|Ancient Rome was a civilization which began as a small agricultural community on the Italian Peninsula in the 8th century BC. Rome became a large empire which straddled the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization was firstly a monarchy, then a republic that combined oligarchy and democracy, and finally became an autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Western Europe, the entire Mediterranean Basin including the Near East and North Africa, the Balkans, and the Black Sea.
The Roman empire went into decline in the 3rd century AD, and began to collapse in the 5th century AD. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern part of the empire, governed from Constantinople, survived this crisis, and remained intact for another millennium, until its last remains were finally annexed by the emerging Ottoman Empire. This eastern, medieval stage of the Empire is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians.
Roman civilization was part of the period of classical antiquity, alongside ancient Greece—a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome made significant contributions to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology, and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a great influence on the world today.
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The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. Up until the last decade of the second century BC the eligibility to become a Roman soldier in the service of the Republic were very strict.
When war threatened, the consuls of the day would be charged with the duty of recruiting an army from the eligible citizenry of the Republic. As a rule one of the consuls would lead this mainly volunteer army into battle. As can be imagined, not all elected consuls were adept at leading an army. For example, in the year 113 BC the consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo was defeated at the Battle of Noreia by invading tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons, losing all but 20,000 men out of an army of 200,000. This disaster was followed by a protracted war in Africa against King Jugurtha of Numidia.
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Marcus Aurelius (April 26, 121 CE. – March 17, 180 CE.), was Roman Emperor from CE 161 to 180 who defeated several significant invasions and put down a revitalisation of the Parthian Empire. His Stoic tome Meditations, which he wrote while on campaign, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty.
||[...] Caesar is a god in his own city. Outstanding in war or peace, it was not so much his wars that ended in great victories, or his actions at home, or his swiftly won fame, that set him among the stars, a fiery comet, as his descendant. There is no greater achievement among Caesar’s actions than that he stood father to our emperor. Is it a greater thing to have conquered the sea-going Britons; to have lead his victorious ships up the seven-mouthed flood of the papyrus-bearing Nile; to have brought the rebellious Numidians, under Juba of Cinyps, and Pontus, swollen with the name of Mithridates, under the people of Quirinus; to have earned many triumphs and celebrated few; than to have sponsored such a man, with whom, as ruler of all, you gods have richly favoured the human race? Therefore, in order for the emperor not to have been born of mortal seed, Caesar needed to be made a god. [...]
Augustus, his ‘son’, will ensure that he ascends to heaven as a god, and is worshipped in the temples. Augustus, as heir to his name, will carry the burden placed upon him alone, and will have us with him, in battle, as the most courageous avenger of his father’s murder. Under his command, the conquered walls of besieged Mutina will sue for peace; Pharsalia will know him; Macedonian Philippi twice flow with blood; and the one who holds Pompey’s great name, will be defeated in Sicilian waters; and a Roman general’s Egyptian consort, trusting, to her cost, in their marriage, will fall, her threat that our Capitol would bow to her city of Canopus, proved vain.
Why enumerate foreign countries or the nations living on either ocean shore? Wherever earth contains habitable land, it will be his: and even the sea will serve him!
—Ovid, Metamorphoses, XV, 745-842
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Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor
Latin for the younger
), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger
) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius
and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder
. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius
. She was the namesake of her mother. Faustina from her parent’s marriage was the youngest and the fourth child, second daughter and the only one who survived to adulthood from her siblings. She was born and raised in Rome
Her great uncle Roman Emperor Hadrian had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On February 25 138, she was engaged to Lucius Verus. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and intended successor for the emperor’s throne. However when Verus’ father died, Hadrian adopted Faustina’s father as his second adopted son and eventually, he became Hadrian’s successor.
- ...That according to Suetonius, Caligula "often sent for men whom he had secretly killed, as though they were still alive, and remarked offhandedly a few days later that they must have committed suicide"?
- ...That Mark Antony, who avenged Julius Caesar, was killed by Julius Caesar's grand nephew (Octavian) Augustus Caesar?
- ...That Sulla's grave read No friend ever surpassed him in kindness, and no enemy in ill-doing?
The following Wikimedia
sister projects provide more on this subject:
Thu, 11 Jun 2015 04:35:29 -0700
The majestic aqueduct that fed water to ancient Rome carried less of the life-giving liquid than previously thought, new research suggests. The Anio Novus aqueduct carried water from the mountains into Rome at a rate of about 370 gallons of water per ...
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 22:37:30 -0700
Azhagnakulam village in Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu was in news on 29 June 2015 as archaeologists discovered fresh evidence that proves it had been an important trading post between the Sangam Pandyas and the Romans from circa 50 BCE ...
Wed, 24 Jun 2015 10:33:05 -0700
“And if we get so caught up in political correctness, that nothing is right and nothing is wrong, then we go the same route as Ancient Rome. They did exactly the same thing. And they forgot who they were. They stood for nothing and they fell for ...
A.V. Club Denver/Boulder
A.V. Club Denver/Boulder
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 07:06:13 -0700
With more than 4.8 million articles, Wikipedia is an invaluable resource, whether you're throwing a term paper together at the last minute, or snickering at pictures that look dirty. We explore some of Wikipedia's oddities in our 4,888,888-week series ...
Thu, 11 Jun 2015 13:15:00 -0700
Throughout the ancient world, aqueducts were like flags of stone that heralded the greatness of Rome. A visit to the Pont du Gard (the most famous and impressive surviving Roman aqueduct, near Avignon) shows how these structures still proclaim the ...
Mon, 08 Jun 2015 00:52:30 -0700
Gary Glassman, director of "Colosseum Death Trap," a film about the project, said: "If ancient Rome has a Facebook page, the Colosseum would be in its profile picture. Being part of history is priceless." Among the animals lifted into the site were ...
Mon, 15 Jun 2015 20:00:00 -0700
This line, taken from Publius Ovidius Naso's (Ovid's) Medicamina Faciei Femineae, or The Art of Beauty, begins one of the best remaining descriptions of female beauty from ancient Rome. Within it, he dictates how a proper Roman woman should be pale of ...
Just Jared Jr.
Just Jared Jr.
Sat, 06 Jun 2015 15:31:30 -0700
Jessie (Debby Ryan) keeps close to the handsome Roman (Deniz Akdeniz) in this new still from tonight's all new Jessie. In “Rossed At Sea, Part 2″, while exploring an Italian island, the Ross family's tour guide tells a story about Jessie's necklace ...
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