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For the community known as Prajapati, see Kumhar.
An attempt to depict the creative activities of Prajapati, a steel engraving from the 1850s

In Hinduism, Prajapati (Sanskrit: प्रजापति (IAST: prajā-pati)) "lord of creatures" is a group Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protection of life. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the[1] Nasadiya Sukta.

Prajapati in Vedas[edit]

According to later beliefs in the post-Vedic Era, the Prajapaties were elected democratically. Lord Vishnu was first elected democratically/unanimously as Prajapati (in the North of Aryavarta or Bharta) by all the Rishis and subjects of that era and sat on the throne of Prajapati. Thereafter, Lord Bràhma was elected as Prajapati (in the west of Aryavrat or Bharta), after which Lord Shankar (in the South of Aryavrat or Bharta) or Rudras were elected as Prajapaties. The throne of Prajapati succeeded further and there were about 26 Prajapaties, as mentioned in the Vedas.

Prajapati is a Vedic deity presiding over procreation, and the protection of life. He appears as a creator deity or supreme god vishvakarman above the other Vedic deities in RV 10 and in Brahmana literature. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the Nasadiya Sukta.

In later times, he is identified with Vishnu, Shiva, with the personifications of Time, Fire, the Sun, etc. He is also identified with various mythical progenitors, especially (Manu Smrti 1.34) the ten lords of created beings first created by Brahmā, the Prajapatis Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Prachetas or Daksha, Bhrigu, Nārada.

The Mahabharata mentions, in the words of celestial sage Narada, 14 Prajapatis (lit:caretakers of the Praja) Hiranyagarbha is the source of the creation of the Universe or the manifested cosmos in Indian philosophy, it finds mention in one hymn of the Rigveda (RV 10.121), known as the 'Hiranyagarbha sukta' and presents an important glimpse of the emerging monism, or even monotheism, in the later Vedic period, along with the Nasadiya sukta suggesting a single creator deity predating all other gods (verse 8: yó devéṣv ádhi devá éka âsīt, Griffith: "He is the God of gods, and none beside him."), in the hymn identified as Prajapati.

The Upanishads calls it the Soul of the Universe or Brahman, and elaborates that Hiranyagarbha floated around in emptiness and the darkness of the non-existence for about a year, and then broke into two halves which formed the Swarga and the Prithvi. In classical Puranic Hinduism, Hiranyagarbha is a name of Brahma, so called because he was born from a golden egg (Manusmrti 1.9), while the Mahabharata calls it the Manifest.

Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 8.8.16 cites Vishvakarman as the leader of the prajāpatis, the sons of Lord Brahmā who generate progeny.[2] The eleven lords of created beings first created by Brahmā, which are the Prajapatis:

The Mahabharata mentions, in the words of celestial sage Narada, 14 Prajapatis (lit:caretakers of the Praja) excluding Vishvakarman namely:

  1. Daksha,
  2. Prachetas,
  3. Pulaha,
  4. Marichi,
  5. Kasyapa,
  6. Bhrigu,
  7. Atri,
  8. Vasistha,
  9. Gautama,
  10. Angiras,
  11. Pulastya,
  12. Kratu,
  13. Prahlada and
  14. Kardama

They are the caretakers of the fourteen worlds - seven lokas and seven talas.[4]

Origin of Prajapatis[edit]

The Prajapati community come brahmana warriors are seen as the descendants of Prajapati[citation needed]; Lord Brahmā, Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva and Maharaj Manu are considered Prajapaties. Prajapati also means protector & preserver (King).

The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883-1896), Book 2: Sabha Parva: Lokapala Sabhakhayana Parva, section:XI. p. 25 And Daksha, Prachetas, Pulaha, Marichi, the master Kasyapa, Bhrigu, Atri, and Vasistha and Gautama, and also Angiras, and Pulastya, Kraut, Prahlada, and Kardama, these Prajapatis, and Angirasa of the Atharvan Veda, the Valikhilyas, the Marichipas; Intelligence, Space, Knowledge, Air, Heat, Water, Earth, Sound, Touch, Form, Taste, Scent; Nature, and the Modes (of Nature), and the elemental and prime causes of the world,--all stay in that mansion beside the lord Brahma. And Agastya of great energy, and Markandeya, of great ascetic power, and Jamadagni and Bharadwaja, and Samvarta, and Chyavana, and exalted Durvasa, and the virtuous Rishyasringa, the illustrious 'Sanatkumara' of great ascetic merit and the preceptor in all matters affecting Yoga...

