digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Posterior cerebral artery
Gray517.png
Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. (Yellow is region supplied by posterior cerebral artery.)
Circle of Willis en.svg
The arterial circle and arteries of the brain. The posterior cerebral arteries (bottom forks) arise from the basilar artery (center).
Details
Latin arteria cerebri posterior
Supplies occipital lobe of cerebrum
Source
basilar artery (most common in adults)
cerebral veins
Identifiers
Gray's p.580
MeSH A07.231.114.228.700
Dorlands
/Elsevier
a_61/12153821
TA A12.2.07.082
FMA FMA:50583
Anatomical terminology

The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA).

Origin[edit]

The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus.[1] The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10–30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin.[2]

The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from the anterior portion of the basilar artery. Only about 19% of adults retain PCommA dominance of the PCA with 72% having dominant basilar origin, and the rest being equal prominence or exclusive sources for suppyling the PCA.[2]

Structure[edit]

The branches of the posterior cerebral artery are divided into two sets, ganglionic and cortical:

Central branches[edit]

Also known as the perforating branches:

  • Thalamoperforating and thalamogeniculate or postero-medial ganglionic branches: a group of small arteries which arise at the commencement of the posterior cerebral artery: these, with similar branches from the posterior communicating, pierce the posterior perforated substance, and supply the medial surfaces of the thalami and the walls of the third ventricle.
  • Peduncular perforating or postero-lateral ganglionic branches: small arteries which arise from the posterior cerebral artery after it has turned around the cerebral peduncle; they supply a considerable portion of the thalamus.
Posterior cerebral artery

Choroidal branches[edit]

Cortical branches[edit]

The cortical branches are:

  • Anterior temporal, distributed to the uncus and the anterior part of the fusiform gyrus
  • Posterior temporal, to the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyri
  • Lateral occipital, which branches into the anterior, middle and posterior inferior temporal arteries
  • Medial occipital, which branches into the:
  • Splenial, or the posterior pericallosal branch, sometimes anastamoses with the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and may not be present if the ACA wraps around the corpus callosum

Clinical relevance[edit]

Stroke[edit]

Signs and symptoms:Structures involved

Peripheral territory (Cortical branches)[edit]

  • Homonymous hemianopia (often upper quadrantic): Calcarine cortex or optic radiation nearby.
  • Bilateral homonymous hemianopia, cortical blindness, awareness or denial of blindness; tactile naming, achromatopia (color blindness), failure to see to-and-fro movements, inability to perceive objects not centrally located, apraxia of ocular movements, inability to count or enumerate objects, tendency to run into things that the patient sees and tries to avoid: Bilateral occipital lobe with possibly the parietal lobe involved.
  • Verbal dyslexia without agraphia, color anomia: Dominant calcarine lesion and posterior part of corpus callosum.
  • Memory defect: Hippocampal lesion bilaterally or on the dominant side only.
  • Topographic disorientation and prosopagnosia: Usually with lesions of nondominant, calcarine, and lingual gyrus.
  • Simultanagnosia, hemivisual neglect: Dominant visual cortex, contralateral hemisphere.
  • Unformed visual hallucinations, peduncular hallucinosis, metamorphopsia, teleopsia, illusory visual spread, palinopsia, distortion of outlines, central photophobia: Calcarine cortex.
  • Complex hallucinations: Usually nondominant hemisphere.

Central territory (Ganglionic branches)[edit]

  • Thalamic syndrome: sensory loss (all modalities), spontaneous pain and dysesthesias, choreoathetosis, intention tremor, spasms of hand, mild hemiparesis, contralateral hemianaethesia: Posteroventral nucleus of thalamus; involvement of the adjacent subthalamus body or its afferent tracts.
  • Thalamoperforate syndrome: crossed cerebellar ataxia with ipsilateral third nerve palsy (Claude's syndrome): Dentatothalamic tract and issuing third nerve.
  • Weber's syndrome: third nerve palsy and contralateral hemiplegia: Third nerve and cerebral peduncle.
  • Contralateral hemiplegia: Cerebral peduncle.
  • Paralysis or paresis of vertical eye movement, skew deviation, sluggish pupillary responses to light, slight miosis and ptosis (retraction nystagmus and "tucking" of the eyelids may be associated): Supranuclear fibers to third nerve, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, nucleus of Darkschewitsch, and posterior commissure.
  • Contralateral rhythmic, ataxic action tremor; rhythmic postural or "holding" tremor (rubral tremor): Dentatothalamic tract.

