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This article is about ruler of the kingdom of Ajmer. For Chief Minister of Maharashtra State, see Prithviraj Chavan. For more information, see Prithviraj Chauhan (disambiguation).
Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithvi Raj Chauhan (Edited).jpg
Statue of Prithviraj Chauhan at Ajmer
King of Ajmer and Delhi
Reign 1165-1192 AD
Predecessor Anangpal Tomar II
Successor Muhammad of Ghor
Born 1149
Ajmer
Died 1192 (aged 43)
Taraori
Spouse Rathore(Gaharwal) rani Samyukta
Dynasty Chauhan
Father Someshwar Chauhan
Mother Karpuri Devi

Rai Pithora, commonly known as Prithviraj Chauhan (1149–1192 CE), was a Rajput king of the Chauhan dynasty,[1] who ruled [2] the kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.

Prithviraj Chauhan was the last independent Hindu king, before Hemu, to sit upon the throne of Delhi. He succeeded to the throne in 1179 CE at the age of 13, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi which he received from his maternal grandfather, Arkpal or Anangpal III of the Tomara dynasty in Delhi. He controlled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, and unified the Hindu rulers against Turkic invasions. His elopement in 1175 with Samyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jaichand, the king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Chauhan's court poet and friend, Chand Bardai.

Chauhan defeated Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. Ghauri attacked for a second time the following year, whereupon Chauhan was defeated, captured at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192) and executed.

Biography[edit]

Battles against Hindu rulers[edit]

Prithviraj assumed the reigns of administration at the age of sixteen, and immediately began a process of vigorous expansion. Prithviraj's targets were the smaller states of Rajasthan, but his most famous expedition was against the Chandelas of Khajuraho and Mahoba. He gained a significant victory against the Chandelas under Paramardi (1165-1202) and was consequently able to acquire significant booty.[3]:23 Prithviraj then had a five-year struggle from 1182 against the Chaulakyas of Gujarat in which he was defeated by Bhima II. He then began a struggle with the Gahadvalas of Kanauj for control over Delhi and the upper Ganges doab. By leading so many military campaigns against his neighbours Prithviraj succeeded in isolating himself politically. This may have impacted him during his subsequent clash with Muhammad Ghori.[4]

First Battle of Tarain, 1191[edit]

Main article: Battles of Tarain

In 1191, Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori captured the fortress of Bhatinda in East Punjab, leaving a garrison of 1200 men, which was located on the frontier of Prithiviraj Chauhan's domains. Prithviraj marched to Bhatinda and met his enemy at Tarain (also called Taraori), near the ancient town of Thanesar. The Ghurid army initiated battle by attacking with cavalry who launched arrows at the Rajput centre. The forces of Prithviraj counter-attacked from three sides and dominated the battle, pressuring the Ghurid army into a withdrawal. Meanwhile, Mu'izz al-Din was wounded in personal combat with Prithviraj's brother, Govind Tai.[5] Prithviraj succeeded in stopping the Ghurid advance towards Hindustan in the first battle of Tarain but did not pursue Ghori's army, not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudge Ghori's ambition.[4] Instead, he retook the fortress of Bhatinda.[5]

Between the First and Second Battles of Tarain[edit]

Prithviraj seems to have treated the fight with Ghori as merely a frontier fight. This view is strengthened by the fact that Prithviraj made little preparations for any future clash with Ghori. The Prithviraj Raso accuses Prithviraj of neglecting the affairs of the state and of spending his time in merry making during this period (between the first and second battles of Tarain).[4]

Second Battle of Tarain, 1192[edit]

Second battle of Tarain

In 1192, Ghori reassembled an army of 120,000 men and returned to challenge Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain. According to the Persian historian Firishta, Prithviraj's army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 horsemen, and considerable infantry. This is most likely a gross exaggeration to emphasize the scale of the victory. [4]

Ghori divided his troops into five parts and attacked in the early morning hours, sending waves of mounted archers. They retreated as the Chauhan elephant phalanx advanced. Ghori deployed four parts to attack the Rajputs on four sides, keeping a fifth part of his army in reserve. General Khande Rao of the Chauhan forces was killed. At dusk, Ghori himself led a force of 12,000 heavily armored horsemen to the centre of the Rajput line, which collapsed into confusion. Chauhan attempted to escape but was captured. The Rajput army broke ranks and fled, thereby conceding victory to Ghori.[4] Chauhan was put to death.[4][6]

