buitink and F Hoekstra (1999). "Axes and cotyledons of recalcitrant seeds of Castanea sativa Mill. exhibit contrasting responses of respiration to drying in relation to desiccation sensitivity". J. Exp. Bot. (Oxford University Press) 50 (338): 1515–1524. doi:10.1093/jexbot/50.338.1515. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recalcitrant_seed — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
82 videos foundNext > 

FDM 2309 orthodox and recalcitrant seed process UPMKB

This video will show you the process to get ORTHODOX and RECALCITRANT seed. hope you get something from this video :)

Orthodox and recalcitrant seed collection

How to prepare the orthodox and recalcitrant seeds

This video will show you the preparation of the orthodox and recalcitrant seeds. It is stressed that this video is free from any Illuminati element. Hope you guys enjoy it, Cheers :)

Nature Agroforestry India [Plants & Seeds]

We offer quality processed tree seeds with having 90-95% of germination possibilities. These seeds are to be stored in with specific processing requirements depending on particular seed type,...

Agroforestry Seeds [Supplier & Exporter]

We offer quality processed tree seeds with having 90-95% of germination possibilities. These seeds are to be stored in with specific processing requirements depending on particular seed type,...

Cryopreservation Techniques for Long-Term Conservation of Plant Species - BOT-ERA Jordan

Cryopreservation (liquid nitrogen, -196°C) is the only technique ensuring the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of a diversity of plant species with recalcitrant and intermediate...

How to Open up Mangosteen Properly

Free tutorial video was created for you by the super skilful friend http://epsos.de and it can be used for free, if you link epSos.de as the original author of this video. This free video...

Durian Seeds to Plant

www.seedsavers.net Need to be replanted straight away as they are recalcitrant meaning they dont store as they are tropical. it is sprout or die. hey please leave a comment that will help...

Mangosteen Health Benefits & Warnings

http://mangosteen.azcures.com The mangosteen , mangosteen or jobo of India ( Garcinia mangostana ) is a tree tropical perennial , it is believed that it originated in the Sunda Islands and...

Mangosteen Dangers Repel Doctors Worldwide

http://www.JumpstartYourDreams.com/nm.htm The Purple Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), colloquially known simply as "the mangosteen", is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated...

82 videos foundNext > 

6 news items


Wed, 21 Aug 2013 07:04:41 -0700

Recalcitrant seeds are seeds that have to be protected from certain elements, such as drying and freezing, to remain viable. Seeds must be maintained at temperatures no less than 50 degrees Fahrenheit and does not have long shelf lives. Damage to the ...
Forests News, Center for International Forestry Research (blog)
Mon, 24 Nov 2014 23:55:53 -0800

It has recalcitrant seed. There have been attempts to develop this as a plantation crop for 80 years with no success so far. On the effects of climate change. I think the scientific evidence suggests that the West African region, where this commodity ...


Sat, 20 Dec 2014 05:41:15 -0800

Ecologically, the seed of African star apple is highly recalcitrant (a recalcitrant seed is one that dies once it dries). Thus, seeds must be sown fresh—once extracted or removed from the fruit. Seeds germinate 4–6 wk after sowing. Typical of most ...
Sat, 28 Jun 2014 20:11:15 -0700

A recalcitrant seed is one that loses its viability once it dries, ie, it dies when it dries (eg, cocoa, rubber, avocado, cola, shea, mango and coconut). Recalcitrant seeds must be sown immediately they are extracted (removed from the fruit ...
Science 2.0 (blog)
Mon, 24 Sep 2012 03:58:33 -0700

In his book Essay on population Malthus's 1798 predicted that population growth will soon outpace food production. Ecologist Paul Ehrlich's 1968 wrote in his book: The Population Bomb predicted that the world will undergo famines in 1970s, hundreds of ...
Sun, 01 Aug 2010 20:43:38 -0700

摘要:随着近几年RFID无线射频识别技术的快速发展与应用,国内外种子资源公司开始应用RFID技术管理种子资源库,美国孟山都、法国利玛格兰以及国内的万向德农、登海种业等国内外大型种子公司开始采用RFID无线射频识别 ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight