digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithvi Raj Chauhan (Edited).jpg
Statue of Prithviraj Chauhan at Ajmer
Born 1149
Died 1192 (aged 43)
Nationality Indian
Other names Prithvi Raj III
Known for 12th-century king of Ajmer and Delhi

Prithvi Raj III, commonly known as Prithviraj Chauhan (1149–1192 CE), was a king of the rajput Chauhan dynasty, who ruled the kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.

Prithviraj Chauhan belonged to the Rajput Chauhan clan and was the last independent Hindu king, before Hemu, to sit upon the throne of Delhi. He succeeded to the throne in 1169 CE at the age of 20, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi which he received from his maternal grandfather, Arkpal or Anangpal III of the rajput Tomara dynasty in Delhi. He controlled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, and unified the Rajputs against Turkic invasions. His elopement in 1175 with Samyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jai Chandra Rathod, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Chauhan's court poet and friend, Chand Bardai.

Chauhan defeated Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. Ghauri attacked for a second time the following year, whereupon Chauhan was defeated, captured at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192) and executed.

Biography[edit]

Prithviraj Chauhan's succession was not secure since the death of Vigraha Raja in 1165. Prithviraj re-consolidated control over the Chauhan kingdom and conquered several neighbouring kingdoms, making the Chauhan kingdom the dominant kingdom in northern India. He campaigned against the Chandela Rajputs of Bundelkhand. His kingdom included much of present-day northwest India including Rajasthan, Haryana, parts of Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab. The princely state of Nabha had close relations with Chauhan.

Coin minted in Ajmer of Prithivi Raj Chauhan of Ajmer/Delhi, circa 1179–1192 CE.
Obv: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right. Devnagari legends: Sri Pr/Thvi Raja Deva
Rev: Recumbent bull facing left, trishula on bull's rump. Devnagari legends: Asavari/Sri Samanta Deva

Lineage[edit]

"File-Turning point of Indian History

Anangpal Tomar II, the king of Delhi, had two daughters, Roopsundari and Kamaladevi. Roopsundari was married to Vijaypal, king of Kannauj, and had a son named Jai Chandra. Jai Chandra's daughter was named Samyukta. Kamaladevi was married to Someshwar Chauhan, the king of Ajmer, and had a son, Prithviraj, and a daughter, Pratha. Prithviraj married Samyukta, and Pratha was married to Samar Singh, Maharana of Chittor. His uncle Kanha Chauhan's daughter was married to Raja Pajawan of Amber.

Early battles[edit]

The battle against Bhimdev Solanki of Gujarat[edit]

Bhimdev I was the ruler of Patan, Gujarat. Prior to this battle, Chauhan had killed many of Bhimdev's generals. During this battle Bhimdev's son, Vanraj Solanki, was seen as a real danger due to his military tactics. A general who served Someshwar had betrayed Prithviraj and had joined Bhimdev. He had given information to Bhimdev and had poisoned Chauhan's army, which was reduced to 300 men. Bhimdev's first round of combat was to send 500 soldiers to finish off Chauhan's army. When this failed, Bhimdev sent 1,000 soldiers to attack in the middle of the night. On the final day, Bhimdev himself clashed with Chauhan's sword and was defeated.

The battle against Mahoba[edit]

Some soldiers from Delhi were injured in Digvijay and decided to stop at the Mahoba royal gardens to ask for help. The Guards there told the soldiers that they had insulted the Mahoba king Parmar by stepping into his garden and attacked and killed the men. Chauhan learned of this and declared war on Mahoba. During the battle the Mahoban army was split into three different sections. One was led by the Prince of Mahoba, while the other two were led by the brothers Alha and Udal. Chauhan defeated the sections under Udal and the Prince of Mahoba. Udal had injured Pundir, a friend and general of Chauhan, in combat. Udal was killed by Chauhan, who was badly injured and could hardly move. Prithviraj and Sanjham Rai, who was also badly injured, fell down a nearby hill and were left to be eaten by vultures. Sanjham Rai, in an attempt to save his friend Chauhan, allowed the birds to feed on him and not on Prithviraj. Chauhan was saved by Sanjham Rai, who died a slow death. Alha, commander of the third section, had seen Chauhan fall. Alha was stopped from killing Chauhan by his guru, who explained that Alha only wanted to kill to avenge his brother Udal, and not for the welfare of the Mahoba State. When help arrived from another friend, Chand Bardai, Chauhan became unconscious. He woke in a hut in front of an alchemist, and was shocked and grieved to learn of the death of his friend.

Chauhan recovered from this battle and continued his conquests winning one kingdom after another.

