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In academic publishing, a preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Role[edit]

Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, because manuscripts must undergo extensive reviewer critique. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scientific community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. They may be considered as grey literature. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.

Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.

Stages of printing[edit]

While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. Both the preprint and postprint may differ from the final published version of an article. Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.[1]

The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of peer-reviewed journals, such as EBSCOhost), or from eprints self-archived by their authors in their institutional repositories.

Tenure and promotion[edit]

In academia, preprints are not likely to be weighed heavily when a scholar is evaluated for tenure or promotion, unless the preprint becomes the basis for a peer-reviewed publication.

Preprint server by research field[edit]

arXiv – physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology and finance, statistics[edit]

Main article: arXiv

The e-print archive arXiv.org (pronounced like "archive") was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints. In 2001, arXiv.org moved to Cornell University and now encompasses the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. Within the field of high-energy physics, the posting of preprints on arXiv is so common that many peer-reviewed journals allow submission of papers from arXiv directly, using the arXiv e-print number.

In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals. In his column in Physics Today, April 1992, David Mermin described Ginsparg's creation as potentially "string theory's greatest contribution to science".

bioRxiv – biology[edit]

Main article: bioRxiv

bioRxiv is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process for offensive and/or non-scientific content but do not undergo a peer review process.[2]

Nature Precedings – biology, medicine, chemistry, earth science[edit]

Main article: Nature Precedings

Nature Precedings was a free electronic repository for preprints of scientific manuscripts, posters, and unpublished observations. It was operated from 2007–2012 by Nature Publishing Group.

PeerJ PrePrints – biology, medicine, health sciences[edit]

Main article: PeerJ

PeerJ PrePrints is a free preprint server operated by PeerJ. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process but are not peer-reviewed. Commenting is allowed by any registered user, and download and pageview data are supplied. All articles are published with a CC-BY license. [3]

Philica – any fields[edit]

See also Open peer review

Sciencepaper Online – any fields[edit]

Sciencepaper Online[4] is a website approved by the Ministry of Education (China) and under the administration of the Center for Science and Technology Development of the Ministry.

Social Science Research Network – social science and humanities[edit]

The Social Science Research Network is a repository for both working papers and accepted papers, which shows download and citation data within the site for each stored paper.

Computer preprints[edit]

The ability to distribute manuscripts as preprints has had a great impact on computer science, particularly in the way that scientific research is disseminated in that field (see CiteSeer). The open access movement has tended to focus on distributed institutional collections of research, global harvesting, and aggregation through search engines and gateways such as OAIster, rather than a global discipline base such as arXiv. E-prints can now refer to any electronic form of a scholarly or scientific publication, including journal articles, conference papers, research theses or dissertations, because these usually are found in multidisciplinary collections, called open access repositories, or eprints archives.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Self-archiving FAQ". EPrints.
  2. ^ http://biorxiv.org/about-biorxiv
  3. ^ http://peerj.com/preprints
  4. ^ http://www.paper.edu.cn/

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preprint — Please support Wikipedia.
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137 news items

Science AAAS

Science AAAS
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 13:03:45 -0700

In more polygamous species, the transcriptome directs testicles to continue developing for longer after birth, researchers report this month in a study on the preprint server bioRxiv. In humans, testicle development starts later and ends earlier ...

Sudan Tribune

Sudan Tribune
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 22:52:58 -0700

NISS also imposed strict preprint censorship on al-Saiha newspaper, which it allowed to resume following a two-month suspension for publishing several stories on corruption cases within government institutions. Sudan's Journalists' Association for ...

Science 2.0

Science 2.0
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 06:50:37 -0700

The recent preprint by CMS discusses the measurement of parton distribution functions of the proton from the measurement of inclusive jet cross sections, and then uses the same data to determine the strong coupling constant at high values of energy ...

Phys.Org

Phys.Org
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 06:10:06 -0700

One such example was recently accepted in the journal Astrophysical Journal and is available now in a preprint version on Arxiv. The astronomers created models of planetary formation and then simulated atmospheric stripping, the process where a young ...

Stanly News & Press

Stanly News & Press
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 13:39:46 -0700

The researchers hope the study will bolster calls for redistricting reform in the 2016 election season. The study appears online this week on the preprint server arXiv. During the 2012 elections in North Carolina, Republicans took nine of the state's ...

Times Higher Education

Times Higher Education
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 17:00:00 -0700

Physics and mathematics subjects have seen the biggest change in publishing patterns, while publishing habits of scholars in the humanities, literature and the arts have changed the least, according to the research published on the arXiv preprint ...
 
MarketWatch
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 04:09:52 -0700

Strength in Preprint revenue is partially being driven by our successful Sunday Select program. New Media's Digital and Commercial Printing and Other businesses also contributed to the Company's strong revenue performance increasing 6.3% and 5.6%, ...
 
Seeking Alpha (registration)
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 19:03:45 -0700

Increases in digital revenue were offset by declines in display, preprint and classified advertising revenues of 19%, 8% and 8% respectively. Circulation revenue declined 2.6% over the prior year period primarily due to lower volumes and home delivery ...
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