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Portrait of Rachel Ruysch by Godfried Schalcken

Rachel Ruysch (3 June 1664 – 12 August 1750) was a still life painter from the Northern Netherlands who specialized in flowers. She invented her own style and achieved international fame in her lifetime, being followed by Jan van Huysum who took flower painting to another degree of popularity. Due to her long and successful career that spanned over 6 decades, she became the best documented woman painter of the Dutch Golden Age.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Juriaan Pool and his wife Rachel Pool, born Ruisch, at the age of 84. By then he was dead.

Rachel Ruysch was born on 3 June 1664 in The Hague to the scientist Frederik Ruysch and Maria Post, the daughter of the architect Pieter Post. Her father was a professor of anatomy and botany,[1] and an amateur painter.[2] He had a vast collection of animal skeletons, and mineral and botany samples which Rachel used to practice her drawing skills.[3] At a young age she began to paint the flowers and insects of her father's collection in the popular manner of Otto Marseus van Schrieck. She knew him and his disciples from his work for the Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, where her father did business.[4]

Rachel would also have known and consorted with the flower painters Jan and Maria Moninckx, Alida Withoos and Johanna Helena Herolt-Graff, who all were about her age and who worked for the hortus owner Agnes Block and who, like her father, also worked with the plant collectors Jan and Caspar Commelin. In 1679, at age fifteen, Ruysch was apprenticed to Willem van Aelst, a prominent flower painter in Amsterdam. His studio in Amsterdam looked out over the studio of the flower painter Maria van Oosterwijck. Ruysch studied with van Aelst until his death in 1683.[2] Besides painting technique he taught her how to arrange a bouquet in a vase so it would look spontaneous and less formalized. This technique produced a more realistic and three-dimensional affect in her paintings. By the time Ruysch was eighteen she was producing and selling independently signed works.[5]

In 1693 she married the Amsterdam portrait painter Juriaen Pool, with whom she had ten children. Throughout her marriage and adult life she continued to paint and produce commissions for an international circle of patrons.[5]

Works[edit]

Roses, Convolvulus, Poppies, and Other Flowers in an Urn on a Stone Ledge

It is unknown whether Ruysch was a member of the Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke, but early signed works by her in the 1680s show the influence of Otto Marseus van Schrieck. By 1699 Rachel and her family had moved to The Hague, where she was offered membership in the Confrerie Pictura in The Hague as their first female member.[6] In 1701 she and her husband both became members of The Hauge Painter's Guild. Several years later, in 1708, Ruysch was invited to work for the court in Düsseldorf and serve as court painter to Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine.[6] She obtained a contract for works painted at home that she periodically brought to Düsseldorf.[6] She remained working for him and his wife from 1708 until the prince's death in 1716.

Art historians consider Ruysch to be one of the most talented still life artists among both men and women.[7] By her death at age 86 she had produced hundreds of paintings, of which more than 250 have been documented or are currently attributed to her.[5] Her dated works establish that she painted from the age of 15 until a few years before her death.

Style[edit]

Ruysch had a strong understanding of drawing and the techniques of earlier traditions. This knowledge improved her painting abilities.[2] Stylistically, her artwork, with its playful composition and brilliant colors, was part of the rococo movement.[8] She paid extensive attention to all details in her work. Every petal was created painstakingly with delicate brushwork.[9] The background of Ruysch's paintings are usually dark which was the fashion for flower painting in the second half of the 17th century. Her asymmetrical compositions with drooping flowers and wild stems created paintings that seemed to possess a great energy about them.[5]

Ruysch had painted a number of forest floor pictures which feature small animals, reptiles, butterflies, and fungi in her early work. She later adopted flower painting as her main concern and continued to paint until her death, thus continuing the 17th-century style right down to the middle of the following century.[10]

Ruysch's skill lay in the minute observation of each flower in a totally realistic way which is then composed into an elaborate arrangement which would be very difficult to achieve in nature, as the flowers would not support each other so well under such an arrangement. In common with most flower pieces from the last third of the 17th century, the colors of the flowers are much more carefully balanced than in the earlier pictures.[10]

The symbolism of each flower was elaborately developed in the 17th century, but most of this concerned the introduction of a single flower into a Vanitas piece. Apart from Jan van Huysum, no 18th century flower painter matched the skill of Rachel Ruysch.[10]

Reception[edit]

