The Geography of Canada Portal
Geography by province and territory
The geography of Canada is vast and diverse. Occupying most of the northern portion of North America (41% of the continent), Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia. Canada spans an immense territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north (hence the country's motto "From sea to sea"), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska), and the Arctic Ocean to the north; Greenland is to the northeast. Off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is contested. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Major resource-based industries are fisheries, forestry, agriculture, petroleum products and mining.
The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. From the warm, temperate broadleaf forests of southern Ontario to the frigid Arctic plains of the Northern Canada, from the wet temperate rainforests of the west coast to the arid deserts, badlands and tundra plains, the biodiversity of Canada's plants is extensive. About 4,100 species of vascular plants are native to Canada, and about 1,200 additional non-native species are recorded as established outside cultivation there.
The fauna of Canada is considered to be diverse across Canada, ranging from lush forests of British Columbia, to the prairies of Western Canada, to the tundra of the Northern Canada. With a large land mass, and small population density, the wildlands of Canada provide important habitat for many animals, both endangered and not. Canada is home to approximately 70 000 known species of plants and animals - and perhaps many more that have yet to be discovered.
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Volcanism of Canada
Recently erupted pahoehoe lava flow at the Blue River
has produced lava
flows, lava plateaus
, lava domes
, cinder cones
, shield volcanoes
, submarine volcanoes
, and maars
, along with examples of more less common volcanic forms such as tuyas
and subglacial mounds
. It has a very complex volcanological history spanning from the Precambrian
period at least 6,000years ago when this part of the North American continent began to form.
Although the country's volcanic activity dates back to the Precambrian period, volcanism continues to occur in Western and Northern Canada where it forms part of an encircling chain of volcanoes and frequent earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean called the Pacific Ring of Fire. Volcanic activity has been responsible for many of Canada's geological and geographical features and mineralization, including the nucleus of North America called the Canadian Shield.
Selected region -
The Canadian Rockies
comprise the Canadian
segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range
. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera
, extending from the Interior Plains
of Alberta to the Rocky Mountain Trench
of British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho
of the USA
. The northern end is at the Liard River
in northern British Columbia
The Canadian Rockies are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera, the collective name for the mountains of Western Canada. They form part of the American Cordillera, an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska to the very tip of South America. The Cordillera in turn are the eastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean.
The Canadian Rockies are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench , and on the north by the Liard River. Contrary to popular misconception, the Rockies do not extend north into Yukon or Alaska, or west into central British Columbia. North of the Liard River, the Mackenzie Mountains, which are a distinct mountain range, form a portion of the border between the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The mountain ranges to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench in southern British Columbia are called the Columbia Mountains, and are not considered to be part of the Rockies by Canadian geologists.
Selected fauna -
The Canada Goose
) is a wild goose
belonging to the genus Branta
, which is native to arctic and temperate regions of North America
, having a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brownish-gray body. It is often called the Canadian Goose
, but that name is not the ornithological standard, or the most common name.
The black head and neck with white "chinstrap" distinguish the Canada Goose from all other goose species, with the exception of the Barnacle Goose, but the latter has a black breast, and also grey, rather than brownish, body plumage.
There are seven subspecies of this bird, of varying sizes and plumage details, but all are recognizable as Canada Geese. Some of the smaller races can be hard to distinguish from the newly-separated Cackling Goose.
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Did you know? -
Selected National Park -
Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park, established in 1885 in the Rocky Mountains. The park, located 110-180 kilometres (70-110 mi) west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi) of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. The Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park in the north. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. The main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley.
The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff's early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, and attracting tourists through extensive advertising. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees, and through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s. Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway. As Banff is one of the world's most visited national parks, the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, and new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity.
Selected flora -
) is a species of maple
native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America
, from Nova Scotia
west to southern Ontario
, and south to Georgia
It is a deciduous tree normally reaching heights of 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall, and exceptionally up to 45 m (150 feet). A 10-year-old tree is typically about 5 m (15 ft) tall. The leaves are deciduous, 8–15 cm long and equally wide with five palmate lobes. The basal lobes are relatively small, while the upper lobes are larger and deeply notched. In contrast with the angular notching of the Silver Maple, however, the notches tend to be rounded at their interior.
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Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:42:22 -0700
... I think that's when we're going to have to look at what some solutions are," he said, noting that the Netherlands has a mobile clinic that goes from community to community to provide assisted dying. "The geography of Canada obviously is somewhat ...
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 15:36:14 -0700
... I think that's when we're going to have to look at what some solutions are,” he said, noting that the Netherlands has a mobile clinic that goes from community to community to provide assisted dying. “The geography of Canada obviously is somewhat ...
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail
Sun, 02 Aug 2015 18:57:41 -0700
Canada does not have one national election. Practically, Canada has five regional elections on the same day, producing a parliament and government. Although there are local variations – rural versus urban, northern versus southern – common elements ...
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 13:33:45 -0800
ComScore measures internet usage through monitoring online habits from a panel of two million internet users who agree to have their online browsing tracked with cookies and other tools. The panel is representative by both age and geography of Canada's ...
Thu, 30 Jul 2015 04:42:45 -0700
Oh yeah and they have the fastest LTE data speeds in the country. Technically they have the greatest LTE reach too since LTE service is free in the geography of Canada and Mexico and not just the U.S.. Att network spending has been slowing down quarter ...
Mon, 15 Jun 2015 21:18:45 -0700
Canada's Men's and Women's soccer teams tend to fly under the radar. The lack of success of the Men's team and the popularity of soccer in relation to other sports in Canada means that these teams that represent us spend little time in the limelight ...
Marketwired (press release)
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 18:48:45 -0800
TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - March 04, 2015) - The Royal Canadian Geographical Society announced today that 220 people have been awarded the Erebus Medal, a special one-time honour commemorating the find of one of the lost ships of the British ...
Glasgow Evening Times
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 04:07:14 -0700
"I'm now developing two projects - one in 2016, under the working title The North, which talks about the geography of Canada, Scotland and the European north, and the other in 2017, with the working title The South, which is looking at the global south.".
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