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The Geography of Canada Portal
This is a sister portal of the Canada Portal

Introduction

Geography by province and territory

The geography of Canada is vast and diverse. Occupying most of the northern portion of North America (41% of the continent), Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia. Canada spans an immense territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north (hence the country's motto "From sea to sea"), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska), and the Arctic Ocean to the north; Greenland is to the northeast. Off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is contested. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Major resource-based industries are fisheries, forestry, agriculture, petroleum products and mining.

The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. From the warm, temperate broadleaf forests of southern Ontario to the frigid Arctic plains of the Northern Canada, from the wet temperate rainforests of the west coast to the arid deserts, badlands and tundra plains, the biodiversity of Canada's plants is extensive. About 4,100 species of vascular plants are native to Canada, and about 1,200 additional non-native species are recorded as established outside cultivation there.

The fauna of Canada is considered to be diverse across Canada, ranging from lush forests of British Columbia, to the prairies of Western Canada, to the tundra of the Northern Canada. With a large land mass, and small population density, the wildlands of Canada provide important habitat for many animals, both endangered and not. Canada is home to approximately 70 000 known species of plants and animals - and perhaps many more that have yet to be discovered.

Canada flag map.svg More about...Canadian geography, its flora and fauna

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Niagra Falls at night2.jpg
The Niagara Falls are voluminous waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York. The falls are 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York and 75 miles (120 km) south-southeast of Toronto, Ontario, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York.

Niagara Falls is composed of two major sections separated by Goat Island: Horseshoe Falls, the majority of which lies on the Canadian side of the border, and American Falls on the American side. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls are also located on the American side, separated from the main falls by Luna Island.

The Niagara Falls are renowned both for their beauty and as a valuable source of hydroelectric power. Managing the balance between recreational, commercial, and industrial uses has been a challenge for the stewards of the falls since the 1800s.

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Rain forest along Olympic Coast.jpg
The Pacific temperate rain forests coregion of North America is the largest temperate rain forest ecoregion on the planet as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (other definitions exist). The Pacific temperate rain forests lie along the western side of the Pacific Coast Ranges along the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America from the Prince William Sound in Alaska through the British Columbia Coast to Northern California, and are part of the Nearctic ecozone, as also defined by the World Wildlife Fund. The Pacific temperate rain forests are characterized by a high amount of rainfall, in some areas more than 300 cm (120 inches) per year and moderate temperatures in both the summer and winter months (between 10-24°C).

The forests in the north contain predominantly Sitka Spruce and Western Hemlock, while those in the coastal forests are home as well to Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Western Redcedar and Shore Pine. Notably, the three tallest species of trees are found here. Dense growths of epiphytes and mosses cover the trees, and lush vegetation is present everywhere.

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Beaver Yearling Grooming Alhambra Creek 2008.jpg
The North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) is the only species of beaver in the Americas, native to North America and introduced to South America. Its other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the one other extant beaver, Castor fiber, native to Eurasia. ("Canadian beaver" also refers to the subspecies Castor canadensis canadensis).

This beaver is the largest rodent in North America and the third largest rodent in the world, after the South American capybara and the Eurasian beaver.

Adults usually weigh 15 to 35 kg (33–77 lbs), with 20 kg (44 lbs) a typical mass, and measure around 1 m (3.3 ft) in total body length. Very old individuals can weigh as much as 45 kg (100 lbs).

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UtsingiPoint-GreatSlaveLake.JPG
"Utsingi Point", East arm of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories.

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NLC TerraNova2 tango7174.jpg
Terra Nova National Park is located on the northeast coast of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, along several inlets of Bonavista Bay. The park takes its name from the latin name for Newfoundland.

Terra Nova's landscape is typical of the northeast coast of Newfoundland, with remnants of the Appalachian Mountains contributing to widely varied and rugged topography throughout the region. The park's seacoast consists of several rocky "fingers" jutting into Bonavista Bay along an area stretching from just north of Port Blandford to the vicinity of Glovertown. The coastline varies from cliffs and exposed headlands to sheltered inlets and coves, contributing to Newfoundland's prime recreational boating area.