Ruysch enjoyed great fame and reputation in her lifetime. When she died in 1750, eleven poets paid her their respects with poems about her.[1] In the 17th century the Dutch were very interested in flowers and gardening, so paintings that highlighted the beauty of nature were highly valued. This helped to build and maintain Ruysch's clientele throughout her career.[5] In her lifetime her paintings were sold for very high prices of up to 750-1200 guilders. In comparison, Rembrandt rarely received more than 500 guilders for a painting in his lifetime.[11]

In 1999 a painting by Ruysch was discovered in a farmhouse, and was sold at auction in Normandy for 2.9 million French francs, about US$508,000.[5]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c keyes, George S. (2004). Masters of Dutch Painting (1st ed.). Detroit: Detroit Institute of Arts. pp. 212–214. 
  2. ^ a b c Mitchell, Peter. "Ruysch, Rachel". oxfordartonline.com. Grove Art Online. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  3. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (1990). Women, Art, and Society (1st ed.). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson. p. 138. 
  4. ^ Alida Withoos and the Moninckx-atlases of the Amsterdam Hortus
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Rachel Ruysch". Encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c Rachel Ruysch in historici.nl
  7. ^ http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T074728?q=rachel+ruysch&search=quick&pos=1&_start=1#firsthit
  8. ^ Vigué, Jordi (2002). Great Women Masters of Art. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. p. 129. ISBN 0-8230-2114-9. 
  9. ^ Renraw, R. "Art of Rachel Ruysch". EBSCOhost. Art Index Retrospective. 
  10. ^ a b c James, St. (1990). International dictionary of Art and Artists. St. James. ISBN 1-55862-001-X. 
  11. ^ Tufts, Eleanor (1974). Our Hidden Heritage: Five Centuries Of Women Artists (1st ed.). New York: Paddington Press. pp. 99–101. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Ruysch — Please support Wikipedia.
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96 news items

Hyperallergic

Hyperallergic
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 16:03:45 -0700

Tucked away under the trees, it is not as prominent as the new, street-facing piece by Rachel Ruysch, but it provides a familiar and homegrown counterpoint to the DIA's installation. It begs the question of how Craig in conversation with Ruysch — and ...

Hyperallergic

Hyperallergic
Mon, 20 Jul 2015 09:40:24 -0700

Seventeenth-century Dutch artist Rachel Ruysch was the daughter of anatomist Frederik Rusych, famed for his complex and macabre dioramas of human and other natural specimens. Her dark, detailed flower compositions like “Roses, Convolvulus, Poppies, ...
 
Huffington Post
Sun, 31 Jul 2011 19:21:23 -0700

Yesterday we showed you this painting and asked you to guess the artist. The statistical pattern continued this week with a little under one third of you correctly guessing the artist: Rachel Ruysch. A prominent female Dutch Golden Age painter, Rachel ...

Washington Post

Washington Post
Thu, 11 Jun 2015 03:30:00 -0700

Thought to lack the imagination and intellectual gravitas for serious art, women were historically encouraged to stick with still lifes and natural scenes, says Deborah Gaston, education director for the National Museum of Women in the Arts. Even ...

Varsity Online

Varsity Online
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 06:13:44 -0700

The complaint is that such works seek to please rather than to stir, however in some cases this does not ring true. An example is the Still Life paintings that first began to flourish in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century. Rachel Ruysch was an ...

Wall Street Journal

Wall Street Journal
Sun, 19 Apr 2015 18:30:00 -0700

The sale also includes a beautiful still life of flowers and a bumblebee by Rachel Ruysch, one of the most successful still-life artists of the Dutch Golden Age, and one of the first female artists to gain international recognition; and an appealing ...
 
King Township Sentinel
Wed, 24 Jun 2015 00:18:45 -0700

One of my favorite artists Rachel Ruysch, Dutch “natura morta” painter, must have seen the same essence within the Painted Lady when she placed it in her “Bouquet of Flowers” painting that she created over 300 years ago. The Painted Lady butterflies ...

Centre Daily Times

Centre Daily Times
Sat, 02 May 2015 14:45:00 -0700

Rachel Ruysch, the preeminent female Dutch baroque artist of this brand of still life painting, painted an oil composition of “Honeysuckle and Other Flowers in a Blue Glass Vase” that sold for $690,600 at auction. The color of particular flowers offer ...
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