digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















This article is about a town named Poompuhar. For other uses, see Poompuhar (disambiguation).
Kaveri poompatinum
Poompuhar is located in Tamil Nadu
Coordinates: 11°08′38″N 79°51′18″E / 11.144°N 79.855°E / 11.144; 79.855Coordinates: 11°08′38″N 79°51′18″E / 11.144°N 79.855°E / 11.144; 79.855
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District Nagapattinam
Elevation 1 m (3 ft)
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 04364
Vehicle registration TN-82-Z
Nearest city Mayiladuthurai,Sirkazhi
Lok Sabha constituency Mayiladuthurai

Poompugar (Tamil: பூம்புகார்) is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It was once a flourishing ancient port city known as Kaveri poompattinam, which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola kings in Tamilakam. Puhar is located near the end point of the Kaveri river, aside the sea coast. it is mentioned in the Periplus of Ereythrean sea. it is now established by marine archeological research conducted by the National institute of marine archeology, Goa that much of the town was washed away by progressive erosion and floods. submerged wharves and several meter lengths of pier walls have excavated in recent times have corroborated the literary references to Poompugar. It was rebuilt several times after that. Ancient Pottery dating back to the 4th century BCE have been discovered off shore by marine archeologists east of this town.

City layout[edit]

The general plan of the city of Puhar is described in considerable detail in the fifth book of Silapathikaram (c. ). The town was built on the north banks of the river Kaveri. The town had two distinct districts, Maruvurpakkam near the sea and Pattinappakkam to its west. These two villages were separated by a stretch of gardens and orchards where daily markets were held under the shades of the trees. The market place was known as Naalangadi during the day and as allangadi by night.

After 2004 Tsunami
Poompuhar Beach


The district of Maruvurpakkam was near the beach and had several terraced mansions and warehoused with windows shaped like the eyes of the deer. Maruvurpakkam being close to the shore and hence to the shipyard was naturally preferred by the many overseas travellers, merchants and 'yavanas (foreigner) whose pleasant features arrested the eyes of the spectators living close to each other.

Maruvurpakkam was inhabited by the fisher folk. The town had several warehouses. Weavers, silk merchants, vendors, fish and meat sellers, potters, grain merchants, jewellers and diamond makers lived in Maruvurppakkam.


The King and nobles, rich traders, physicians, astrologers, members of the king’s army, court dancers occupied Pattinappakkam. The five Manrams - Vellidai Manram, Elanchi Manram, Nedankal manram, Poothachathukkam and Pavaimanram were located in Pattinappakkam. Gardens like Elavanthikaicholai, Uyyanam, Chanpathivanam, Uvavanam, and Kaveravanam added beauty to the town.

In culture[edit]

Descriptions in Tamil poetic works[edit]

A Purananuru poem (poem 30) says that big ships entered the port of Puhar without slacking sail, and poured out onto the beach precious merchandise brought from overseas. In the extensive markets of Puhar there were many tall mansions surrounded by platforms reached by high ladders. These mansions had many apartments and were provided with doorways, great and small, and with wide hallways and corridors (Pattinappaalai – II –142-158). In all parts of the town there were flags flying of various kinds and shapes.

Pattinappaalai, a poem that describes the ancient Puhar very vividly, was written by the poet Kadiyalur Uruthirangannanaar is part of the Ten Idylls anthology and was sung in praise of Karikala Chola, a second-century Chola king.

Merchants of Puhar[edit]

Pattinappaalai also gives an idealised description of the merchants plying their trade in Puhar (Pattinappaalai – II –199-212):

They shunned murder, and put aside theft, pleased the gods by fire offerings,…they regarded others rights as scrupulously as their own, they took nothing more than was due to them and never gave less than was due from them. Trading thus in many articles of merchandise, they enjoyed an ancient heritage of prosperity and lived in close proximity to one another.

