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Photo of one whole and one split mango displaying its seed, which is approximately 1/3 the size of the entire fruit

Recalcitrant seeds (sometimes known as unorthodox seeds) are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation.[1] Moreover, these seeds cannot resist the effects of drying or temperatures less than 10°C; thus, they cannot be stored for long periods like orthodox seeds because they can lose their viability. Plants that produce recalcitrant seeds include avocado, mango, mangosteen, lychee, cocoa, rubber tree, some horticultural trees, and several plants used in traditional medicine such as species of Virola and Pentaclethra. Generally speaking, most tropical pioneer species have orthodox seeds but many climax species have recalcitrant or intermediate seeds.[2]

Mechanisms of damage[edit]

Germinating lychee seed with its main root

The two main mechanisms of action of damage to recalcitrant seeds are desiccation effect on the intracellular structures and the effect of metabolic damage from the formation of toxic chemicals such as free radicals.[3] An example of the first type of damage would be found in some recalcitrant nontropical hardwood seeds, specifically the acorns of recalcitrant oaks, which can be stored in a nonfrozen state for up to two years provided that precautions be taken against drying. These seeds showed deterioration of cell membrane lipids and proteins after as few as 3–4 days of drying.[4] Other seeds such as those of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) show oxidative damage resulting from uncontrolled metabolism occurring during the drying process.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, USDA. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  2. ^ Flores, E.M.; J. A. Vozzo Editor. "Ch 1. Seed Biology" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2011-12-24. 
  3. ^ Berjak, Patricia; N.W. Pammenter; J. A. Vozzo Editor. "Ch 4. Orthodox and Recalcitrant Seeds" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  4. ^ Connor, Kristina F (2004). "Update on oak seed quality research: Hardwood recalcitrant seeds". Proc. RMRS (USDA, Rocky Mountain Research Station) P (33): 111–116. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  5. ^ Leprince, Olivier; J Buitink and F Hoekstra (1999). "Axes and cotyledons of recalcitrant seeds of Castanea sativa Mill. exhibit contrasting responses of respiration to drying in relation to desiccation sensitivity". J. Exp. Bot. (Oxford University Press) 50 (338): 1515–1524. doi:10.1093/jexbot/50.338.1515. 

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4 news items

RedOrbit

RedOrbit
Wed, 21 Aug 2013 07:04:41 -0700

Recalcitrant seeds are seeds that have to be protected from certain elements, such as drying and freezing, to remain viable. Seeds must be maintained at temperatures no less than 50 degrees Fahrenheit and does not have long shelf lives. Damage to the ...
 
GhanaWeb
Sat, 28 Jun 2014 20:18:04 -0700

A recalcitrant seed is one that loses its viability once it dries, ie, it dies when it dries (eg, cocoa, rubber, avocado, cola, shea, mango and coconut). Recalcitrant seeds must be sown immediately they are extracted (removed from the fruit ...
 
Science 2.0 (blog)
Mon, 24 Sep 2012 03:58:33 -0700

In his book Essay on population Malthus's 1798 predicted that population growth will soon outpace food production. Ecologist Paul Ehrlich's 1968 wrote in his book: The Population Bomb predicted that the world will undergo famines in 1970s, hundreds of ...
 
RFID世界网
Sun, 01 Aug 2010 20:43:38 -0700

摘要:随着近几年RFID无线射频识别技术的快速发展与应用,国内外种子资源公司开始应用RFID技术管理种子资源库,美国孟山都、法国利玛格兰以及国内的万向德农、登海种业等国内外大型种子公司开始采用RFID无线射频识别 ...
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