A reactionary is a person who holds political viewpoints that favor a return to a previous state (the status quo ante) in a society. The word can also be an adjective describing such viewpoints or policies. Reactionaries are considered to be one end of a political spectrum whose opposite pole is progressivism / radicalism (in the meaning "left"), though reactionary ideologies may be themselves radical (in the meaning "extreme"). While it has not been generally considered positive to be regarded as a reactionary, it has been adopted as a self-description by some, such as Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Gerald Warner of Craigenmaddie, Nicolás Gómez Dávila, and John Lukacs.
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Usage and history
The French Revolution gave the English language three politically descriptive words denoting anti-progressive politics: reactionary, conservative and right. Reactionary derives from the French word réactionnaire (a late eighteenth-century coinage based on the word réaction, "reaction"), and conservative from conservateur, identifying monarchist parliamentarians opposed to the revolution. In this French usage, reactionary denotes "a movement towards the reversal of an existing tendency or state" and a "return to a previous condition of affairs." The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first English-language usage in 1799 in a translation of Lazare Carnot's letter on the Coup of 18 Fructidor.
During the French Revolution, conservative forces (especially within the Roman Catholic Church) organized opposition to the progressive sociopolitical and economic changes brought by the revolution, and to fight to restore the temporal authority of the Church and Crown. In nineteenth-century European politics, the reactionary class included the Roman Catholic Church's hierarchy—the clergy, the aristocracy, royal families, and royalists—believing that national government is the sole domain of the Church and the state. In France, supporters of traditional rule by direct heirs of the House of Bourbon dynasty were labeled the legitimist reaction. In the Third Republic, the monarchists were the reactionary faction, later renamed conservative. These forces also saw "reaction" as a legitimate response to the often rash "action" of the French Revolution; hence there is nothing inherently derogatory in the term reactionary, and it is sometimes also used describe the principle of waiting for an opponent's action to take part in a general reaction. In Protestant Christian societies, reactionary has described those supporting tradition against modernity.
In the nineteenth century, reactionary denoted people who idealised feudalism and the pre-modern era—before the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution—when economies were mostly agrarian, a landed aristocracy dominated society, a hereditary king ruled and the Roman Catholic Church was society's moral center. Those labeled as reactionary favored the aristocracy instead of the middle class and the working class. Reactionaries opposed democracy and parliamentarism.
The Thermidorian Reaction was a movement within the revolution against perceived excesses of the Jacobins. On July 27, 1794 (9 Thermidor year II in the French Republican Calendar), Maximilien Robespierre's Reign of Terror was brought to an end. The overthrow of Robespierre signalled the reassertion of the French National Convention over the Committee of Public Safety. The Jacobins were suppressed, the prisons were emptied and the Committee was shorn of its powers. After the execution of some 104 Robespierre supporters, the Thermidorian Reaction stopped the use of the guillotine against alleged counterrevolutionaries, set a middle course between the monarchists and the radicals and ushered in a time of relative exuberance and its accompanying corruption.
The Restored French Monarchy
With the Congress of Vienna, the monarchs of Russia, Prussia, and Austria formed the Holy Alliance, a form of collective security against revolution and Bonapartism inspired by Tsar Alexander I of Russia. This instance of reaction was surpassed by a movement that developed in France when, after the second fall of Napoleon, the Restoration, or re-instatement of the Bourbon dynasty, ensued. This time it was to be a constitutional monarchy, with an elected lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies. The Franchise was restricted to men over the age of forty, which indicated that for the first fifteen years of their lives they had lived under the ancien régime. Nevertheless, King Louis XVIII was worried that he would still suffer an intractable parliament. He was delighted with the ultra-royalists, or Ultras, whom the election returned, declaring that he had found a chambre introuvable, literally, an "unfindable house". But he later realized that they were too ultra for a royal.
It was the Declaration of Saint-Ouen that prepared the way for the Restoration. Before the French Revolution, which radically and bloodily overthrew most aspects of French society's organization, the only way constitutional change could be instituted was by extracting it from old legal documents that could be interpreted as agreeing with the proposal. Everything new had to be expressed as a righteous revival of something old that had lapsed and had been forgotten. This was also the means used for diminished aristocrats to get themselves a bigger piece of the pie. In the eighteenth century, those gentry whose fortunes and prestige had diminished to the level of peasants would search diligently for every ancient feudal statute that might give them something. The "ban," for example, meant that all peasants had to grind their grain in their lord's mill. Therefore these gentry came to the French States-General of 1789 fully prepared to press for the expansion of such practices in all provinces, to the legal limit. They were horrified when, for example, the French Revolution permitted common citizens to go hunting, one of the few perquisites that they had always enjoyed everywhere.