City's destruction[edit]

The ancient city of Puhar was destroyed by the sea around 300 BC. Marine archeologists from the National Institute of Oceanography have established that this could have been the effects of sediment erosion and periodic tsunamis. Such a tsunami is mentioned in the Tamil poem Manimekhalai (see below), which relates that the town Kāveripattinam or Puhār was swallowed up by the sea. This event is supported by archeological finds of submerged ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar.[1][2] The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared around 300 BC due to this tsunami[3]


The ancient Tamil poem Manimekalai by the poet Seethalai Saathanar is set in the town of Kaveripattanam.[4][5] Ancient ruins of a 4th-5th-century Buddhist monastery, a Buddha statue, and a Buddhapada (footprint of the Buddha) were found in another section of the ancient city, now at Pallavanesvaram.[6]


Kaveripattanam is located at 11°08′21″N 79°50′57″E / 11.13917°N 79.84917°E / 11.13917; 79.84917.[7] It has an average elevation of 1 m (3.3 ft).


Poompuhar assembly constituency is part of Mayiladuturai (Lok Sabha constituency).[8]


A Sign Board

The major tourists attractions in Poompuhar :

Silappathikara Art Gallery A beautiful building of great sculptural value has been built as Sillappathikara Art Gallery.Scenes from Sillappathikaram, the Epic of the land have been given lively shapes in stones on the walls of the Gallery. These sculptures carved by the sculptors of Mamallapuram Art College remain the treasure house of Tamil Culture.

Masilamani Nathar Koil Though heavily eroded by the sea in a number of places, this temple built in 1305 by Maravarma Kulasekara Pandiyan, still manages to impress all the tourists to Poompuhar with its architectural richness.



  1. ^ Gaur A. S. and Sundaresh, Underwater Exploration off Poompuhar and possible causes of its Submergence, 1998, Puratattva, 28: 84-90. Available online at [1]
  2. ^ Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast, Rao, S.R.. Journal of Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 5–20. Available online at [2]
  3. ^ ”Indian town sees evidence of ancient tsunami”, Associated Press report, Poompuhar,1/14/2005. Available online at [3]
  4. ^ Rao Bahadur Krishnaswāmi Aiyangar, Maṇimekhalai in its Historical Setting, London, 1928. Available at www.archive.org [4]
  5. ^ Hisselle Dhammaratana,Buddhism in South India, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, 1964. Available on Buddhist Publication Society Online Library [5]
  6. ^ Marine archaeological explorations of Tranquebar-Poompuhar region on Tamil Nadu coast., Rao, S.R.. Journal of Marine Archaeology, Vol. II, July 1991, pp. 6. Available online at [6]
  7. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kaveripattanam
  8. ^ "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 


External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puhar — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
5397 videos foundNext > 

Mirjana Puhar ANTM Tribute - Spread More Love and Less Hate

The ANTM family wants everyone to remember Mirjana's dream to SPREAD MORE LOVE THAN WE DO HATE. Video tribute to our dear friend Mirjana Puhar.

Tyra Banks Releases Statement on Murder of 'Top Model' Contestant Mirjana Puhar

America's Next Top Model” Contestant Mirjana Puhar Killed Tyra Banks Releases Statement on Murder of 'Top Model' Contestant Mirjana Puhar According to ...

ANTM Mirjana Puhar Tribute RIP

One of the most beautiful and stunning girls ever to come out of the show.The world lost an angel today. Keep working it up there :) xo.

'America's Next Top Model' Contestant Mirjana Puhar Dead -- Dies in Triple Homicide

Mirjana Puhar -- a recent "America's Next Top Model" contestant -- was killed Tuesday in a triple homicide at her boyfriend's home in Charlotte, NC ... TMZ has ...

Encuentran muerta a modelo Mirjana Puhar

Autoridades encuentran muerta a la joven modelo Mirjana Puhar en casa de su novio, te dejamos los detalles en la siguiente nota, 26 de febrero 2015 Te ...

