|Ancient Rome was a civilization which began as a small agricultural community on the Italian Peninsula in the 8th century BC. Rome became a large empire which straddled the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization was firstly a monarchy, then a republic that combined oligarchy and democracy, and finally became an autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Western Europe, the entire Mediterranean Basin including the Near East and North Africa, the Balkans, and the Black Sea.
The Roman empire went into decline in the 3rd century AD, and began to collapse in the 5th century AD. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern part of the empire, governed from Constantinople, survived this crisis, and remained intact for another millennium, until its last remains were finally annexed by the emerging Ottoman Empire. This eastern, medieval stage of the Empire is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians.
Roman civilization was part of the period of classical antiquity, alongside ancient Greece—a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome made significant contributions to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology, and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a great influence on the world today.
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The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a sash of perhaps twenty feet (6 meters) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic. The toga was invariably made of wool, and the tunic underneath was often made of linen. For most of Rome's history, the toga was a garment worn exclusively by men, but in and after the 1st century BC, women were expected to wear the stola. Non-citizens were forbidden to wear a toga.
The toga was the earliest dress clothing of the Romans, a thick woollen cloak worn over a loincloth or apron. It was taken off indoors, or when hard at work in the fields, but it was the only decent attire out-of-doors. (We learn this from the story of Cincinnatus: he was ploughing in his field when the messengers of the Senate came to tell him that he had been made dictator, and on seeing them coming he sent his wife to fetch his toga from the house so that they could be received appropriately.
So important was the toga to Roman life that Augustus, upon seeing a meeting of citizens without the toga, quoting Virgil's lines, "Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam" ("Romans, lords of the world, the toga-wearing race") and ordered the aediles to deny entry to the Forum or Circus to any citizen without his toga.
||[...] Caesar is a god in his own city. Outstanding in war or peace, it was not so much his wars that ended in great victories, or his actions at home, or his swiftly won fame, that set him among the stars, a fiery comet, as his descendant. There is no greater achievement among Caesar’s actions than that he stood father to our emperor. Is it a greater thing to have conquered the sea-going Britons; to have lead his victorious ships up the seven-mouthed flood of the papyrus-bearing Nile; to have brought the rebellious Numidians, under Juba of Cinyps, and Pontus, swollen with the name of Mithridates, under the people of Quirinus; to have earned many triumphs and celebrated few; than to have sponsored such a man, with whom, as ruler of all, you gods have richly favoured the human race? Therefore, in order for the emperor not to have been born of mortal seed, Caesar needed to be made a god. [...]
Augustus, his ‘son’, will ensure that he ascends to heaven as a god, and is worshipped in the temples. Augustus, as heir to his name, will carry the burden placed upon him alone, and will have us with him, in battle, as the most courageous avenger of his father’s murder. Under his command, the conquered walls of besieged Mutina will sue for peace; Pharsalia will know him; Macedonian Philippi twice flow with blood; and the one who holds Pompey’s great name, will be defeated in Sicilian waters; and a Roman general’s Egyptian consort, trusting, to her cost, in their marriage, will fall, her threat that our Capitol would bow to her city of Canopus, proved vain.
Why enumerate foreign countries or the nations living on either ocean shore? Wherever earth contains habitable land, it will be his: and even the sea will serve him!
|— Ovid, Metamorphoses, XV, 745-842
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Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus
, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor
of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
. Nero was adopted by his grand-uncle Claudius
to become heir to the throne. As Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus, he succeeded to the throne on October 13, 54, following Claudius' death.
Nero ruled from 54 CE to 68 CE. During his rule, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. He ordered the building of theatres and promoted athletic games. His reign included a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire (58–63), the suppression of the British revolt (60–61) and improving diplomatic ties with Greece.
- ...That When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy?
- ...That the most well paid athlete in human history, Gaius Appuleius Diocles, was an illiterate Roman Chariot racer, and earned the equivalent of $15 Billion US Dollars.
Ancient Rome (1of8): The Rise of the Roman Empire
Two thousand years ago, one civilisation held the entire Western world in its grasp. From Northern Europe to Africa and the Middle East. It imposed laws, ideas ...