Thus with the restoration of the Bourbons, the Chambre Introuvable set about reverting every law to return society not merely to the ancien régime with its absolute monarchy, but to even earlier conditions when the aristocracy really was a socially powerful class. It is this which clearly distinguishes a "reactionary" from a "conservative." The conservative would have accepted many improvements brought about by the revolution, and simply refused a program of wholesale reversion. Use of the word "reactionary" in later days as a political slur is thus often rhetorical, since there is nothing directly comparable with the Chambre Introuvable in the history of other countries.
The clerical philosophers
In the Revolution's aftermath, France was continually wracked with the quarrels between the right-wing legitimists and left-wing Revolutionaries. Herein arose the clerical philosophers—Joseph de Maistre, Louis de Bonald, François-René de Chateaubriand—whose answer was restoring the House of Bourbon and reinstalling the Roman Catholic Church as the established church. Since then, France's political spectrum has featured similar divisions. (see Action Française). The ideas of the clerical philosophers were buttressed by the teachings of the nineteenth century popes.
Metternich and containment
During the period of 1815-1848, Prince Metternich, the foreign minister of the Austrian Empire, stepped in to organize containment of revolutionary forces through international alliances meant to prevent the spread of revolutionary fervour. At the Congress of Vienna, he was very influential in establishing the new order, the Concert of Europe, after the defeat of Napoleon.
After the Congress, Prince Metternich worked hard bolstering and stabilizing the conservative regime of the Restoration period. He worked furiously to prevent Russia's Tsar Alexander I (who aided the liberal forces in Germany, Italy and France) from gaining influence in Europe. The Church was his principal ally, promoting it as a conservative principle of order while opposing nationalist and liberal tendencies within the Church. His basic philosophy was based on Edmund Burke, who championed the need for old roots and an orderly development of society. He opposed democratic and parliamentary institutions but favoured modernizing existing structures by gradual reform. Despite Metternich's efforts a series of revolutions rocked Europe in 1848.
In the twentieth century, proponents of socialism and communism used the term reactionary polemically to label their enemies, such as the White Armies, who fought in the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. In Marxist terminology, reactionary is a pejorative adjective denoting people whose ideas might appear to be socialist, but, in essence, contain elements of feudalism, capitalism, nationalism, fascism or other characteristics of the ruling class. Reactionary is also used to denote supporters of authoritarian, anti-communist, and régimes such as Vichy France, Spain under Francisco Franco, and Portugal under António Salazar. One example of this took place after Boris Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. On October 26, 1958, the day following the Nobel Committee's announcement, Moscow's Literary Gazette ran a polemical article by David Zaslavski entitled, Reactionary Propaganda Uproar over a Literary Weed.
Reactionary feelings were often coupled with a hostility to modern, industrial means of production and a nostalgia for a more rural society. The Vichy regime in France, Francisco Franco's regime, the Salazar regime in Portugal, and Maurras's Action Française political movements are examples of such traditional reactionary feelings, in favour of authoritarian regimes with strong unelected leaders and with Catholicism as a state religion. The motto of Vichy France was "travail, famille, patrie"("work, family, homeland"), and its leader, Marshal Philippe Pétain, declared that "la terre, elle ne ment pas" ("the earth, it does not lie") in an indication of his belief that the truest life is rural and agrarian.
Fascism is generally considered to be reactionary, due to its glorification of ancient national history and some of the social arrangements prior to the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century. The Italian fascists showed a desire to bring about a new social order based on the ancient feudal principle of delegation (though without serfdom) in their enthusiasm for the corporate state. Benito Mussolini said that "fascism is reaction" and that "fascism, which did not fear to call itself reactionary... has not today any impediment against declaring itself illiberal and anti-liberal."
However, Gentile and Mussolini also attacked certain reactionary policies, particularly monarchism and—more veiled—some aspects of Italian conservative Catholicism. They wrote, "History doesn't travel backwards. The fascist doctrine has not taken De Maistre as its prophet. Monarchical absolutism is of the past, and so is ecclesiolatry." They further elaborated in the political doctrine that fascism "is not reactionary [in the old way] but revolutionary." Conversely, they also explained that fascism was of the right, not of the left. Fascism was certainly not simply a return to tradition: it carried the centralised state beyond even what had been seen in absolute monarchies. Fascist single-party states were as centralised as most communist states, and fascism's intense nationalism was not found in the period prior to the French Revolution.
