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In academic publishing, a preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Role[edit]

Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, because manuscripts must undergo extensive reviewer critique. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scientific community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. They may be considered as grey literature. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.

Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.

Stages of printing[edit]

While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. Both the preprint and postprint may differ from the final published version of an article. Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.[1]

The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of peer-reviewed journals, such as EBSCOhost), or from eprints self-archived by their authors in their institutional repositories.

Tenure and promotion[edit]

In academia, preprints are not likely to be weighed heavily when a scholar is evaluated for tenure or promotion, unless the preprint becomes the basis for a peer-reviewed publication.

Preprint server by research field[edit]

arXiv – physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology and finance, statistics[edit]

Main article: arXiv

The e-print archive arXiv.org (pronounced like "archive") was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints. In 2001, arXiv.org moved to Cornell University and now encompasses the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. Within the field of high-energy physics, the posting of preprints on arXiv is so common that many peer-reviewed journals allow submission of papers from arXiv directly, using the arXiv e-print number.

In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals. In his column in Physics Today, April 1992, David Mermin described Ginsparg's creation as potentially "string theory's greatest contribution to science".

bioRxiv – biology[edit]

Main article: bioRxiv

bioRxiv is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process for offensive and/or non-scientific content but do not undergo a peer review process.[2]

Nature Precedings – biology, medicine, chemistry, earth science[edit]

Main article: Nature Precedings

Nature Precedings was a free electronic repository for preprints of scientific manuscripts, posters, and unpublished observations. It was operated from 2007–2012 by Nature Publishing Group.

PeerJ PrePrints – biology, medicine, health sciences[edit]

Main article: PeerJ

PeerJ PrePrints is a free preprint server operated by PeerJ. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process but are not peer-reviewed. Commenting is allowed by any registered user, and download and pageview data are supplied. All articles are published with a CC-BY license.[3]

Philica – any fields[edit]

See also Open peer review

Sciencepaper Online – any fields[edit]

Sciencepaper Online[4] is a website approved by the Ministry of Education (China) and under the administration of the Center for Science and Technology Development of the Ministry.

Social Science Research Network – social science and humanities[edit]

The Social Science Research Network is a repository for both working papers and accepted papers, which shows download and citation data within the site for each stored paper.

Computer preprints[edit]

The ability to distribute manuscripts as preprints has had a great impact on computer science, particularly in the way that scientific research is disseminated in that field (see CiteSeer). The open access movement has tended to focus on distributed institutional collections of research, global harvesting, and aggregation through search engines and gateways such as OAIster, rather than a global discipline base such as arXiv. E-prints can now refer to any electronic form of a scholarly or scientific publication, including journal articles, conference papers, research theses or dissertations, because these usually are found in multidisciplinary collections, called open access repositories, or eprints archives.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Self-archiving FAQ". EPrints.
  2. ^ http://biorxiv.org/about-biorxiv
  3. ^ http://peerj.com/preprints
  4. ^ http://www.paper.edu.cn/

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preprint — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

4460 news items

 
Nature.com
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 10:06:23 -0700

Nevertheless, he compares our work unfavourably to a paper by the Fermi-LAT and Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaborations, who calculate a larger probability of background fluctuation (see preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.02632; 2015 and A.

physicsworld.com

physicsworld.com
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:46:51 -0700

... to close more exotic loopholes such as "freedom of choice", whereby unbeknown to the experimentalist the design of the experiment is somehow limited in a way that boosts the measured correlations. The experiment is described in a preprint on arXiv.

Science /AAAS

Science /AAAS
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 11:24:17 -0700

Hanson declined to discuss the paper, which is posted on the arXiv preprint server, as it's under review at an undisclosed journal. The experiment involves a concept called entanglement. Consider an electron. Like a top, it can spin in one direction ...

Phys.Org

Phys.Org
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:37:30 -0700

A PDF of the preprint is available on request. The study was conducted by researchers at Dartmouth College and the University of Colorado-Boulder. Colony collapse disorder among bees has drawn much attention in recent years, but parasites are a ...

National Geographic

National Geographic
Mon, 31 Aug 2015 12:09:11 -0700

We also have a preprint out with some of my students on a tooth found last year and several students are currently engaged in writing up other new discoveries, including other first occurrences and a new taxon. One of my students is the first author on ...

Science Now

Science Now
Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:15:47 -0800

New analyses of the hundreds of thousands of technical manuscripts submitted to arXiv, the repository of digital preprint articles, are offering some intriguing insights into the consequences—and geography—of scientific plagiarism. It appears that ...

Wall Street Journal

Wall Street Journal
Tue, 18 Aug 2015 17:49:35 -0700

“We have shifted investments from preprint to other channels, like digital, social and radio,” said Will Setliff, Kohl's executive vice president of marketing. Mr. Setliff said the approach allowed Kohl's to tailor its marketing to customer preferences ...

h+ Magazine

h+ Magazine
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:48:45 -0700

2013. The Ghost in the Quantum Turing Machine. arXiv preprint arXiv:1306.0159. Aleksander, Igor and Barry Dunmall. 2003. Axioms and tests for the presence of minimal consciousness in agents I: preamble. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10(4–5):4–5.
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