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This article is about ruler of the kingdom of Ajmer. For Chief Minister of Maharashtra State, see Prithviraj Chavan. For more information, see Prithviraj Chauhan (disambiguation).
Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithvi Raj Chauhan (Edited).jpg
Statue of Prithviraj Chauhan at Ajmer
King of Ajmer and Delhi
Reign 1165-1192 AD
Predecessor Anangpal Tomar II
Successor Muhammad of Ghor
Spouse Rathore(Gaharwal) rani Samyukta
Issue Govindraj,Akshay and Rensi and Jodhlakhan[1]
Dynasty Chauhan
Father Someshwar Chauhan
Mother Karpuri Devi
Born 1149
Ajmer
Died 1192 (aged 43)
Taraori

Rai Pithora, commonly known as Prithviraj Chauhan (1149–1192 CE), was a Rajput king of the Chauhan dynasty,[2] who ruled the kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.

Prithviraj Chauhan was the last independent Hindu king, before Hemu, to sit upon the throne of Delhi. He succeeded to the throne in 1179 CE at the age of 13, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi which he received from his maternal grandfather, Arkpal or Anangpal III of the Tomara dynasty in Delhi. He controlled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, and unified the Rajputs against Turkic invasions. His elopement in 1175 with Samyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jai Chandra Rathod, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Chauhan's court poet and friend, Chand Bardai.

Chauhan defeated Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. Ghauri attacked for a second time the following year, whereupon Chauhan was defeated, captured at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192) and executed.

Biography[edit]

First Battle of Tarain, 1191[edit]

Main article: Battles of Tarain

In 1191, Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori captured the fortress of Bhatinda in East Punjab, leaving a garrison of 1200 men, which was located on the frontier of Prithiviraj Chauhan's domains. Prithviraj marched to Bhatinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori) near the ancient town of Thanesar. The Ghurid army initiated battle by attacking with cavalry who launched arrows at the Rajput center. The forces of Prithviraj counter-attacked from three sides and dominated the battle, pressuring the Ghurid army into a withdrawal. Meanwhile, Mu'izz al-Din was wounded in personal combat with Prithviraj's brother, Govind Tai.[3] Prithviraj succeeded in stopping the Ghurid advance towards Hindustan in the first battle of Tarain. He did not pursue Ghori's army either not wanting to invade hostile territory or misjudging Ghori's ambition,[4] instead electing to retake the fortress of Bhatinda.[3]

Second Battle of Tarain, 1192[edit]

Second battle of Tarain

In 1192, Ghori reassembled an army of 120,000 men and returned to challenge Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain. When he reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to demand surrender but Chauhan refused to comply. Chauhan then appealed to his fellow Rajput rulers and the aristocracy to come to his aid against Ghori.[4]

Chauhan assembled a very large army with the aid of approximately 150 Rajput rulers and aristocrats. According to the Persian historian Firishta, it consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 horsemen, and considerable infantry. The army was larger than that of Ghori. The armies met in Tarain, where Ghori delivered an ultimatum to Chauhan that he convert to Islam or be defeated. Chauhan countered with an offer that Ghori should consider a truce and be allowed to retreat with his army. Ghori decided to attack.[4]

Ghori divided his troops into five parts and attacked in the early morning hours, sending waves of mounted archers. They retreated as the Chauhan elephant phalanx advanced. Ghori deployed four parts to attack the Rajputs on four sides, keeping a fifth part of his army in reserve. General Khande Rao of the Chauhan forces was killed. At dusk, Ghori himself led a force of 12,000 heavily armored horsemen to the centre of the Rajput line, which collapsed into confusion. Chauhan attempted to escape but was captured. The Rajput army broke ranks and fled, thereby conceding victory to Ghori.[4] Chauhan was put to death.[5]

Legacy[edit]

Even today Afghans vent their anger by stamping on the grave of Chauhan because according to them Prithviraj had killed Ghori.[6][7] 5th Descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan was Hammir Dev Chauhan ruled over Ranthambore. After his defeat in 1301 by Alauddin Khilji. His direct descendants ruled over Bhaddaiyan Raj and Mainpuri.[8][9]