The National Socialists did not consider themselves reactionary and considered the forces of reaction (Prussian monarchists, nobility, Roman Catholic) among their enemies right next to their Red Front enemies in the Nazi Party march Die Fahne hoch. The fact that the Nazis called their 1933 rise to power the National Revolution, shows that they supported some form of revolution. Nevertheless, they idealized tradition, folklore, classical thought, leadership (as exemplified by Frederick the Great), rejected the liberalism of the Weimar Republic, and called the German state the Third Reich (which traces back to the medieval First Reich and the pre-Weimar Second Reich). (See also Reactionary modernism.)
Clericalist movements sometimes labeled as clerical fascist by their critics, can be considered reactionaries in terms of the 19th century, since they share some elements of fascism, while at the same time promote a return to the pre-revolutionary model of social relations, with a strong role for the Church. Their utmost philosopher was Nicolás Gómez Dávila.
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A 2013 essay published on the website TechCrunch describes the Neo-reactionary "community of bloggers" as a term applied to, and sometimes a self-description of, an informal group of online political theorists who have been active since the 2000s. The most influential is Curtis Yarvin, a computer industry worker who blogs under the pseudonym Mencius Moldbug. TechCrunch says that the phrase "neo-reactionary" was coined by Arnold Kling, who used it in 2010 to describe Moldbug. However, the term was used in 2008 by Moldbug. (George Orwell used it in a different context in 1943.)
A number of other neoreactionaries have technology backgrounds, and a distinguishing feature of neoreaction as opposed to the traditional reactionary thought is an interest in combining technological progress with a return to earlier forms of social organization. The term Dark Enlightenment, coined by Nick Land, has also been used to describe such adherents.
Neoreactionaries typically accept at least some of the following principles:
- Despite technological superiority, modern republics and liberal democracies are not overall better than older monarchical and aristocratic systems. They are believed to be so because a loose coalition of influences propagates the idea of their superiority. The coalition of influences consists chiefly of academia, the civil service, and the liberal press. Moldbug calls it "The Cathedral".
- The ideology of The Cathedral is Progressivism, which retains the morality of Protestant Christianity (for instance, the universal brotherhood and essential equality of man) but strips it of obvious religious content such as supernatural/theological elements.
- Egalitarianism is false; people vary in their abilities, and those who are the best, in some sense, should be running things.
- Democratic politicians have a variety of interests and motivations, according to which section of the populace is their electoral base, whereas an autocratic leader would be more likely to act towards the security and wealth of the nation as a whole.
- Age of Metternich
- French Revolution
- Glossary of the French Revolution
- List of people associated with the French Revolution
- Right-wing politics
- Credo of a Reactionary' by Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn - The American Mercury, under his alias Francis Stuart Campbell
- "Scrap the meaningless terms Left and Right and reclaim the honourable title 'reactionary'". The Daily Telegraph. 27 July 2010.
- Confessions of an Original Sinner First Chapter
- The Governments of Europe, Frederic Austin OGG, Rev. Ed., The MacMillan Co., 1922, p. 485.
- Carnot, L. N. M. (1799). Reply of L. N. M. Carnot, citizen of France ... to the report made on the conspiracy of the 18th Fructidor (3rd ed.). London: J. Wright. p. 149. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Olga Ivinskaya, A Captive of Time: My Years with Pasternak, Doubleday, 1978. Page 224.
- Gerarchia, March, 1923 quoted in George Seldes, Facts and Fascism, eighth edition, New York: In Fact, 1943, p. 277.
- Corey Robin, author of The Reactionary Mind.
- TechCrunch: Geeks for Monarchy
- Nick Land - The Dark Enlightenment
- Jamie Bartlett (2014-01-20). "Meet The Dark Enlightenment: sophisticated neo-fascism that's spreading fast on the net". The Daily Telegraph.
- Tim Stanley (2014-01-22). "The 'neo-fascist' Dark Enlightenment is more sad than scary". The Daily Telegraph.
- Matthew Walther (2014-01-23). "The Dark Enlightenment Is Silly Not Scary". The American Spectator.
- Corey Pein (2014-05-19). "Mouthbreathing Machiavellis Dream of a Silicon Reich". The Baffler.
- Liberty or Equality, Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Christendom Press, Front Royal, Virginia, 1993.
- Liberalism and the Challenge of Fascism, Social Forces in England and France 1815-1870, J. Salwyn Schapiro, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., NY, 1949. (with over 34 mentions of the word "reactionary" in political context)
- The Reactionary Revolution, The Catholic Revival in French Literature, 1870/1914, Richard Griffiths, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., NY, 1965.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 20 Vol. 31 references on the use of the term.