Inland areas consist of rolling forested hills, exposed rock faces, and bogs, ponds and wetlands. Wildlife protected by the park range from small to large land mammals, migratory birds, and various marine life. Terra Nova also protects an area containing remnants of the Beothuk Nation, as well as many of the early pioneer European settlements in the region.

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Maianthemum racemosum 0972.JPG
Maianthemum racemosum (Treacleberry, False Solomon's Seal, Solomon's plume or False Spikenard; syn. Smilacina racemosa) is a species of flowering plant in the family Ruscaceae, native to North America.

It is a woodland herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50-90 cm tall, with alternate, oblong-lanceolate leaves 7-15 cm long and 3-6 cm broad. The flowers are produced on a 10-15 cm panicle, each flower with six white tepals 3-6 mm long blooming in late spring. The plants produce green fruits that are round and turn red in late summer. It grows in bicoastal habitats in North America up to elevations of 7,000 feet. The most robust and profuse occurrences of this plant are typically found in partial shade and deep, moist, soft soils.

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Geography of Canada category

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ParadiseMineTrail.jpg
View from the top of "Paradise Mines Trail" just outside Surrey-Panorama

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578 news items

CBC.ca

CBC.ca
Wed, 12 Nov 2014 13:41:38 -0800

ComScore measures internet usage through monitoring online habits from a panel of two million internet users who agree to have their online browsing tracked with cookies and other tools. The panel is representative by both age and geography of Canada's ...
 
Marketwired (press release)
Mon, 17 Nov 2014 10:33:45 -0800

Each year, the Massey Medal is awarded in recognition of outstanding career achievement in the exploration, development or description of the geography of Canada. Awarded for the first time in 1959 by then-Governor General Vincent Massey, the medal is ...
 
TheChronicleHerald.ca
Fri, 05 Sep 2014 07:31:22 -0700

The Nature Conservancy of Canada has protected two major ecologically sensitive areas on the Eastern Shore. The sites, both in Halifax Regional Municipality, include a 188-hectare area at Fishing Lake and a 34-hectare property called Youngs Island.

TheChronicleHerald.ca (registration)

TheChronicleHerald.ca (registration)
Mon, 03 Nov 2014 17:21:13 -0800

SYDNEY — A Sydney River affordable housing development for seniors and adults with disabilities has taken a step forward. On Monday, Cape Breton Regional Municipality approved, in principle, the sale of about eight surplus hectares at the former Cape ...
 
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Fri, 17 Oct 2014 13:48:45 -0700

TORONTO — In a country the size of Canada, there is no shortage of places to visit, ranging from don't bother to don't miss. But which ones are the best? Aaron Kylie, editor of Canadian Geographic magazine, takes a stab at answering that question with ...
 
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Wed, 05 Nov 2014 09:58:39 -0800

... meeting at the Charlotte State Bank October 3, elected Delegates to a drive-in conference, agreed on a gift to the Mercy Hospital fundraising campaign, chose a nominating committee, and received an excellent review in the geography of Canada. 20 ...

TheChronicleHerald.ca (registration)

TheChronicleHerald.ca (registration)
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 05:53:53 -0700

Cole Harbour native Paul Gauthier was unmasked Thursday evening as the mystery $3.5-million donor behind the Nova Scotia Nature Trust's plan to permanently protect 100 wild islands on the Eastern Shore. “This started as just a crazy idea and it has ...

TheChronicleHerald.ca (registration)

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Fri, 14 Nov 2014 11:58:28 -0800

A taxi driver in Antigonish has been charged after two young women reported being sexually assaulted. William Roger MacLellan, 48, who owns R-Mac Taxi and Limousine Service in Antigonish, was charged Wednesday with two counts of sexual assault.
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