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In academic publishing, a preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.


Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, because manuscripts must undergo extensive reviewer critique. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scientific community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. They may be considered as grey literature. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.

Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.

Stages of printing[edit]

While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. Both the preprint and postprint may differ from the final published version of an article. Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.[1]

The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of peer-reviewed journals, such as EBSCOhost), or from eprints self-archived by their authors in their institutional repositories.

Tenure and promotion[edit]

In academia, preprints are not likely to be weighed heavily when a scholar is evaluated for tenure or promotion, unless the preprint becomes the basis for a peer-reviewed publication.

Preprint server by research field[edit]

arXiv – physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology and finance, statistics[edit]

Main article: arXiv

The e-print archive arXiv.org (pronounced like "archive") was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints. In 2001, arXiv.org moved to Cornell University and now encompasses the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. Within the field of high-energy physics, the posting of preprints on arXiv is so common that many peer-reviewed journals allow submission of papers from arXiv directly, using the arXiv e-print number.

In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals. In his column in Physics Today, April 1992, David Mermin described Ginsparg's creation as potentially "string theory's greatest contribution to science".

bioRxiv – biology[edit]

Main article: bioRxiv

bioRxiv is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process for offensive and/or non-scientific content but do not undergo a peer review process.[2]

Nature Precedings – biology, medicine, chemistry, earth science[edit]

Main article: Nature Precedings

Nature Precedings was a free electronic repository for preprints of scientific manuscripts, posters, and unpublished observations. It was operated from 2007–2012 by Nature Publishing Group.

PeerJ PrePrints – biology, medicine, health sciences[edit]

Main article: PeerJ

PeerJ PrePrints is a free preprint server operated by PeerJ. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process but are not peer-reviewed. Commenting is allowed by any registered user, and download and pageview data are supplied. All articles are published with a CC-BY license. [3]

Philica – any fields[edit]

See also Open peer review

Sciencepaper Online – any fields[edit]

Sciencepaper Online[4] is a website approved by the Ministry of Education (China) and under the administration of the Center for Science and Technology Development of the Ministry.

Social Science Research Network – social science and humanities[edit]

The Social Science Research Network is a repository for both working papers and accepted papers, which shows download and citation data within the site for each stored paper.

Computer preprints[edit]

The ability to distribute manuscripts as preprints has had a great impact on computer science, particularly in the way that scientific research is disseminated in that field (see CiteSeer). The open access movement has tended to focus on distributed institutional collections of research, global harvesting, and aggregation through search engines and gateways such as OAIster, rather than a global discipline base such as arXiv. E-prints can now refer to any electronic form of a scholarly or scientific publication, including journal articles, conference papers, research theses or dissertations, because these usually are found in multidisciplinary collections, called open access repositories, or eprints archives.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Self-archiving FAQ". EPrints.
  2. ^ http://biorxiv.org/about-biorxiv
  3. ^ http://peerj.com/preprints
  4. ^ http://www.paper.edu.cn/

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preprint — Please support Wikipedia.
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256 news items


Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:30:07 -0700

(Phys.org) —A team of physicists led by Bruno Sanguinetti of the University of Geneva has found a way to use an ordinary smartphone as a true random number generator to provide secure communications. In their paper uploaded to the arXiv preprint ...
Yahoo News
Mon, 15 Sep 2014 10:17:39 -0700

A draft version of the paper can be read online at the preprint service arxiv.org. Follow Megan Gannon on Twitter and Google+. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook or Google+. Originally published on Space.com. 10 Exoplanets That Could Host Alien Life ...

Electric Co-op Today

Electric Co-op Today
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 18:41:15 -0700

The preprint is available from IEEE. The 100-year-old code has gone through lots of changes since its debut when the National Bureau of Standards, at the behest of Congress, published it. Over the years, the code has evolved to include guidelines for ...
Covington News
Sat, 13 Sep 2014 13:03:45 -0700

The News and Advertiser delivered to subscribers, in addition to the R.O.P. ads that already run in it, will contain our Wednesday preprint package; this will insure that our subscribers can keep with all of the sales and special offerings being made ...
Space Daily
Thu, 11 Sep 2014 10:15:00 -0700

(The research was published in Icarus and is also available in preprint version on Arxiv.) It is believed that Jupiter and Saturn formed before the Inner Solar System because they have so much gas inside of them. Similarly to the young Sun, these ...
Universe Today
Thu, 11 Sep 2014 06:41:15 -0700

“That's helpful to understanding the history between Venus and Earth.” A preprint version of the paper is available on the Arxiv website. The research has been accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. Source: San Francisco State ...

Supply & Demand Chain Executive

Supply & Demand Chain Executive
Tue, 09 Sep 2014 22:48:45 -0700

A major consumer brand with significant commercial preprint needs deployed Should-Cost Modeling to better understand potential supply options. The analysis revealed that their vendor's costs were more than 2x compared to other vendors in the industry.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer
Fri, 05 Sep 2014 08:33:45 -0700

We are currently at the start of an eight-month window for open commentary on the change proposals in the preprint of proposed changes for the 2017 edition of the NESC. Several of the proposed changes under consideration for the 2017 NESC include:.

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