The Geography of Canada Portal
Geography by province and territory
The geography of Canada is vast and diverse. Occupying most of the northern portion of North America (41% of the continent), Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia. Canada spans an immense territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north (hence the country's motto "From sea to sea"), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska), and the Arctic Ocean to the north; Greenland is to the northeast. Off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is contested. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Major resource-based industries are fisheries, forestry, agriculture, petroleum products and mining.
The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. From the warm, temperate broadleaf forests of southern Ontario to the frigid Arctic plains of the Northern Canada, from the wet temperate rainforests of the west coast to the arid deserts, badlands and tundra plains, the biodiversity of Canada's plants is extensive. About 4,100 species of vascular plants are native to Canada, and about 1,200 additional non-native species are recorded as established outside cultivation there.
The fauna of Canada is considered to be diverse across Canada, ranging from lush forests of British Columbia, to the prairies of Western Canada, to the tundra of the Northern Canada. With a large land mass, and small population density, the wildlands of Canada provide important habitat for many animals, both endangered and not. Canada is home to approximately 70 000 known species of plants and animals - and perhaps many more that have yet to be discovered.
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Selected region -
The Canadian Prairies
is a region
, specifically in western Canada
, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political. Notably, the Prairie provinces
or simply the Prairies
comprise the provinces
, and Manitoba
, as they are much covered by prairie
The word prairie usually refers to a type of grassland, and true prairies occur only in the southern reaches of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Contrasted to this are other biomes such as the boreal forest taking up the majority of the Prairie Provinces, or the aspen parkland. However "the prairie" may also refer to all of the Interior Plains region within Canada, in contrast with the Rocky Mountains and Canadian Shield, and is a continuation of the Great Plains region of the United States.
In a more restricted sense, the term may also refer to the areas of those provinces covered by prairie. Prairie also covers portions of northeastern British Columbia, though that province is typically not included in the region in a political sense.
Selected fauna -
The Canada Goose
) is a wild goose
belonging to the genus Branta
, which is native to arctic and temperate regions of North America
, having a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brownish-gray body. It is often called the Canadian Goose
, but that name is not the ornithological standard, or the most common name.
The black head and neck with white "chinstrap" distinguish the Canada Goose from all other goose species, with the exception of the Barnacle Goose, but the latter has a black breast, and also grey, rather than brownish, body plumage.
There are seven subspecies of this bird, of varying sizes and plumage details, but all are recognizable as Canada Geese. Some of the smaller races can be hard to distinguish from the newly-separated Cackling Goose.
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Did you know? -
Selected National Park -
Pingo National Landmark
Pingos in Pingo National Landmark
is a natural area protecting eight pingos
, Northwest Territories
. It is in a coastal region of the Arctic Ocean
which contains approximately 1,350 Arctic ice dome hills—approximately one quarter of the world's pingos.
The Landmark comprises an area roughly 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi), just 5 km (3.1 mi) west of Tuktoyaktuk, and includes Ibyuk pingo, Canada's highest (and the world's second-highest), at 49 m (161 ft). The Landmark is managed by Parks Canada under the National Parks Act. Although a nationwide Landmarks program was envisioned at its creation, Pingo remains the country's only National Landmark.
In a region near the Beaufort Sea which is quite flat, pingos dominate the skyline, rising from 5 to 36 m (16 to 118 ft), in various stages of growth and collapse. Ibyuk pingo, the highest, continues to grow about 2 cm (0.79 in) per year, and is estimated to be at least 1,000 years old. Unique to areas of permafrost, pingos have formed here thanks to numerous lakes in the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula.
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is a deciduous
tree native to cooler areas of North America
. The species is referred to Quaking Aspen
, Trembling Aspen
, and Quakies
, names deriving from its leaves which flutter in the breeze. The tree-like plant has tall trunks, up to 25 metres, with smooth pale bark, scarred with black. The glossy green leaves, dull beneath, become golden to yellow, rarely red, in Autumn. A tall, fast growing tree, usually 20–25 metres (66–82 ft) at maturity, with a trunk 20–80 centimetres (7.9–31 in) in diameter; records are 36.5 meters (120 ft) in height and 1.37 metres (4.5 ft) in diameter. The bark is relatively smooth greenish-white to gray and is marked by thick black horizontal scars and prominent black knots.
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In the news
The following Wikimedia
sister projects provide more on this subject:
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 22:00:00 -0800
Director and cinematographer Sean Thonson has just released "The Wild Within," new work for Destination British Columbia showcasing the incredibly diverse and beautiful geography of Canada's westernmost province. That moving view from the high ...
Wed, 11 Feb 2015 15:36:40 -0800
It represents the grand geography of Canada and all our feelings about freedom, honesty, optimism and fairness. For half a century it has represented Canadians around the world and until recently was enormously respected. This Harper government should ...
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 13:33:45 -0800
ComScore measures internet usage through monitoring online habits from a panel of two million internet users who agree to have their online browsing tracked with cookies and other tools. The panel is representative by both age and geography of Canada's ...
Thu, 22 Jan 2015 06:47:12 -0800
But the geography of Canada's stories is not fully mapped, and the maps will never be static. Because stories are ways of being, of knowing, and of relating. They converge, and the points of convergence are powerful. They diverge, and the points of ...
Canadian Lawyer Magazine
Mon, 19 Jan 2015 05:00:56 -0800
Lakehead University in Thunder Bay and TRU “are the two real exceptions, speaking to the bulk of the geography of Canada outside those main centres,” he says. “If we look at the legal profession demographically, it has grown significantly over the past ...
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:00:00 -0700
Plus, the geography of Canada is so varied, with such extremes, that buyers tend to gravitate to more traditional “proven” automobiles. The Ford F-150, for example, has been the best-selling vehicle in Canada for decades. Unsurprisingly, the Toyota ...
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 07:08:54 -0800
Non-Partisan Association (NPA) candidate Stéphane Mouttet says that after years of community involvement it seemed logical to take the next step and become involved in civic politics. As a concierge with top luxury hotels, the candidate for the ...
Gladwin County Record & Beaverton Clarion (registration)
Tue, 09 Dec 2014 13:29:10 -0800
As dry, cool air rushed over the Great Lakes Nov. 18, it picked up moisture from the warmer water, creating long cloud lines known as cloud streets. In this false-color image, snow on the ground is dark pink, ice clouds are light pink and water clouds ...
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