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

Additional images[edit]

Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries. Areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery shown in yellow. 
The arteries of the base of the brain. Posterior cerebral artery labeled near center. The temporal pole of the cerebrum and a portion of the cerebellar hemisphere have been removed on the right side. Inferior aspect (viewed from below). 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Osborn, Anne G.; Jacobs, John M. (1999), Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 153, ISBN 978-0-397-58404-8 
  2. ^ a b Krayenbühl, Hugo; Yaşargil, Mahmut Gazi; Huber, Peter; Bosse, George (1982), Cerebral Angiography, Thieme, pp. 163–165, ISBN 978-0-86577-067-6 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posterior_cerebral_artery — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
44688 videos foundNext > 

Effects of Strokes - Posterior Cerebral Artery

http://usmlefasttrack.com/?p=906 occipital cortex, visual cortex, contralateral hemianopia, macular sparing,

Middle cerebral artery stroke - Axiom Neuro 3D Neurology and Neuroanatomy

Visit http://www.brainwashedsoftware.com for more information. This video is from the virtual patient module of Axiom Neuro, a 3D-animated, interactive funct...

QUICK INTERNAL MED: Diagnose fast, Posterior Cerebral Artery blockade

Prepare for USMLE,UK,CANADIAN,AUSTRALIAN, NURSING & OTHER MEDICAL BOARD examinations around the globe with us. Understand the basics, concepts and how to ans...

Management of a Recurrent Coiled Giant Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm: 3-D Video

Giant intracranial aneurysms are among the most difficult cerebrovascular lesions to treat, particularly when located at the basilar artery apex where thalam...

74. Posterior cerebral artery الدكتور أحمد كمال - Neuroanatomy (74).cxt

هذه الأفلام التعليمية هي جزء من سلسلة كاملة للدكتور المصري أحمد كمال والتي تغطي كل (خطين تحت هذه الكلمة) متطلبات مادة التشريح في كلية الطب من سنة أولى حتى سن...

Basilary artery bifurcation(top)+posterior cerebral artery aneurysms-dr suresh dugani/HUBLI/INDIA

these are posterior circulation aneurysms,making 20% of intra cranial aneurysms,highly challenging surg ically,with high mortality and morbidity.this lady 50...

74 Posterior cerebral artery Azharmedicine com

Effects of Strokes - Posterior Inferior Cerebral Artery

http://usmlefasttrack.com/?p=902 Lateral Medulla, Vestibular nuclei, spinothalmic tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus, ambiguus, sympathetic, inferior cerebella...

Right PCA Aneurysm Clipping Posterior Cerebral Artery new

Blood Supply to the Brain - Animation and Narration by Cal Shipley, M.D.

A review of the blood supply (vascular anatomy) to the human brain. Produced and narrated by Cal Shipley, M.D. http://www.trialimage.com.

44688 videos foundNext > 

32 news items

 
AJNR (subscription)
Tue, 21 Mar 2006 13:57:44 -0800

SUMMARY: Isolated dissection of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is a rare but important cause of stroke in younger patients, particularly women. We present 3 cases of dissection of the P2 segment of the PCA. In 2 patients, an association with minor ...
 
AJNR (subscription)
Thu, 16 Feb 2006 10:56:44 -0800

... PcomA, the anterior choroidal [AchoA], the anterior cerebral [ACA], and the middle cerebral artery [MCA] are derived) and a caudal branch from which the PcomA, parts of the basilar artery (BA), and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are derived in ...

New York Daily News

New York Daily News
Wed, 26 Mar 2014 12:39:43 -0700

Study results showed a 14 percent blood flow increase to the middle cerebral artery and a nine percent blood flow increase to the posterior cerebral artery when subjects were immersed in water. Carter says findings point to potential benefits of ...

Science Network Western Australia

Science Network Western Australia
Mon, 24 Mar 2014 15:07:30 -0700

Results from the study showed blood flow to the middle cerebral artery increased by 14 per cent and posterior cerebral artery increased by nine per cent when subjects were immersed in water. Subjects were nine healthy males who were positioned in a ...
 
TIME (blog)
Tue, 19 Nov 2013 02:45:27 -0800

“Subsequent MRI was significant for a moderate-sized left-sided middle cerebral artery stroke and a small-sized left-sided posterior cerebral artery stroke,” the authors write. Six weeks later, he still had “residual right lower extremity deficit.” The ...

Bioscience Technology

Bioscience Technology
Mon, 29 Jul 2013 07:40:28 -0700

... and arrows indicate bilateral absent posterior communicating arteries. Abbreviations are defined as ICA: internal carotid artery; ACA: anterior cerebral artery; MCA: middle cerebral artery; PCA; posterior cerebral artery; BA: basilar artery; VA ...
 
Newswise (press release)
Fri, 26 Jul 2013 14:06:21 -0700

Newswise — PHILADELPHIA – The network of arteries supplying blood flow to the brain is more likely to be incomplete in people who suffer migraine, a new study by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania reports.

MedPage Today

MedPage Today
Wed, 24 Jul 2013 13:19:54 -0700

The infarcts were fed by basilar, superior cerebellar, and posterior cerebral artery branches. The infection can have an incubation period of 1 to 4 weeks between the last spinal injection and when a patient seeks medical care, and it can present in ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight