The Geography of Canada Portal
Geography by province and territory
The geography of Canada is vast and diverse. Occupying most of the northern portion of North America (41% of the continent), Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia. Canada spans an immense territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north (hence the country's motto "From sea to sea"), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska), and the Arctic Ocean to the north; Greenland is to the northeast. Off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is contested. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Major resource-based industries are fisheries, forestry, agriculture, petroleum products and mining.
The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. From the warm, temperate broadleaf forests of southern Ontario to the frigid Arctic plains of the Northern Canada, from the wet temperate rainforests of the west coast to the arid deserts, badlands and tundra plains, the biodiversity of Canada's plants is extensive. About 4,100 species of vascular plants are native to Canada, and about 1,200 additional non-native species are recorded as established outside cultivation there.
The fauna of Canada is considered to be diverse across Canada, ranging from lush forests of British Columbia, to the prairies of Western Canada, to the tundra of the Northern Canada. With a large land mass, and small population density, the wildlands of Canada provide important habitat for many animals, both endangered and not. Canada is home to approximately 70 000 known species of plants and animals - and perhaps many more that have yet to be discovered.
Selected article -
The Niagara Falls
are voluminous waterfalls
on the Niagara River
, straddling the international border
between the Canadian province
and the U.S. state
of New York
. The falls are 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York
and 75 miles (120 km) south-southeast of Toronto, Ontario
, between the twin cities
of Niagara Falls, Ontario
, and Niagara Falls, New York
Niagara Falls is composed of two major sections separated by Goat Island: Horseshoe Falls, the majority of which lies on the Canadian side of the border, and American Falls on the American side. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls are also located on the American side, separated from the main falls by Luna Island.
The Niagara Falls are renowned both for their beauty and as a valuable source of hydroelectric power. Managing the balance between recreational, commercial, and industrial uses has been a challenge for the stewards of the falls since the 1800s.
Selected region -
The Canadian Rockies
comprise the Canadian
segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range
. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera
, extending from the Interior Plains
of Alberta to the Rocky Mountain Trench
of British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho
of the USA
. The northern end is at the Liard River
in northern British Columbia
The Canadian Rockies are the easternmost part of the Canadian Cordillera, the collective name for the mountains of Western Canada. They form part of the American Cordillera, an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that runs all the way from Alaska to the very tip of South America. The Cordillera in turn are the eastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that runs all the way around the Pacific Ocean.
The Canadian Rockies are bounded on the east by the Canadian Prairies, on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench , and on the north by the Liard River. Contrary to popular misconception, the Rockies do not extend north into Yukon or Alaska, or west into central British Columbia. North of the Liard River, the Mackenzie Mountains, which are a distinct mountain range, form a portion of the border between the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The mountain ranges to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench in southern British Columbia are called the Columbia Mountains, and are not considered to be part of the Rockies by Canadian geologists.
Selected fauna -
The Snowy Owl
) is a large owl
of the typical owl family
Strigidae. The Snowy Owl was first classified in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus
, the Swedish naturalist who developed binomial nomenclature
to classify and organize plants and animals. The bird is also known in North America as the Arctic Owl
or the Great White Owl
Until recently, it was regarded as the sole member of a distinct genus, as Nyctea scandiaca, but mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data (Olsen et al. 2002) shows that it is very closely related to the horned owls in the genus Bubo. The Snowy Owl is the official bird of Quebec. This species of owl nests on the ground, building a scrape on top of a mound or boulder. A site with good visibility, ready access to hunting areas, and a lack of snow is chosen. Gravel bars and abandoned eagle nests may be used. Breeding occurs in May, and depending on the amount of prey available, clutch sizes range from 5 to 14 eggs, which are laid singly, approximately every other day over the course of several days.
Selected picture -
Did you know? -
Selected National Park -
Pingo National Landmark
Pingos in Pingo National Landmark
is a natural area protecting eight pingos
, Northwest Territories
. It is in a coastal region of the Arctic Ocean
which contains approximately 1,350 Arctic ice dome hills—approximately one quarter of the world's pingos.
The Landmark comprises an area roughly 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi), just 5 km (3.1 mi) west of Tuktoyaktuk, and includes Ibyuk pingo, Canada's highest (and the world's second-highest), at 49 m (161 ft). The Landmark is managed by Parks Canada under the National Parks Act. Although a nationwide Landmarks program was envisioned at its creation, Pingo remains the country's only National Landmark.
In a region near the Beaufort Sea which is quite flat, pingos dominate the skyline, rising from 5 to 36 m (16 to 118 ft), in various stages of growth and collapse. Ibyuk pingo, the highest, continues to grow about 2 cm (0.79 in) per year, and is estimated to be at least 1,000 years old. Unique to areas of permafrost, pingos have formed here thanks to numerous lakes in the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula.
Selected flora -
is a species of flowering plant
of the order Proteales
that is native to North America
. - American Lotus
, Yellow Lotus
, and Water-chinquapin
Like the Asian species Nelumbo nucifera, the Lotus is an emergent aquatic plant. It grows in lakes and swamps, as well as areas subject to flooding. The roots are anchored in the mud, but the leaves and flowers emerge above the water's surface. The petioles of the leaves may extend as much as 2 m (6.6 ft) and end in a round leaf blade 33–43 cm (13–17 in) in diameter. Mature plants range in height from 0.8 to 1.5 m (2.6 to 4.9 ft).
Geography of Canada category
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Selected panoramic picture -
In the news
The following Wikimedia
sister projects provide more on this subject:
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 13:41:38 -0800
ComScore measures internet usage through monitoring online habits from a panel of two million internet users who agree to have their online browsing tracked with cookies and other tools. The panel is representative by both age and geography of Canada's ...
Tue, 10 Feb 2015 22:00:00 -0800
Director and cinematographer Sean Thonson has just released "The Wild Within," new work for Destination British Columbia showcasing the incredibly diverse and beautiful geography of Canada's westernmost province. That moving view from the high ...
Canadian Lawyer Magazine
Mon, 19 Jan 2015 05:00:56 -0800
Lakehead University in Thunder Bay and TRU “are the two real exceptions, speaking to the bulk of the geography of Canada outside those main centres,” he says. “If we look at the legal profession demographically, it has grown significantly over the past ...
Marketwired (press release)
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 18:48:45 -0800
TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - March 04, 2015) - The Royal Canadian Geographical Society announced today that 220 people have been awarded the Erebus Medal, a special one-time honour commemorating the find of one of the lost ships of the British ...
Thu, 22 Jan 2015 06:37:30 -0800
But the geography of Canada's stories is not fully mapped, and the maps will never be static. Because stories are ways of being, of knowing, and of relating. They converge, and the points of convergence are powerful. They diverge, and the points of ...
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:00:00 -0700
Plus, the geography of Canada is so varied, with such extremes, that buyers tend to gravitate to more traditional “proven” automobiles. The Ford F-150, for example, has been the best-selling vehicle in Canada for decades. Unsurprisingly, the Toyota ...
Wed, 11 Feb 2015 15:26:15 -0800
It represents the grand geography of Canada and all our feelings about freedom, honesty, optimism and fairness. For half a century it has represented Canadians around the world and until recently was enormously respected. This Harper government should ...
Sat, 07 Jun 2014 19:45:30 -0700
Given this reality, you'd assume that building civic literacy and preventing shoddy poll attendance would start as early as possible, say, in elementary school, when children are busy learning their times tables and the geography of Canada. While they ...
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