History is the discovery, collection, organization, analysis and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean a continuous, typically chronological, record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of knowledge which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.
Amongst scholars, the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, forms the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence, along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world, have spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has evolved over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields including those that focus on certain regions and those which focus on certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
The Sydney Riot of 1879
was a civil disorder
that occurred at an early international cricket
match. It took place in Sydney
, New South Wales, Australia, at the Association Ground, Moore Park
, now known as the Sydney Cricket Ground
, during a match between a touring English team
captained by Lord Harris
and New South Wales
, led by Dave Gregory
, who was also the captain of Australia
. The riot was sparked by a controversial umpiring decision, when star Australian batsman Billy Murdoch
was given out
by George Coulthard
, a Victorian
employed by the Englishmen. The dismissal caused an uproar among the parochial spectators, many of whom surged onto the pitch
and assaulted Coulthard and some English players. It was alleged that illegal gamblers
in the New South Wales pavilion, who had bet heavily on the home side, encouraged the riot because the tourists were in a dominant position and looked set to win. Another theory given to explain the anger was that of intercolonial rivalry
, that the New South Wales crowd objected to what they perceived to be a slight from a Victorian umpire.
The pitch invasion occurred while Gregory halted the match by not sending out a replacement for Murdoch. The New South Wales skipper called on Lord Harris to remove umpire Coulthard, whom he considered to be inept or biased, but his English counterpart declined. The other umpire, Edmund Barton, defended Coulthard and Lord Harris, saying that the decision against Murdoch was correct and that the English had conducted themselves appropriately. Eventually, Gregory agreed to resume the match without the removal of Coulthard. However, the crowd continued to disrupt proceedings, and play was abandoned for the day. Upon resumption after the Sunday rest day, Lord Harris's men won convincingly by an innings.
Ramón Emeterio Betances y Alacán
(April 8, 1827 – September 16, 1898) was a Puerto Rican nationalist
. He was the primary instigator of the Grito de Lares
revolution and is considered to be the father of the Puerto Rican independence movement
. Since the Grito
galvanized a burgeoning nationalist movement among Puerto Ricans, Betances is also considered "El Padre de la Patria"
(Father of the Puerto Rican Nation). Because of his charitable deeds for people in need, he also became known as "The Father of the Poor."
Betances was also a medical doctor and surgeon in Puerto Rico, and one of its first social hygienists. He had established a successful surgery and ophthalmology practice. Betances was also a diplomat, public health administrator, poet and novelist. He served as representative and contact for Cuba and the Dominican Republic in Paris.
An adherent of Freemasonry, his political and social activism was deeply influenced by the group's philosophical beliefs. His personal and professional relationships (as well as the organizational structure behind the Grito de Lares, an event that, in theory, clashes with traditional Freemason beliefs) were based upon his relationships with Freemasons, their hierarchical structure, rites and signs.
A Chola dynasty sculpture depicting Shiva. In Hinduism, Shiva is the deity of destruction and one of the most important gods; in this sculpture he is dancing as Nataraja, the divine dancer who unravels the world in preparation for it being remade by Brahma.
Even as the fingers of the two hands are equal, so are human beings equal to one another. No one has any right, nor any preference to claim over another. You are brothers.
"Russia—a state which contains all type of soil, from the warmest to the coldest, from the burning environs of Erivan to to icy Lapland; which abounds in all the products required for the needs, comforts, and pleasures of life, in accordance with its present state of development—a whole world, self-sufficient, independent, absolute."
— Mikhail Pogodin
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Fri, 01 Aug 2014 15:41:15 -0700
The History Colorado Center opened its doors Friday with free admission, like many other museums around the state, and provided a day full of performances, food and hands-on activities. Families could learn how to weave a blanket, mine for gold, lasso ...
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Several Virginia Republican leaders called Wednesday for the resignation of a state GOP official who questioned in a Facebook post whether Muslim Americans have contributed to U.S. society. The comment came in response to a statement by President ...
Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 16:27:45 -0700
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Science Careers Blog (subscription)
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 09:16:18 -0700
2Chair of Sociology, in particular of Modeling and Simulation (SOMS), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. 3Center for Complex Network Research, Department of Physics, Biology and Computer Science, ...
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New research from Northeastern's Center for Complex Network Research presents a pioneering approach to understanding European and North American cultural history by mapping out the mobility patterns of notable intellectuals over a 2,000-year span.
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