  • One of Chauhan's minor battles was against King Raichand. King Raichand and some of the other neighbouring kings had seen Chauhan's injury. At a time when they knew he could not fight, they attacked. The generals and close friends of Chauhan guarded him. Some villagers also came to help fight off Raichand, who was killed in this battle.
  • Chauhan had claimed victory over forces in mountains, taking over the Kukada kingdom. He continued to take over kingdoms, extending his dominion in all four directions. His army continued these tactics for over four years.
  • The last battle of his victory march was against the king of Dariyagargh. Chauhan won the battle and decided to return to Delhi to celebrate his victory.

First Battle of Tarain, 1191[edit]

In 1191, Mu'izz al-Din captured the fortress of Bhatinda in East Punjab, leaving a garrison of 1200 men, which was located on the frontier of Prithiviraj Chauhan's domains.[1] Prithviraj marched to Bhatinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori) near the ancient town of Thanesar. The Ghurid army initiates battle by attacking with cavalry who launch arrows at the Rajput center. The forces of Prithviraj counter-attack from three sides and dominate the battle, pressuring the Ghurid army into a withdrawal. Meanwhile, Mu'izz al-Din is wounded in personal combat with Prithviraj's brother, Govind Tai.[2] Prithviraj succeeded in stopping the Ghurid advance towards Hindustan in the first battle of Tarain. He did not pursue Ghori's army either not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori's ambition,[3] instead electing to retake the fortress of Bhatinda.[4]

Second Battle of Tarain, 1192[edit]

The last stand of Rajputs against Muhammadans in 1192 A.D

In 1192, Ghori reassembled an army of 120,000 men and returned to challenge Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to demand surrender but Chauhan refused to comply. Chauhan then appealed to his fellow Rajput rulers and the aristocracy to come to his aid against Ghori.[5]

Chauhan assembled a very large army with the aid of approximately 150 Rajput rulers and aristocrats. According to the Persian historian Firishta, it consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 horsemen, and considerable infantry. The army was larger than that of Ghori. The armies met in Tarain, where Ghori delivered an ultimatum to Chauhan that he convert to Islam or be defeated. Chauhan countered with an offer that Ghori should consider a truce and be allowed to retreat with his army. Ghori decided to attack.[6]

Ghori divided his troops into five parts and attacked in the early morning hours, sending waves of mounted archers. They retreated as the Chauhan elephant phalanx advanced. Ghori deployed four parts to attack the Rajputs on four sides, keeping a fifth part of his army in reserve. General Khande Rao of the Chauhan forces was killed. At dusk, Ghori himself led a force of 12,000 heavily armored horsemen to the centre of the Rajput line, which collapsed into confusion. Chauhan attempted to escape but was captured. The Rajput army broke ranks and fled, thereby conceding victory to Ghori.[7] Chauhan was put to death.[8]

Legacy[edit]

Even today Afghans vent their anger by stabbing on the grave of Chauhan because according to them Prithviraj had killed Ghori.[9][10] Sher Singh Rana, a member of Rajput community, visited Afghanistan to trace grave of Prithviraj Chauhan, he dug Chauhan's "grave" and collected sand from it. This incident created sensation in Indian news and public media – as he said he did it to get back India's pride & respect.[11][12]

Folklore[edit]

In traditional Folklore namely Prithviraj Raso by Chand Bardai, the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj with the help of Chadravardai and afterwards they killed each other [13] but which is not borne out by historical documents.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. I, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 263.
  2. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. I, 263.
  3. ^ Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526), (Har-Anand Publications, 2006), 25.
  4. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. I, 263.
  5. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526). 
  6. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. p. 22. 
  7. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. pp. 22–26. 
  8. ^ Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780803213449. 
  9. ^ ‘Prithviraj grave in Afghanistan’(Archived), (Original)
  10. ^ Prithviraj Chauhan relics transfer sought
  11. ^ Leander Paes Ashmit Patel & Ritupurna Sengupta Part Of Film 'The End Of Bandit Queen'
  12. ^ Phoolan murder accused held again
  13. ^ Prithviraj, a valorous hero par excellence, has been depicted in the lofty style which has been a source of inspiration to and influence on the North-Indian people. Krishnadatt Paliwal (1988) "Epic (Hindi)" In Datta, Amaresh (1988) The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature: Volume Two: Devraj to Jyoti, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, India, page 1178, ISBN 81-260-1194-7
  14. ^ Kaviraj Syamaldas (1886) "The Antiquity, Authenticity and Genuineness of the epic called the Prithviraj Rasa and commonly ascribed to Chand Bardai" Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 55, pt.1,

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prithviraj_Chauhan — Please support Wikipedia.
A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
20054 videos foundNext > 

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 92 : Prithviraj is severely injured by a stranger