Folklore[edit]

Prithviraj Raso, a folkloric poem written by Chand Bardai, says that the death of Ghori (also referred to as Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad) was caused by Prithviraj with the help of Chadravardai and that afterwards they killed each other,[7] which is not borne out by historical documents.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ http://asi.nic.in/asi_books/8401.pdf
  3. ^ Sen, S.N., 2013, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Delhi: Primus Books, ISBN 9789380607344
  4. ^ a b c d e f Chandra, Satish (2006). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526) 1. Har-Anand Publications. p. 25. 
  5. ^ a b A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East 1. ABC-CLIO. 2010. p. 263. 
  6. ^ Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780803213449. 
  7. ^ Prithviraj, a valorous hero par excellence, has been depicted in the lofty style which has been a source of inspiration to and influence on the North-Indian people. Krishnadatt Paliwal (1988) "Epic (Hindi)" In Datta, Amaresh (1988) The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature: Volume Two: Devraj to Jyoti, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, India, page 1178, ISBN 81-260-1194-7
  8. ^ Kaviraj Syamaldas (1886) "The Antiquity, Authenticity and Genuineness of the epic called the Prithviraj Rasa and commonly ascribed to Chand Bardai" Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 55, pt.1,

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prithviraj_Chauhan — Please support Wikipedia.
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1698 news items

Daily Bhaskar

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Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:45:00 -0800

King Prithviraj Chauhan was in love with Samyukta, daughter of his rival, Jaichand of Kannauj. When Jaichand came to know about the blossoming love between his daughter and biggest rival, he humiliated King Prithviraj by arranging swayamvara for ...

Zee News

Zee News
Tue, 09 Feb 2016 23:38:53 -0800

Shaboddin Ghori visited Ajmer after defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan. He met Sufi saint named. Khwaja Moinoddin because he helped him to defeat Prithviraj Chauhan. He then destroyed one temple at Ajmer in two and half days and constructed one Mosque
 
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Tue, 09 Feb 2016 09:03:45 -0800

Dehradun Congress chief Prithviraj Chauhan told TOI, "In the last one month, we have stepped up our poll preparations. Congress members are meeting people from different sections of the society like lawyers and traders to collect their feedback on the ...

India Today

India Today
Tue, 19 Jan 2016 23:30:43 -0800

Rajat played Prithviraj Chauhan in Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan and is also seen as Akbar in serial Jodha Akbar. With Chandragupta Maurya, he would again be essaying a role that falls comfortably in his comfort zone--historical dramas.

I am in dna of India

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Mon, 08 Feb 2016 06:35:12 -0800

A senior MMRDA official said, "This project is in pipeline since former MMRDA chief, Prithviraj Chauhan had shown interest in connecting both the airports. We now have to prepare a DPR for the high-speed metro corridor, and once that is approved, the ...

Rajasthan Patrika

Rajasthan Patrika
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 22:45:33 -0800

अजमेर/निखिल शर्मा शौर्य के प्रतीक सम्राट पृथ्वीराज चौहान के नाम से अजमेर शहर की पहचान है उनका तारागढ़ पहाड़ी पर बनाया गया स्मारक पर्यटकों की उपेक्षा का दंश झेल रहा है। हालत यह है कि अजमेर ...

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Sat, 06 Feb 2016 00:38:16 -0800

Prithviraj Chauhan faced political betrayal and lost to Muhammad of Ghor (in Afghanistan). The Nawab of Bengal Siraj ud-Daulah was ditched by Mir Jafar and Mr. 'Clive of India' was gifted the first grand victory of the British on Indian soil almost on ...
 
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Tue, 09 Feb 2016 09:37:30 -0800

Dehradun Congress chief Prithviraj Chauhan told TOI, "In the last one month, we have stepped up our poll preparations. When contacted, state Congress chief Kishore Upadhyay said that the first meeting of state coordination committee for the 2017 ...
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