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In academic publishing, a preprint is a draft of a scientific paper that has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Role[edit]

Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, because manuscripts must undergo extensive reviewer critique. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scientific community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. They may be considered as grey literature. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.

Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and to institutional repositories.

Stages of printing[edit]

While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. Both the preprint and postprint may differ from the final published version of an article. Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.[1]

The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of peer-reviewed journals, such as EBSCOhost), or from eprints self-archived by their authors in their institutional repositories.

Tenure and promotion[edit]

In academia, preprints are not likely to be weighed heavily when a scholar is evaluated for tenure or promotion, unless the preprint becomes the basis for a peer-reviewed publication.

Preprint server by research field[edit]

arXiv – physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology and finance, statistics[edit]

Main article: arXiv

The e-print archive arXiv.org (pronounced like "archive") was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints. In 2001, arXiv.org moved to Cornell University and now encompasses the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. Within the field of high-energy physics, the posting of preprints on arXiv is so common that many peer-reviewed journals allow submission of papers from arXiv directly, using the arXiv e-print number.

In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals. In his column in Physics Today, April 1992, David Mermin described Ginsparg's creation as potentially "string theory's greatest contribution to science".

bioRxiv – biology[edit]

Main article: bioRxiv

bioRxiv is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process for offensive and/or non-scientific content but do not undergo a peer review process.[2]

Nature Precedings – biology, medicine, chemistry, earth science[edit]

Main article: Nature Precedings

Nature Precedings was a free electronic repository for preprints of scientific manuscripts, posters, and unpublished observations. It was operated from 2007–2012 by Nature Publishing Group.

PeerJ PrePrints – biology, medicine, health sciences[edit]

Main article: PeerJ

PeerJ PrePrints is a free preprint server operated by PeerJ. All articles submitted undergo a basic screening process but are not peer-reviewed. Commenting is allowed by any registered user, and download and pageview data are supplied. All articles are published with a CC-BY license.[3]

Philica – any fields[edit]

See also Open peer review

Sciencepaper Online – any fields[edit]

Sciencepaper Online[4] is a website approved by the Ministry of Education (China) and under the administration of the Center for Science and Technology Development of the Ministry.

Social Science Research Network – social science and humanities[edit]

The Social Science Research Network is a repository for both working papers and accepted papers, which shows download and citation data within the site for each stored paper.

Computer preprints[edit]

The ability to distribute manuscripts as preprints has had a great impact on computer science, particularly in the way that scientific research is disseminated in that field (see CiteSeer). The open access movement has tended to focus on distributed institutional collections of research, global harvesting, and aggregation through search engines and gateways such as OAIster, rather than a global discipline base such as arXiv. E-prints can now refer to any electronic form of a scholarly or scientific publication, including journal articles, conference papers, research theses or dissertations, because these usually are found in multidisciplinary collections, called open access repositories, or eprints archives.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Self-archiving FAQ". EPrints.
  2. ^ http://biorxiv.org/about-biorxiv
  3. ^ http://peerj.com/preprints
  4. ^ http://www.paper.edu.cn/

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preprint — Please support Wikipedia.
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3417 news items

Science Now

Science Now
Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:15:47 -0800

New analyses of the hundreds of thousands of technical manuscripts submitted to arXiv, the repository of digital preprint articles, are offering some intriguing insights into the consequences—and geography—of scientific plagiarism. It appears that ...

Times Higher Education

Times Higher Education
Fri, 22 May 2015 06:55:14 -0700

The changes still allow researchers to share their work when it is at each stage of the publication process, for example the preprint, accepted manuscript and final publication stage. But Elsevier has now added specific guidelines about how papers can ...

NBCNews.com

NBCNews.com
Thu, 21 May 2015 16:03:01 -0700

Understanding the galaxy's formation will help shed light on the early history of the universe and set a precedent for studying similar objects. The report appears in the May 22 issue of The Astrophysical Journal, and can be read on the ArXiv preprint ...

Sci-News.com

Sci-News.com
Fri, 22 May 2015 03:30:00 -0700

... a resulting disk is visible could be only ten thousand years or less,” said Dr Jon Mauerhan of the University of California, Berkeley, lead author of the paper reporting the results in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (arXiv ...

The Scientist

The Scientist
Tue, 19 May 2015 07:30:40 -0700

Now, in a preprint published today (May 19) by F1000 Research, Gilad and his coauthor Orna Mizrahi-Man detailed how they reanalyzed the Mouse ENCODE data to reach this alternate conclusion. The researchers obtained raw data, analysis code, and ...

Scientific American

Scientific American
Mon, 05 Jan 2015 10:02:01 -0800

The popular preprint server arXiv.org, where physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists routinely upload manuscripts to publicly share their findings before peer review, now holds more than 1 million research articles. The repository, launched ...
 
Times Higher Education
Wed, 06 May 2015 16:07:23 -0700

And for those who preprint at PeerJ (that is, an “archive” site as mentioned by Colquhoun), editors can take preprint feedback into account for the peer-reviewed submission as well. There are still benefits to having peer review, but of course it must ...
 
Research Information (press release)
Thu, 21 May 2015 02:11:15 -0700

... and embedding final articles: We are testing a workflow in which a user's access level to the full text is checked on the fly, and if full text access is available, the user will be served the final published version, instead of the preprint or ...
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