Prithviraj prepares a list of pilgrims but sanyogita tears it as he didn't help her earlier. Prithviraj's friends decide to teach a lesson to Sanyogita. Prit...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 35 : Prithviraj wins the blindfold archery challenge against Kaal

The Chief of the bandit decides to teach blindfold archery to Prithviraj after he analyses his commitment towards it. Someshwar encourages his troop to fight...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 169 : Prithviraj kills Bhimdev in the battle

Sanyogita dreams about Prithviraj and takes his name. Prithviraj dreams about Sanyogita and is worried about her. Prithviraj gets a note from Bhimdev that he...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 182 : Prithviraj brings the medicine and saves Suraj

Prithviraj comes with the medicine and saves Suraj. Sarkar searches for Prithviraj to kill him. ""Bade Guruji"" tells Sanyogita about the rules of the reside...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 382 : Prithviraj kills Mohammed Ghori

Chand tells Mohammed Ghori, Prithviraj can shoot arrows by hearing the sound alone. Sanyogita reads Prithviraj's message. Prithviraj refuses to obey the sold...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 1 : Kamalavati conceives and Someshwar is excited

Invaders plan to conquer the city of Ajmer in three days. Someshwar and Kamalavati are worried of not having an heir for the Chauhan dynasty.They offer praye...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 194 : Prithviraj's soldiers reach the city of Mahoba

Prithviraj and his soldiers try to climb the mountain but get injured. In spite of getting injured the soldiers do not leave courage and climb the mountain a...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 114 : Sanyogita tells Chamki that she loves Surya

Shera protects Surya (Prithviraj) while replacing "Shivling" from the temple. Sanjam, Chand, Pundir and Arjun misunderstand Shera and hit him. Priest start w...

YouTube Prithviraj Chauhan 25th May 07 Part 1

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 211 : Prithviraj kills Udal and defeats his enemy

Prithviraj fights Udal with his bare hands. Vikram brings food for Sanyogita but she refuses then he threatens her that he will hurt the children so Sanyogit...

20054 videos foundNext > 

47 news items

Calcutta Telegraph

Calcutta Telegraph
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 14:00:00 -0700

India's pluralism can perhaps boast of no greater symbol than the shrine to Sufi saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, standing in the city of Prithviraj Chauhan, the last Hindu king to rule Delhi before Muhammad of Ghori's conquest of India. While Pilot's ...

NDTV

Emirates 24/7
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 20:00:00 -0700

During the buzzer round, Karan asked who is the President of India to which Varun Dhawan asnwered 'Manmohan Singh' (the Prime Minister) and Alia asnwered 'Prithviraj Chauhan' (a state Chief Minister). And Alia is a serial offender. Ones proving her GK ...
 
Emirates 24/7
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 20:27:59 -0700

During the buzzer round, Karan asked who is the President of India to which Varun Dhawan asnwered 'Manmohan Singh' (the Prime Minister) and Alia asnwered 'Prithviraj Chauhan' (a state Chief Minister). And Alia is a serial offender. Ones proving her GK ...

MensXP.com

MensXP.com
Sat, 12 Apr 2014 04:03:45 -0700

For instance, how Salman Khan is actually virgin or how Alia Bhatt is definitely not 'student of the year' (Prithviraj Chauhan the president of India? Seriously?). Recently, who should appear on the show was tinsel town's own fashionable diva, Sonam ...

Hindustan Times

Hindustan Times
Sat, 12 Apr 2014 07:40:11 -0700

Varun Dhawan and Alia Bhatt, for saying that Manmohan Singh / Prithviraj Chauhan is the President of India. Go back to school, right now! http://www.hindustantimes.com/Images/popup/2014/ Hasna mana hai. Kajol. Why, oh why, and what IS with that ...

Niticentral

Niticentral
Sun, 13 Apr 2014 06:02:49 -0700

These claims are reinforced by a statement by the current Chief Minister of Maharashtra (Prithviraj Chauhan) who was previously a Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office, who has revealed that in 2009, Manmohan Singh never wanted to the Prime ...

Daily News & Analysis

Daily News & Analysis
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 18:41:15 -0700

2. Kareena Kapoor is B-Town's gossip girl. Sonakshi even suggested that Kareena could consider being a gossip columnist as an alternate career option. 'Bitchy Bebo' could be good handle, no? 3. Alia Bhatt thinks Prithviraj Chauhan is the president of ...

Filmfare

Filmfare
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 00:41:15 -0700

I was a bit too excited at that time, and in my hurry I blurted out Prithviraj Chauhan instead of Manmohan Singh. It happens...” She quickly adds that she was a good student at school and her only weaknesses were science and math. Alia is a pet of Papa ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Prithviraj Chauhan

You can talk about Prithviraj Chauhan with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!