digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Pronuntiatio was the discipline of delivering speeches in Western classical rhetoric. It is the one of five canons of classical rhetoric (the others being inventio, dispositio, elocutio, and memoria) that concern the crafting and delivery of speeches. In literature the equivalent of ancient pronuntiatio is the recitation of epics (Aris. Po. 26.2.).[1]

As with memoria, the canon that dealt with the memorization of speeches, pronuntiatio was not extensively written about in Classical texts on rhetoric. Its importance declined even more, once the written word became the focus of rhetoric, although after the eighteenth century it again saw more interest in the works of men such as Gilbert Austin. In public speaking today, it may be somewhat over-emphasized, but that is probably more because other parts of rhetoric are downplayed.

Rhetoricians laid down guidelines on the use of the voice and gestures (actio) in the delivery of oratory. There were instructions on the proper modulation of the voice (volume and pitch), as well as the phrasing, pace, and emphasis of speech. Also covered were the physical aspects of oration: stance, gestures, posture, and facial expressions. There was also the concept of exercitatio (or practice exercises) that enabled speakers to both memorize their speeches and to practice their delivery.

This excerpt from Quintilian's Institutio oratoria provides an example of the types of advice provided by rhetoricians:

"The head, being the chief member of the body, has a corresponding importance in delivery, serving not merely to produce graceful effect, but to illustrate our meaning as well. To secure grace it is essential that the head should be carried naturally and erect. For a droop suggests humility, while if it be thrown back it seems to express arrogance, if inclined to one side it gives an impression of languor, while if it is held too stiffly and rigidly it appears to indicate a rude and savage temper." (Institutio oratoria, XI iii 68-69, translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb Classical Library, 1922)

While the content, structure, and style of oration were (and continue to be) the most important elements of oratory, there is no doubt that effective delivery enhances its persuasive power, and that poor delivery detracts greatly from its intended effect.

Delivery is based on the technology of the times. During Cicero's time, delivery was predominantly speaking. Written delivery developed because of the written language, and now delivery is both spoken and written. Technology has taken away the distinctions between written and oral delivery.

Written discourse did not become important until reading became more common. Because the ancients did not use punctuation, their writing consisted of one long stream of words called scriptio continua. During the editing process, modern rhetors must go through three stages: correctness rule, formatting, and presentation. Writers face more problems than speakers because they must be conscious of spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Punctuation is useful in written discourse because it marks the end of a thought and allows the reader to pause and process the information. Visual rhetoric focuses on images and how words function as images. The delivery of ocular demonstration is the use of words to produce mental images in the audience. Textual presentation allows the writer to grab the reader's attention before actually reading the text based on the appearance of the text. The invention of word processors has allowed writers to enhance the appearance of their text and use effects to put emphasis on certain words or thoughts. Delivery refers not only to written or spoken language, but also refers to photographs, paintings, or movies. From Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students by Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee, 3rd edition, Pearson Longman, 2004.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heinrich Lausberg, David E. Orton, R. Dean Anderson, Handbook of literary rhetoric: a foundation for literary study, BRILL, 1998, pp. 480

See also[edit]

Other forms[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronuntiatio — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
15 videos foundNext > 

Aristotle's Rhetoric Book 3 Part 1 Chapter 1

Summarizes Aristotle's Book I and Book II and introduces the term hypokrisis (pronuntiatio). Aristotle argues that voice should be used to most accurately re...

More hexameter: Pyramus and Thisbe

The tale of Pyramus and Thisbe in the original Latin, from Metamorphoses, book 4, verse 55-166, by Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid). While my previous movie serve...

JOHN HERBERT FOULDS - A WORLD REQUIEM.

Requiem - Pronuntiatio - Confessio - Jubilatio del A World Requiem de John Herbert Foulds Info http://requiemvision.blogspot.com/2008/04/foulds_20.html.

Absolute Bach Re-Invented

Bach Absolutely Re-Invented Johann Sebastian Bach may not be rolling in his grave after all when Absolute Ensemble performs a gussied up version of the famou...

Persueychon Open English - Comercial Perfume Pronunciation

"Persueychon" OpenEnglish.com - Propaganda Perfume Pronunciation"Persueychon" OpenEnglish.com - Propaganda Perfume Pronunciation"Persueychon" OpenEnglish.com...

Solamente una vez en latín - Lara/Pedraza

Carmen mexicensis Augustini Larae, "Solum semel" in lingua latina, traductio Arcturi Pedraceae; Augustinus Lara, noster "Schubertus mexicensis" est. Canción ...

Sound Practice: R and L sounds - English Pronunciation (Heather Hansen)

Visit http://englishpronunciationcourse.com to sign up for the FREE, 8-part Pronunciation Short Course. Hi, I'm Heather Hansen, Clear Speech Specialist at En...

The Rhythms of Latin Poetry: Hexameter

This is a reading of a short passage from Vergil's Aeneid (book 6, lines 836-853) in the restored classical pronunciation of Latin. This involves features su...

Learn English with this beautiful photo dictionary!

http:--www.onlinephotodictionary.com Improve your vocabulary, pronunciation AND spelling all at once! The Online Photo Dictionary is a very cool picture dict...

How to Say Pierce Brosnan

How to Say Pierce Brosnan or How to pronounce Pierce Brosnan correctly.

15 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Pronuntiatio" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Pronuntiatio

You can talk about Pronuntiatio with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!