Folklore[edit]

Prithviraj Raso, a folkloric poem written by Chand Bardai, says that the death of Ghori (also referred to as Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad) was caused by Prithviraj with the help of Chadravardai and that afterwards they killed each other,[10] which is not borne out by historical documents.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ a b A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. I, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 263.
  4. ^ a b c d Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526), Part 1, (Har-Anand Publications, 2006), 25.
  5. ^ Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780803213449. 
  6. ^ ‘Prithviraj grave in Afghanistan’(Archived), (Original)
  7. ^ .Prithviraj Chauhan relics transfer sought
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ .[3]
  10. ^ Prithviraj, a valorous hero par excellence, has been depicted in the lofty style which has been a source of inspiration to and influence on the North-Indian people. Krishnadatt Paliwal (1988) "Epic (Hindi)" In Datta, Amaresh (1988) The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature: Volume Two: Devraj to Jyoti, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, India, page 1178, ISBN 81-260-1194-7
  11. ^ Kaviraj Syamaldas (1886) "The Antiquity, Authenticity and Genuineness of the epic called the Prithviraj Rasa and commonly ascribed to Chand Bardai" Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. 55, pt.1,

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prithviraj_Chauhan — Please support Wikipedia.
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38723 videos foundNext > 

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 169 : Prithviraj kills Bhimdev in the battle

Sanyogita dreams about Prithviraj and takes his name. Prithviraj dreams about Sanyogita and is worried about her. Prithviraj gets a note from Bhimdev that he...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 35 : Prithviraj wins the blindfold archery challenge against Kaal

The Chief of the bandit decides to teach blindfold archery to Prithviraj after he analyses his commitment towards it. Someshwar encourages his troop to fight...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 170 : Sanyogita and Prithviraj meet each other

Sanyogita's grandmother sees Sanyogita celebrating Prithviraj's victory and tells her to welcome Prithviraj and congratulate him on his victory. Prithviraj c...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 60 : Prithviraj defeats Ugrasen

The guard mixes a medicine in Prithviraj's food to defeat him in the fight. Kalyani in concerned about Prithviraj as he is fights for her position in the pal...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 371 : Raja Jaichand fights Prithviraj

Prithviraj remembers what Guruji said to him and heads to the battlefield with his army. The battle begins. Raja Jaichand's spies see Prithviraj's soldiers i...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 295 : Prithviraj battles and beat up Sultan Mohammad Ghori

Sultan Mohammad Ghori takes the children hostage and threatens the villagers to fight against their King Prithviraj. Prithviraj challenges Sultan Mohammad Gh...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 92 : Prithviraj is severely injured by a stranger

Prithviraj prepares a list of pilgrims but sanyogita tears it as he didn't help her earlier. Prithviraj's friends decide to teach a lesson to Sanyogita. Prit...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 1 : Kamalavati conceives and Someshwar is excited

Invaders plan to conquer the city of Ajmer in three days. Someshwar and Kamalavati are worried of not having an heir for the Chauhan dynasty.They offer praye...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 83 : Prithviraj gets the fourth piece of the stone

Prithviraj and his friends come to Nagaur to find Mohini who has the fourth piece of stone that can lead them to the treasure. A family mistakes Prithviraj a...

Dharti Ka Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan - Episode 382 : Prithviraj kills Mohammed Ghori

Chand tells Mohammed Ghori, Prithviraj can shoot arrows by hearing the sound alone. Sanyogita reads Prithviraj's message. Prithviraj refuses to obey the sold...

38723 videos foundNext > 

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After Prithviraj Chauhan died in the second Battle of Tarain, Delhi became the capital city of the Delhi Sultanate. For 300 years, the Mamluk, Khilji, Tughlaq, Sayyid and Lodi dynasties ruled north and northwestern India from Delhi. The Moghuls who ...

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