|Ancient Rome was a civilization which began as a small agricultural community on the Italian Peninsula in the 8th century BC. Rome became a large empire which straddled the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization was firstly a monarchy, then a republic that combined oligarchy and democracy, and finally became an autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Western Europe, the entire Mediterranean Basin including the Near East and North Africa, the Balkans, and the Black Sea.
The Roman empire went into decline in the 3rd century AD, and began to collapse in the 5th century AD. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern part of the empire, governed from Constantinople, survived this crisis, and remained intact for another millennium, until its last remains were finally annexed by the emerging Ottoman Empire. This eastern, medieval stage of the Empire is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians.
Roman civilization was part of the period of classical antiquity, alongside ancient Greece—a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome made significant contributions to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology, and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a great influence on the world today.
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The Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from lego — "to collect") is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio ("conscription" or "army") to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In this latter meaning, it consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. It was almost always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry
The size of a typical legion varied widely throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries in the republican period of Rome (split into 35 maniples of 120 legionaries each), to around 5,500 in the imperial period (split into 10 cohorts of 480 men each, with the first cohort at double strength.
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Marcus Aurelius (April 26, 121 CE. – March 17, 180 CE.), was Roman Emperor from CE 161 to 180 who defeated several significant invasions and put down a revitalisation of the Parthian Empire. His Stoic tome Meditations, which he wrote while on campaign, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty.
||[...] Caesar is a god in his own city. Outstanding in war or peace, it was not so much his wars that ended in great victories, or his actions at home, or his swiftly won fame, that set him among the stars, a fiery comet, as his descendant. There is no greater achievement among Caesar’s actions than that he stood father to our emperor. Is it a greater thing to have conquered the sea-going Britons; to have lead his victorious ships up the seven-mouthed flood of the papyrus-bearing Nile; to have brought the rebellious Numidians, under Juba of Cinyps, and Pontus, swollen with the name of Mithridates, under the people of Quirinus; to have earned many triumphs and celebrated few; than to have sponsored such a man, with whom, as ruler of all, you gods have richly favoured the human race? Therefore, in order for the emperor not to have been born of mortal seed, Caesar needed to be made a god. [...]
Augustus, his ‘son’, will ensure that he ascends to heaven as a god, and is worshipped in the temples. Augustus, as heir to his name, will carry the burden placed upon him alone, and will have us with him, in battle, as the most courageous avenger of his father’s murder. Under his command, the conquered walls of besieged Mutina will sue for peace; Pharsalia will know him; Macedonian Philippi twice flow with blood; and the one who holds Pompey’s great name, will be defeated in Sicilian waters; and a Roman general’s Egyptian consort, trusting, to her cost, in their marriage, will fall, her threat that our Capitol would bow to her city of Canopus, proved vain.
Why enumerate foreign countries or the nations living on either ocean shore? Wherever earth contains habitable land, it will be his: and even the sea will serve him!
—Ovid, Metamorphoses, XV, 745-842
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Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus
, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor
of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
. Nero was adopted by his grand-uncle Claudius
to become heir to the throne. As Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus, he succeeded to the throne on October 13, 54, following Claudius' death.
Nero ruled from 54 CE to 68 CE. During his rule, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. He ordered the building of theatres and promoted athletic games. His reign included a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire (58–63), the suppression of the British revolt (60–61) and improving diplomatic ties with Greece.
- ...That When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy?
- ...That the most well paid athlete in human history, Gaius Appuleius Diocles, was an illiterate Roman Chariot racer, and earned the equivalent of $15 Billion US Dollars.
The following Wikimedia
sister projects provide more on this subject:
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The broader history of the Roman Empire is the period after the Roman Republic. It extends through 16 centuries and includes several stages in the evolution ...
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Rome's Ancient People : Documentary on the Lives and Contributions of the Ancient Romans . 2013 This documentary as well as all of the rest of these document...
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A project between Khan Academy and Rome Reborn - with Dr. Bernard Frischer More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=VAgA6G75XsI.
A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome - Ray Laurence
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/a-glimpse-of-teenage-life-in-ancient-rome-ray-laurence Welcome to the world of Lucius Popidius Secundus, a 17-yea...
THE ROMAN EMPIRE: Rise of the Empire 1 / 8
ENTIRE PLAYLIST https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=31AOmv6Uv0M&list=PLbyAKmZZkEEbe27JbRHTplYiP4RZieoms.
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In which John Green explores exactly when Rome went from being the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. Here's a hint: it had something to do with Julius Caes...
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Tue, 18 Nov 2014 04:33:45 -0800
Finance was linked to violence thousands of years before the Islamic State proposed its own currency. Matt Phillips Nov 18 2014, 7:40 AM ET. Facebook; Twitter; LinkedIn; Google+; Email · Print; Comments. AP/The Atlantic. The propaganda war from ISIS ...
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 06:37:30 -0800
School pupils take trip to see glories of ancient Rome. Laxton and Oundle pupils in Rome. Published on the 18 November 2014 14:32. Published 18/11/2014 14:32. Print this. Excited youngsters from Laxton Junior and Oundle School have returned from a ...
Fri, 07 Nov 2014 08:06:54 -0800
Modern scouts learn to 'be prepared' for adult life and it seems that little has changed in almost 2,000 years. Ancient papyri show that wealthy Roman children were enrolled in a youth organisation in order to learn to be good citizens too. The ...
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 05:18:45 -0800
In Ancient Rome, Pope Affirms Ancient Truths. 1. Share0. Sign Up for Free eNewsletter ››. Share on Facebook; Share on Twitter. By Tony Perkins , CP Op-Ed Contributor. November 18, 2014|8:21 am. Tony Perkins and a host of other faith and cultural ...
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 23:39:35 -0800
The only legal requirement for a marriage in Ancient Rome were that both parties wanted to stay married. What's more there was no need to tell your spouse that you were going to divorce. Take a listen to the lesson by clicking on the audio. Your ...
The Cross Timbers Gazette
Fri, 14 Nov 2014 21:07:20 -0800
EDITOR'S NOTE: Terri Guthrie, a world traveler, shares her adventures in TERRI'S TRAVELS, offering traveling tips, photos and more. This is the last installment of a three-part series on Rome, the latest of her travel adventures. Ancient Rome is a ...
Greensburg Daily News
Greensburg Daily News
Sun, 09 Nov 2014 10:55:42 -0800
Some students donned togas, while others carried cakes. The low rumble of an electric guitar competed with the voices of students and the shuffling of feet. One student had written a song with lyrics about ancient Rome. He had brought the guitar to ...
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 19:31:34 -0700
As Mary Beard, Cambridge Classics Professor and presenter of a number of TV series on Ancient Rome, points out in her new work, this joke appears almost word for word in Philogelos, a joke book from the fourth or fifth century better known in English ...
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