|Ancient Rome was a civilization which began as a small agricultural community on the Italian Peninsula in the 8th century BC. Rome became a large empire which straddled the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization was firstly a monarchy, then a republic that combined oligarchy and democracy, and finally became an autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Western Europe, the entire Mediterranean Basin including the Near East and North Africa, the Balkans, and the Black Sea.
The Roman empire went into decline in the 3rd century AD, and began to collapse in the 5th century AD. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern part of the empire, governed from Constantinople, survived this crisis, and remained intact for another millennium, until its last remains were finally annexed by the emerging Ottoman Empire. This eastern, medieval stage of the Empire is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians.
Roman civilization was part of the period of classical antiquity, alongside ancient Greece—a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome made significant contributions to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology, and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a great influence on the world today.
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The Roman Emperors were monarchial rulers of the Roman State during the imperial period (from about 27 BC onward). The Romans had no single term for the office: Latin titles such as imperator (from which English Emperor derives), augustus, caesar and princeps were all associated with it. In practice, the Emperor was supreme ruler of Rome and supreme commander of the Roman legions. In theory, however, Rome remained a republic, the res publica, and the Emperor's status was merely that of primus inter pares - first among equals. This legal fiction became increasingly meaningless as the Emperors consolidated their power. However, it was maintained at least to a ceremonial degree until the very end of the Roman Empire - 476 in the Western Roman Empire and 1453 in the East.
There was no constitutional office of "Roman Emperor", nor any title or rank directly analogous to the title of "Emperor"; all the titles traditionally associated with the Emperor had pre-existing, Republican meanings.
||[...] Caesar is a god in his own city. Outstanding in war or peace, it was not so much his wars that ended in great victories, or his actions at home, or his swiftly won fame, that set him among the stars, a fiery comet, as his descendant. There is no greater achievement among Caesar’s actions than that he stood father to our emperor. Is it a greater thing to have conquered the sea-going Britons; to have lead his victorious ships up the seven-mouthed flood of the papyrus-bearing Nile; to have brought the rebellious Numidians, under Juba of Cinyps, and Pontus, swollen with the name of Mithridates, under the people of Quirinus; to have earned many triumphs and celebrated few; than to have sponsored such a man, with whom, as ruler of all, you gods have richly favoured the human race? Therefore, in order for the emperor not to have been born of mortal seed, Caesar needed to be made a god. [...]
Augustus, his ‘son’, will ensure that he ascends to heaven as a god, and is worshipped in the temples. Augustus, as heir to his name, will carry the burden placed upon him alone, and will have us with him, in battle, as the most courageous avenger of his father’s murder. Under his command, the conquered walls of besieged Mutina will sue for peace; Pharsalia will know him; Macedonian Philippi twice flow with blood; and the one who holds Pompey’s great name, will be defeated in Sicilian waters; and a Roman general’s Egyptian consort, trusting, to her cost, in their marriage, will fall, her threat that our Capitol would bow to her city of Canopus, proved vain.
Why enumerate foreign countries or the nations living on either ocean shore? Wherever earth contains habitable land, it will be his: and even the sea will serve him!
—Ovid, Metamorphoses, XV, 745-842
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- ...That the most well paid athlete in human history, Gaius Appuleius Diocles, was an illiterate Roman Chariot racer, and earned the equivalent of $15 Billion US Dollars.
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A project between Khan Academy and Rome Reborn - with Dr. Bernard Frischer More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=VAgA6G75XsI.
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In this video we examine the Pyrrhic War.
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 00:07:30 -0700
Soon after killing Julius Caesar in William Shakespeare's eponymous tragedy, Cassius, one of the conspirators, declares: “How many ages hence / Shall this our lofty scene be acted over / In states unborn and accents yet unknown!” In this meta ...
Sun, 29 Mar 2015 16:26:15 -0700
Sir, Mr Joseph Nye in his opinion piece (“The American century will survive the rise of China,” March 26) asserts that “unlike ancient Rome” the US is not in absolute decline. Considering the date of the founding of Rome in 753 BCE and its fall with ...
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 20:56:15 -0700
Editor's note: This week's Page Turner reader interview is with Sarah Beutel, a teacher at Memorial Park Middle School. "Right now I'm reading nonfiction — a lot about ancient Rome because that's the subject for the Academic Super Bowl competition ...
Columbia Daily Tribune
Columbia Daily Tribune
Thu, 16 Apr 2015 12:05:17 -0700
Columbia Independent School students celebrate ancient Rome in togas. 041515 007a Toga Day ns.jpg. Nick Schnelle/Tribune Buy this photo. Jan Louis Jaramillo, 11, pokes Dominik Goyette, 12, with a play sword Wednesday as Columbia Independent ...
The Daily News Online (blog)
Wed, 22 Apr 2015 08:11:15 -0700
After many years of serving the Roman Empire, Pliny the Younger was appointed imperial governor of the merged kingdoms of Bithynia and Pontus situated in Anatolia on the southern shores of the Black Sea. Being a hands-on kind of guy, he was ...
College of the Holy Cross (blog)
College of the Holy Cross (blog)
Fri, 10 Apr 2015 08:09:35 -0700
The Roman Triumph in its Urban Context: Building Memories and Identities in Republican Rome — The triumph, an elaborate procession celebrating Rome's military victories, was one of ancient Rome's most important institutions, a ritual at once religious ...
Thu, 09 Apr 2015 21:44:04 -0700
A taste of Ancient Rome: heritage apples in the Great Southern. By Karla Arnall. A festival celebrating apple varieties thought to date back to Roman times will be held in Albany this weekend. Print page; Email this · Permalink. Share ? Share. Court ...
International Business Times UK
International Business Times UK
Wed, 15 Apr 2015 09:30:00 -0700
Julius Caesar's well documented health problems may have been the result of a series of mini-strokes, according to new research. The Roman general, who died in 44BC, was plagued by health issues throughout his later life, with historians diagnosing him ...
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