Possible equivalent[edit]

A possible connection between Prajapati (and related figures in Indian tradition) and the Prōtogonos (Greek: Πρωτογόνος) of the Greek Orphic tradition has been made by several scholars.[5][6]

It has been argued that the name of /PRA-JĀ[N]-pati/ ('progeny-potentate') is etymologically equivalent to that of the oracular god at Kolophōn (according to Makrobios[7]), namely /prōtogonos/.

According to Damascius, Prōtogonos (also known as Phanēs) had four heads, those of "a Serpent (Drakōn)... and a bull; a man, and a god,"[8] while in the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa Brahmā - identified with Prajapati in several texts - is likewise reckoned as 4-headed [one head each having produced deva-s (gods), ṛṣi-s (sages), pitṛ-s (ancestors), and nara-s (humans)].[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Vishvakarma – Architect of the Gods | Mamandram Magazine". Mamandram.org. 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  2. ^ http://vedabase.net/v/visvakarma "viśvakarmā prajāpatiḥ — Viśvakarmā, one of the prajāpatis, the sons of Lord Brahmā who generate progeny.; SB 8.8.16" http://vedabase.net/sb/8/8/16/, httpvedabase.net/v/visvakarma, Extracted on 09:49, 22 December 2010 (UTC)
  3. ^ Yajur veda 18-43 Prajapathirviswakarma mano gandharvasthasya ....
  4. ^ Narada said..
  5. ^ Martin West, Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1971: 28-34
  6. ^ Kate Alsobrook, "The Beginning of Time: Vedic and Orphic Theogonies and Poetics". M.A. thesis, Florida State University, 2007.
  7. ^ Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955. vol. 1, p. 31, sec. 2.2
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Julius Lipner : The Hindus. Routledge, 1994. p. 45

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1185 news items

Times of India
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 05:52:33 -0700

AHMEDABAD: The matter of two faculty members of the Gujarat University - Sarman Zala and Pradip Prajapati - will be decided in the syndicate meeting that is scheduled to take place in a couple of days. While three women professors have filed a police ...
Himalayan Times
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 12:18:45 -0700

Prajapati played one-under 32 on the front nine with the help of birdies on the third and sixth holes against a bogey on the second. On the back nine, Prajapati carded birdies on the 10th and 12th holes before dropping a shot on the 18th to finish the ...
Himalayan Times
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 12:30:00 -0700

Top amateur Prajapati, who is currently in the Asian Games camp, took the turn at even-par 33 before playing one-over 35 on the back nine. After carding a birdie on the fourth hole, Prajapati dropped a shot on the sixth to finish the front nine ...
Times of India
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 13:06:27 -0700

AHMEDABAD: Gujarat high court on Friday granted anticipatory bail to four persons who were wanted by the police in connection with the killing Amrut Prajapati, a former aide of Asaram, in Rajkot in June last. Prajapati was shot at by two motorcycle ...

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 15:03:31 -0700

For the last 10 years, Ripal Prajapati has been tying rakhi on Narendra Modi's wrist, on the occasion of Raksha Bandhan. And Prime Minister Modi's god sister is certain that it will be the same this year, even though Modi has moved in to Delhi to ...
Times of India
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 10:03:45 -0700

Thane: The city police's claims of rescuing minor Manju Prajapati from her abductor's custody in Navi Mumbai last month could open a Pandora's Box of 'flawed and hasty investigations' and pan out into an angry debate about the cops' methods to close ...

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 14:48:09 -0700

A widow has accused Uttar Pradesh Mining Minister Gayatri Prasad Prajapati of grabbing her land in Amethi, the Lok Sabha constituency of Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi. Shivdevi Gupta is on a dharna near the Mahatma Gandhi statue in Lucknow's ...
Times of India
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 21:07:30 -0700

VADODARA: Aashirwad Ganesh, one of the richest Ganpatis in the city, will have gold-plated pitamber to wear this year. The pitamber will also have diamonds encrusted on it. Aashirwad Ganesh that installed at Dandia Bazaar attracts a large number of ...

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