Mirjana Puhar; America's Next Top Model Dead in Triple Homicide

Mirjana Puhar; America's Next Top Model Dead in Triple Homicide. Emmanuel Rangel has been charged with the murder of America's Next Top Model ...

RIP - Remembering Mirjana Puhar (Tribute)

Mirjana Puhar -- a recent "America's Next Top Model" contestant -- was killed Tuesday in a triple homicide at her boyfriend's home in Charlotte, NC ... TMZ has ...

Mirjana Puhar shot dead! America's Next Top Model cycle 21 contestant killed in triple homicide!!

Mirjana Puhar shot dead! Killed in triple homicide! America's Next Top Model cycle 21 contestant, boyfriend died in NC!

Mirjana Puhar REAL Ride or DIE Chick

ATTENTION ALL RIDE OR DIE CHICKS AND FUTURE "TRAP QUEENS"...If you choose to date a thug, getting arrested might be the least of your problems.

Mirjana Puhar Portfolio - America's Next Top Model - Cycle 21 - Guys and Girls

Mirjana's full portfolio. Watch, like and comment ;)

5397 videos foundNext > 

2877 news items


Thu, 28 Apr 2016 15:01:27 -0700

Alenka Puhar: Mojster dobro zasukanih stavkov. Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 2016, 39,96 €. + + + + +. Esejistična biografija Izidorja Cankarja. Kupite dostop do Mladina.si, ki stane enako kot izvod tiskane izdaje Mladine. Za 3,20 EUR dobite dostop do ...


Mon, 04 Apr 2016 16:34:10 -0700

Triindvajsetletni Rok Puhar je z doseženim časom pristal na 32. mestu med skoraj 15 tisoč tekači. Začel je izjemno hitro in prvih pet kilometrov pretekel v času 15:10, odličen pa je bil tudi njegov vmesni čas na desetem kilometru, ki je znašal 30:46. V ...

Hollywood Life

Hollywood Life
Wed, 25 Feb 2015 10:49:34 -0800

Who Is Mirjana Puhar? — 5 Things About 'ANTM' Star Murdered In Triple Homicide. 1. Mirjana was born in Srmeska Mitorvica, Serbia, and she and her family were Serbian war refugees, according to an interview she gave The Charlotte Observer. The Puhars ...


Fri, 01 Apr 2016 08:29:08 -0700

Keaton Hamilton can pitch and play the outfield, while Seth Puhar can pitch and play the outfield and infield. The key to success for the Bulldogs will be how quickly the young pitching staff gains traction. “Developing our inexperienced pitchers will ...

Hollywood Life

Hollywood Life
Fri, 27 Feb 2015 17:14:21 -0800

Mirjana Puhar, 19, was reportedly the first to be killed in the devastating triple homicide on Feb. 24, as she answered the door to two robbers and gunmen. Mirjana's boyfriend Jonathan Alvarado and his roommate Jusmar Gonzaga-Garcia were then shot in ...

IBNLive (blog)

IBNLive (blog)
Mon, 11 Apr 2016 01:58:31 -0700

Great floods destroyed the sacred monuments of ancient Tamizhagam in Madurai and Puhar. Massive earthquakes reduced the glory that was Pompey to ruins. Neither the invaders rapacity nor insensitiveness of an alien faith or the fury of elements were ...

New York Daily News

New York Daily News
Fri, 20 Mar 2015 06:30:00 -0700

A second Charlotte teen has been charged with murdering three people, including one-time “America's Next Top Model” contestant Mirjana Puhar, late last month in suspected drug-related slayings, police said. David Ezequel Lopez, 19, joins alleged ...

The Inquisitr

The Inquisitr
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 09:14:20 -0700

The man charged in the murder of America's Next Top Model contestant Mirjana Puhar should have been deported rather than granted amnesty because of his known gang connections, U.S. immigration officials have conceded. Puhar, 19, was a runner-up in ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight