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In academic publishing, a preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Role[edit]

Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, because manuscripts must undergo extensive reviewer critique. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scientific community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. They may be considered as grey literature. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.

Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.

Stages of printing[edit]

While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. Both the preprint and postprint may differ from the final published version of an article. Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.[1]

The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of peer-reviewed journals, such as EBSCOhost), or from eprints self-archived by their authors in their institutional repositories.

Tenure and promotion[edit]

In academia, preprints are not likely to be weighed heavily when a scholar is evaluated for tenure or promotion, unless the preprint becomes the basis for a peer-reviewed publication.

Preprint server by research field[edit]

arXiv – physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology and finance, statistics[edit]

Main article: arXiv

The e-print archive arXiv.org (pronounced like "archive") was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints. In 2001, arXiv.org moved to Cornell University and now encompasses the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. Within the field of high-energy physics, the posting of preprints on arXiv is so common that many peer-reviewed journals allow submission of papers from arXiv directly, using the arXiv e-print number.

In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals. In his column in Physics Today, April 1992, David Mermin described Ginsparg's creation as potentially "string theory's greatest contribution to science".

bioRxiv – biology[edit]

Main article: bioRxiv

bioRxiv is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process for offensive and/or non-scientific content but do not undergo a peer review process.[2]

Nature Precedings – biology, medicine, chemistry, earth science[edit]

Main article: Nature Precedings

Nature Precedings was a free electronic repository for preprints of scientific manuscripts, posters, and unpublished observations. It was operated from 2007–2012 by Nature Publishing Group.

PeerJ PrePrints – biology, medicine, health sciences[edit]

Main article: PeerJ

PeerJ PrePrints is a free preprint server operated by PeerJ. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process but are not peer-reviewed. Commenting is allowed by any registered user, and download and pageview data are supplied. All articles are published with a CC-BY license. [3]

Philica – any fields[edit]

See also Open peer review

Sciencepaper Online – any fields[edit]

Sciencepaper Online[4] is a website approved by the Ministry of Education (China) and under the administration of the Center for Science and Technology Development of the Ministry.

Social Science Research Network – social science and humanities[edit]

The Social Science Research Network is a repository for both working papers and accepted papers, which shows download and citation data within the site for each stored paper.

Computer preprints[edit]

The ability to distribute manuscripts as preprints has had a great impact on computer science, particularly in the way that scientific research is disseminated in that field (see CiteSeer). The open access movement has tended to focus on distributed institutional collections of research, global harvesting, and aggregation through search engines and gateways such as OAIster, rather than a global discipline base such as arXiv. E-prints can now refer to any electronic form of a scholarly or scientific publication, including journal articles, conference papers, research theses or dissertations, because these usually are found in multidisciplinary collections, called open access repositories, or eprints archives.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Self-archiving FAQ". EPrints.
  2. ^ http://biorxiv.org/about-biorxiv
  3. ^ http://peerj.com/preprints
  4. ^ http://www.paper.edu.cn/

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preprint — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

176 news items

Scientist

Scientist
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 21:14:35 -0700

They uploaded their report to the preprint server arXiv immediately and waited for a response from Science. Despite the new results, Wolfe-Simon and her colleagues stood by their conclusions and even denounced Redfield's approach. “We do not fully ...

Gizmodo

Gizmodo
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 14:22:30 -0700

(Their paper was uploaded to the preprint repository ArXiv, and the Physics ArXiv Blog has a wonderful write-up about it.) The seismometers couldn't actually detect any gravitational waves, but this lack of data was scientifically illuminating. We know ...

Science Codex

Science Codex
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 05:56:15 -0700

Shortly after Levin's group posted their results on the preprint server arXiv, the MIT researchers released their new results in a preprint, explaining that what they had seen were simple vortices—validating the UChicago theory. "We swam upstream in a ...

Culinary Backstreets

Culinary Backstreets
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 05:11:15 -0700

... you can skip the tiresome visa process and get a good feel for what Shanghai really has to offer. Remember, no matter how short your layover is, preprint (or download) each destination in Chinese characters to facilitate taking taxis or asking for ...

Science AAAS

Science AAAS
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:07:30 -0700

Although each method has distinct limitations, all but one yield similar results, the researchers report in a study posted to the arXiv preprint server earlier this year and updated this month. The number: 160 million indexed documents (plus or minus ...

bit-tech.net

bit-tech.net
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 02:58:51 -0700

... it is likely to be adopted sooner rather than later - but a lack of the technology is certainly not something that should put you off an SSD purchase in the next year or two. A preprint copy of the team's paper is available at the IEEE Computer ...

On Line opinion

On Line opinion
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 14:33:45 -0700

I read about it on Barry Brook's website, Brave New Climate, in an essay by John Morgan, which in turn relied on a paper by some German scientists, Weissbach et al, a preprint of which you can obtain from footnote 1 at the end of the essay. It is all ...

Christian Science Monitor

Christian Science Monitor
Tue, 23 Sep 2014 13:37:30 -0700

Detecting this polarization signal was a striking result, announced in a series of scientific talks and a press conference shortly after a preprint of the paper was posted online. Notice these last two points: announced at a press conference, and a ...
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