Vatican City /ˈvætɪkən ˈsɪti/ (help·info)
, officially the State of the Vatican City
: Stato della Città del Vaticano
), is a landlocked sovereign city-state
whose territory consists of a walled enclave
within the city of Rome. At approximately 44 hectares
), and with a population of around 800, it is the smallest country in the world by both area and population..
Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state, ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope. This makes the Vatican the only remaining absolute monarchy in Europe. The highest state functionaries are all clergymen of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.
Vatican City was established as an independent state in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty, signed by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, on behalf of Pope Pius XI and by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. The treaty spoke of it as a new creation (Preamble and Article III), not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870) that had previously encompassed much of central Italy. Vatican City State is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe. Ordinances of Vatican City are published in Italian; official documents of the Holy See are issued mainly in Latin.
The Papal State(s)
, the State(s) of the Church
, the Pontifical States
, the Ecclesiastical States
, or the Roman States
: Stato Pontificio
, also Stato della Chiesa
, Stati della Chiesa
, Stati Pontifici
, and Stato Ecclesiastico
: Status Pontificius
, also Dicio Pontificia
were among the major historical states of Italy
from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula
was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
(after which the Papal States, in less territorially extensive form, continued to exist until 1870).
The Papal States comprised territories under direct sovereign rule of the papacy, and at its height it covered most of the modern Italian regions of Romagna, Marche, Umbria and Lazio. This governing power is commonly called the temporal power of the Pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.
The plural Papal States is usually preferred; the singular Papal State (equally correct since it was not a mere personal union) tends to be used (normally with lower-case letters) for the modern State of Vatican City, an enclave within Italy's national capital, Rome. The Vatican City was founded in 1929, again allowing the Holy See the political benefits of territorial sovereignty.
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A post-restoration section of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which includes the two panels reproduced above.
The restoration of the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel was one of the most significant art restorations of the 20th century. The Sistine Chapel was built by Pope Sixtus IV within the Vatican immediately to the north of St. Peter's Basilica and completed in about 1481. Its walls were decorated by a number of Renaissance painters who were among the most highly regarded artists of late 15th century Italy, including Ghirlandaio, Perugino, and Botticelli. The Chapel was further enhanced under Pope Julius II by the painting of the ceiling by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512 and by the painting of the Last Judgment, commissioned by Pope Clement VII and completed in 1541, again by Michelangelo. The tapestries on the lowest tier, today best known from the Raphael Cartoons (painted designs) of 1515–16, completed the ensemble.
Together the paintings make up the greatest pictorial scheme of the Renaissance. Individually, some of Michelangelo's paintings on the ceiling are among the most notable works of western art ever created. The frescoes of the Sistine Chapel and in particular the ceiling and accompanying lunettes by Michelangelo have been subject to a number of restorations, the most recent taking place between 1980 and 1994. This most recent restoration had a profound effect on art lovers and historians, as colours and details that had not been seen for centuries were revealed.
The following Wikimedia
sister projects provide more on this subject:
- ^ Mitchell, S.A. (1840). Mitchell's geographical reader. Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. p. 368.
- ^ Johnson, George (2009-06-22). "Vatican’s Celestial Eye, Seeking Not Angels but Data". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
Vatican City Explained
CGPGrey Coffee Mug! http://goo.gl/hT2Dt Help support videos like this: http://www.cgpgrey.com/subbable Blog: http://www.cgpgrey.com/blog/vatican-city-explained.
The Vatican City Documentary
60 Minutes through the holy see, Headquarters of world wide Catholic Church, Where the Pope lives, works and spreads the Gospel of true God. A complete story...
Inside the Vatican
A rare glimpse inside the secret archives and private chapels of the Vatican.
Behind the closed doors of The Vatican
Get a glimpse of what's happening behind the closed doors of the Vatican.
Little Europe: The Vatican City
The Vatican is home to the most glorious church in all Christendom, St. Peter's Basilica, and the Vatican Museum, which displays some of the greatest art of ...
Vatican City, the smallest country in the world
http://en.romereports.com St. Peter's Square is more than just a monument. It's also the gateway to the Vatican City. Past the monumental square, the laws of...
The Queen meets the Pope in the Vatican City - Director's Cut
Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip have met Pope Francis in the Vatican City. This is an extended version of their meeting, at which they exchanged gifts, inc...
Travel Guide to Rome: Vatican City, St. Peter's Basilica
http://www.RealVacationCareers.com This is a video travel guide log to Rome and it's treasures. Come with us as we take you on a tour! The Papal Basilica of ...
Vatican City Ghost
Tourist captures on video, unexplained paranormal activity while vacationing in Vatican City.
Great views of VATICAN City, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome - [HD]
Stato della Città del Vaticano, Basilica di San Pietro, Piazza San Pietro, Roma.
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 02:58:20 -0700
VATICAN CITY — Saying "even the pope has a family," Pope Francis expressed thanks on Wednesday for the prayers and condolences he has received following the death of his nephew's wife and their two young boys in a car crash in the pontiff's native ...
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:33:45 -0700
VATICAN CITY — The Vatican says a road accident in Argentina has killed two young great-nephews of Pope Francis as well as their mother, the wife of the pope's nephew. Vatican spokesman the Rev. Federico Lombardi said the accident occurred Tuesday ...
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 03:52:30 -0700
Instead they entered Vatican City on the other side of the colonnade of St. Peter's Square and took a 150-yard stroll through the hilly enclave to the new pope's place of business—Casa Santa Marta, a five-story limestone guesthouse that could be ...
Notre Dame Official Athletic Site
Notre Dame Official Athletic Site
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 17:06:07 -0700
Following breakfast, the traveling party boarded a tour bus and headed to Vatican City for a tour of the Vatican, St. Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel. Our tour guide from Wednesday, Mia, was there to meet us and we were able to avoid the long ...
News & Observer
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 11:33:37 -0700
VATICAN CITY -- Pope Francis is sending a personal envoy to Iraq to show solidarity with Christians who have been forced from their homes by Islamic militants. Cardinal Fernando Filoni, the Vatican's ambassador in Baghdad during the Iraqi war, said ...
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 06:08:08 -0700
VATICAN CITY — The Vatican is increasingly indicating support for military action in Iraq to protect Christians and other religious minorities from persecution by the Islamic State. On Wednesday, the Vatican released a letter Pope Francis sent to the ...
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 15:41:15 -0700
"Our brothers are being persecuted, chased away, they are forced to leave their homes without being able to take anything with them," he said from the balcony over St Peter's Square in Vatican City. "I assure these families that I am close to them and ...
Lexington Herald Leader
Tue, 05 Aug 2014 10:28:39 -0700
VATICAN CITY -- Pope Francis brushed off his German on Tuesday to greet some 50,000 German-speaking young people on a pilgrimage to Rome. Francis followed the all-German program during the evening vigil service in St. Peter's Square and read from ...
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