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This article is about ruler of the kingdom of Ajmer. For Chief Minister of Maharashtra State, see Prithviraj Chavan. For more information, see Prithviraj Chauhan (disambiguation).
Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithvi Raj Chauhan (Edited).jpg
Statue of Prithviraj Chauhan at Ajmer
King of Ajmer and Delhi
Reign 1165-1192 AD
Predecessor Anangpal Tomar II
Successor Muhammad of Ghor
Spouse Samyukta
Issue Kola Chauhan
Dynasty Chauhan
Father Someshwar Chauhan
Mother Karpuri Devi
Born 1149
Ajmer
Died 1192 (aged 43)
Taraori

Rai Pithora, commonly known as Prithviraj Chauhan (1149–1192 CE), was a king of the Chauhan dynasty, who ruled the kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.

Prithviraj Chauhan was the last independent Hindu king, before Hemu, to sit upon the throne of Delhi. He succeeded to the throne in 1169 CE at the age of 20, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi which he received from his maternal grandfather, Arkpal or Anangpal III of the Tomara dynasty in Delhi. He controlled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, and unified the Rajputs against Turkic invasions. His elopement in 1175 with Samyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jai Chandra Rathod, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Chauhan's court poet and friend, Chand Bardai.

Chauhan defeated Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. Ghauri attacked for a second time the following year, whereupon Chauhan was defeated, captured at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192) and executed.

Biography[edit]

First Battle of Tarain, 1191[edit]

Main article: Battles of Tarain

In 1191, Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori captured the fortress of Bhatinda in East Punjab, leaving a garrison of 1200 men, which was located on the frontier of Prithiviraj Chauhan's domains. Prithviraj marched to Bhatinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori) near the ancient town of Thanesar. The Ghurid army initiated battle by attacking with cavalry who launch arrows at the Rajput center. The forces of Prithviraj counter-attacked from three sides and dominated the battle, pressuring the Ghurid army into a withdrawal. Meanwhile, Mu'izz al-Din was wounded in personal combat with Prithviraj's brother, Govind Tai.[1] Prithviraj succeeded in stopping the Ghurid advance towards Hindustan in the first battle of Tarain. He did not pursue Ghori's army either not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori's ambition,[2] instead electing to retake the fortress of Bhatinda.[1]

Second Battle of Tarain, 1192[edit]

The last stand of Rajputs against Muhammadans in 1192 A.D

In 1192, Ghori reassembled an army of 120,000 men and returned to challenge Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to demand surrender but Chauhan refused to comply. Chauhan then appealed to his fellow Rajput rulers and the aristocracy to come to his aid against Ghori.[2]

Chauhan assembled a very large army with the aid of approximately 150 Rajput rulers and aristocrats. According to the Persian historian Firishta, it consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 horsemen, and considerable infantry. The army was larger than that of Ghori. The armies met in Tarain, where Ghori delivered an ultimatum to Chauhan that he convert to Islam or be defeated. Chauhan countered with an offer that Ghori should consider a truce and be allowed to retreat with his army. Ghori decided to attack.[2]

Ghori divided his troops into five parts and attacked in the early morning hours, sending waves of mounted archers. They retreated as the Chauhan elephant phalanx advanced. Ghori deployed four parts to attack the Rajputs on four sides, keeping a fifth part of his army in reserve. General Khande Rao of the Chauhan forces was killed. At dusk, Ghori himself led a force of 12,000 heavily armored horsemen to the centre of the Rajput line, which collapsed into confusion. Chauhan attempted to escape but was captured. The Rajput army broke ranks and fled, thereby conceding victory to Ghori.[2] Chauhan was put to death.[3]

Legacy[edit]

Even today Afghans vent their anger by stabbing on the grave of Chauhan because according to them Prithviraj had killed Ghori.[4][5] Sher Singh Rana, a member of Rajput community, visited Afghanistan to trace grave of Prithviraj Chauhan, he dug Chauhan's "grave" and collected sand from it. This incident created sensation in Indian news and public media – as he said he did it to get back India's pride & respect.[6][7]

Folklore[edit]

Prithviraj Raso, a folkloric poem written by Chand Bardai, says that the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj with the help of Chadravardai and that afterwards they killed each other [8] but which is not borne out by historical documents.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. I, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 263.
  2. ^ a b c d Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526), Part 1, (Har-Anand Publications, 2006), 25.
  3. ^ Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780803213449. 
  4. ^ ‘Prithviraj grave in Afghanistan’(Archived), (Original)
  5. ^ Prithviraj Chauhan relics transfer sought
  6. ^ Leander Paes Ashmit Patel & Ritupurna Sengupta Part Of Film 'The End Of Bandit Queen'
  7. ^ Phoolan murder accused held again
  8. ^ Prithviraj, a valorous hero par excellence, has been depicted in the lofty style which has been a source of inspiration to and influence on the North-Indian people. Krishnadatt Paliwal (1988) "Epic (Hindi)" In Datta, Amaresh (1988) The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature: Volume Two: Devraj to Jyoti, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, India, page 1178, ISBN 81-260-1194-7
  9. ^ Kaviraj Syamaldas (1886) "The Antiquity, Authenticity and Genuineness of the epic called the Prithviraj Rasa and commonly ascribed to Chand Bardai" Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 55, pt.1,

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62777 videos foundNext > 

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 35 : Prithviraj wins the blindfold archery challenge against Kaal

The Chief of the bandit decides to teach blindfold archery to Prithviraj after he analyses his commitment towards it. Someshwar encourages his troop to fight...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 382 : Prithviraj kills Mohammed Ghori

Chand tells Mohammed Ghori, Prithviraj can shoot arrows by hearing the sound alone. Sanyogita reads Prithviraj's message. Prithviraj refuses to obey the sold...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 187 : Prithviraj vows not to break the trust of his people

In the Ashram Sanyogita decides to mend the kids as they are mischievous. Sooraj and Anusuiya escape from the village and reach at the place where Prithviraj...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 169 : Prithviraj kills Bhimdev in the battle

Sanyogita dreams about Prithviraj and takes his name. Prithviraj dreams about Sanyogita and is worried about her. Prithviraj gets a note from Bhimdev that he...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 92 : Prithviraj is severely injured by a stranger

Prithviraj prepares a list of pilgrims but sanyogita tears it as he didn't help her earlier. Prithviraj's friends decide to teach a lesson to Sanyogita. Prit...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 152 : Prithviraj comes to Sanyogita's hermitage as a sage

Prithviraj disguises as a sage and meets Sanyogita with his friends. Sanyogita is happy because she can go to the competition. The injured minister tells Bhi...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 161 : Gitanjali reveals to Vanraj about Prithviraj and his plan

Prithviraj leaves Gitanjali without hurting her. Sanyogita leaves the hermitage and goes to Kannauj. While Bhimdev is about to perform "puja", he gets the ne...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 211 : Prithviraj kills Udal and defeats his enemy

Prithviraj fights Udal with his bare hands. Vikram brings food for Sanyogita but she refuses then he threatens her that he will hurt the children so Sanyogit...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 1 : Kamalavati conceives and Someshwar is excited

Invaders plan to conquer the city of Ajmer in three days. Someshwar and Kamalavati are worried of not having an heir for the Chauhan dynasty.They offer praye...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 167 : Bhimdev's soldiers attack Prithviraj

Prithviraj explains his plan to his friends and the minister and decides to start their journey. Sanyogita is very sick and the ayurvedic doctor informs the ...

62777 videos foundNext > 

40 news items

Hindustan Times

Hindustan Times
Sat, 26 Jul 2014 12:41:15 -0700

In Maharashtra, CM Prithviraj Chauhan is under fire from his own party people for his style of functioning. What's more, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), an ally for the past 15 years, is upset with him and has been demanding his removal. The ...
 
afaqs
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 03:30:00 -0700

Some students have extended the hand to welcome Prithviraj Chauhan to visit the school. Albeit, change in WWI's status on can never demoralize the vigor amongst faculty, staff and students, we wish WWI all the best. As Subhash Ghai, the Chairman says, ...

Free Press Journal

Free Press Journal
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 19:37:30 -0700

Prithviraj Chauhan has refused to accept his resignation and proposes to discuss the matter with Sonia Gandhi soon. The Congress is also smugly confident that however desperate to get out, Rane has nowhere to go. The Shiv Sena loathes him because of ...

NDTV

NDTV
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 03:38:44 -0700

He has much the same demand - his target, Chief Minister Prithviraj Chauhan. Assam and Maharashtra are two of the 11 states where the Congress is still in power. In both states, the Congress performed poorly in the general elections, leaving the ...
 
Business Standard
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:56:39 -0700

The Haj House and Vande Mataram Hall to be constructed next to each other would be a symbol of national integration Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chauhan said. He said that the Vande Mataram Hall is to be constructed as a symbol of the ...
 
Oneindia Entertainment
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 09:41:15 -0700

On the eve of his 23rd birthday, let us know some unknown facts about this young, stylish and talented actor. Rajat, a Delhi boy started his career in acting at the age of 15 in the show 'Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan'. He received rave ...
 
Swans
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:48:45 -0700

... theaters in the hunt for Oscar winners, and shopping expeditions at the INA market, followed by Madras Hotel gluttony. I still remember the fragrance of Safdarjung and Prithviraj Chauhan Boulevards -- tree-lined; draping yellow, red, and blue ...
 
South China Morning Post
Sat, 12 Jul 2014 08:33:32 -0700

According to the 2006 book Indian Puppets, by Sampa Ghosh and Utpal K. Banerjee, the art form can be traced back to Delhi's 12th-century ruler Prithviraj Chauhan, who ordered the Bhats of Rajasthan to produce plays about his life. The word " bhat" is ...
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