Ancient Rome - The Rise and Fall of an Empire ~ "Revolution" ~ [Documentary]
Rome was once a largely democratic society, with regular elections. This Republic lasted for 500 years, but then came Tiberius Gracchus. He believed in the ...
Ancient Rome (higher resolution)
A project between Khan Academy and Rome Reborn - with Dr. Bernard Frischer Speakers: Dr. Bernard Frischer and Dr. Steven Zucker.
A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome - Ray Laurence
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/a-glimpse-of-teenage-life-in-ancient-rome-ray-laurence Welcome to the world of Lucius Popidius Secundus, a 17-year ...
Ancient Rome - The Rise and Fall of an Empire ~ "Nero" - [Documentary]
Nero This programme focuses on Nero, charting his obsession with becoming a god, how his plans to turn Rome into a glorious city bankrupted the Empire, how ...
Top 10 Reasons Ancient Rome was a Perverts Paradise
Top 10 Reasons Ancient Rome was a Perverts Paradise We all know Rome was a weird place. After all, people went everywhere in togas, had sex with their ...
Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire - Caesar (Part 1)
This is the story of the most famous Roman of them all, how he risked everything to tear down the government he served and bring revolution to Rome.
Mary Beard on SPQR: The History of Ancient Rome
Beard's popularizing bent is grounded in a deep knowledge of the arcane, and she gives new insight into the hoariest of topics,” wrote Rebecca Mead in The ...
Ancient Rome (2of8): Legions of Conquest
In her early years Rome was a Democratic Republic, its military an army of Roman citizens. For centuries, it was the proud duty of every landowning Roman to ...
Ancient Rome (3of8): Seduction of Power
Rome seemed to own the world. Her empire stretched from Scotland to the Sahara. Her army controlled three continents. Fifty million people lived under her ...
Fri, 29 Apr 2016 23:56:15 -0700
There are six Jewish Catacombs in total that lie outside the walls that once encircled ancient Rome. Visitors will see relics and beautiful architecture which formed the ancient passageways and chambers. SHARE PICTURE. Copy link to paste in your message.
Fri, 22 Apr 2016 06:01:27 -0700
When the activists responsible for the first modern public-health systems sought to convince their governments to invest in sanitary infrastructure, a favorite tactic was to point to the glorious aqueducts and sewers of ancient Rome. In stark contrast ...
Sun, 24 Apr 2016 07:45:34 -0700
Ancient Rome was a very different world from ours, so it does have any lessons to teach us? While we shouldn't model our behavior on any ancient society, Rome's treatment of immigrants is illustrative, says classicist and historian Mary Beard. While ...
Wisconsin Public Radio News
Tue, 12 Apr 2016 18:03:00 -0700
One of the most dramatic episodes in the history of Ancient Rome was the day Cicero, the consul of Rome, denounced his enemy Cataline on the Senate floor. He accused Cataline of a terrorist plot to overthrow the state, and arrested Cataline's ...
L'Italo Americano (subscription) (blog)
L'Italo Americano (subscription) (blog)
Sat, 30 Apr 2016 08:45:00 -0700
The older boys and girls had outdoor toys... sticks and hoops, balls, yo-yos, swings, bow and arrows, sling shots, hobby horses, marbles, and games similar to kick-the-can, hide-and-seek and tag. And you can imagine some great racing games using toys ...
Mon, 25 Apr 2016 10:25:05 -0700
Two thousand years ago, Rome reached to the ends of the known world, amalgamating its conquered peoples, cultures and traditions into the greatest empire history has ever seen. Even under dictatorial rule, they laid the foundation for modern democracy, ...
Tue, 12 Apr 2016 06:26:49 -0700
Populism has a long and colorful history in American politics, from Huey Long on the left and George Wallace on the right, to — more recently — Ross Perot in 1992 and Donald Trump today. But the roots of populism stretch much further back in time ...
Wall Street Journal (blog)
Wall Street Journal (blog)
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 06:06:29 -0700
The “Panama Papers” didn't come out of nowhere. Ever since ancient Rome imposed tax burdens on the wealthy, the wealthy have been trying to squirrel assets away from the reach of local law. The more than 11 million emails, corporate records and ...
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