digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Population (disambiguation).
The distribution of human world population in 1994
Key

A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.[1][2]

In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area is estimated using the Lincoln Index. The area that is used to define a sexual population is defined as the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area. The probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Under normal conditions, breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border.[3]

In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. This article refers mainly to human population.

Population genetics (ecology)[edit]

In population genetics a sexual population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together. This means that they can regularly exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, and such a breeding group is also known therefore as a gamodeme. This also implies that all members belong to the same of species, such as humans.[4] If the gamodeme is very large (theoretically, approaching infinity), and all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the gamodeme is said to be panmictic. Under this state, allele (gamete) frequencies can be converted to genotype (zygote) frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics.[5]

This seldom occurs in nature : localisation of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, or preferential mating, or cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual gamodemes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves, but are virtually separated from their neighbouring gamodemes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbours. This may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population(panmictic)into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: (1).the component gamodemes vary (through gamete sampling) in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original (this is known as dispersion, and its details can be estimated using expansion of an appropriate binomial equation); and (2). the level of homozygosity rises in the entire collection of gamodemes. The overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient (f or φ). Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable! The mean phenotype of the gamodemes collection is lower than that of the panmictic "original" – which is known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, however, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, and some will be inferior. The probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilise the effects of dispersion (such as line breeding, pure-line breeding, back-crossing). It can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance (ΔG = change in the phenotypic mean), and is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both allogamous (random fertilization)[6] and autogamous (self-fertilization) gamodemes[7]

World human population[edit]

Main article: World population

As of today's date, the world population is estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 7.268 billion/7268 million.[8] The US Census Bureau estimates the 7 US billion/7000 million number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven US billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.[9]

According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau,the world population hit 6.5 US billion/6500 million on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 US billion/6000 million. This was about 12 years after world population reached 5 US billion/5000 million in 1987, and 6 years after world population reached 5.5 US billion/5500 million in 1993. The population of some[which?] countries, such as Nigeria, is not even known to the nearest million,[10] so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates.[11]

Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 US billion/100 000 million people have probably been born in the last 2000 years.[12]

Predicted growth and decline[edit]

The years taken for every billion people to be added to the world's population, and the years that population was reached. (with future estimates). See also http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_population_growth_-_time_between_each_billion-person_growth--MKII.jpg alt. chart
Main article: Population growth

Population growth increased significantly as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards.[13] The last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth[13] due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity, particularly beginning in the 1960s,[14] made by the Green Revolution.[15] In 2007 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will likely surpass 10 billion in 2055.[16]

In the future, the world's population is expected to peak,[17] after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is very likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will actually decline before 2100.[18][19] Population has already declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States.[20]

The population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by gradually declining birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates.[21] This transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates is often referred to as the demographic transition.[21]

Control[edit]

Human population control is the practice of artificially altering the rate of growth of a human population. Historically, human population control has been implemented with the goal of increasing the rate of population growth. In the period from the 1950s to the 1980s, concerns about global population growth and its effects on poverty, environmental degradation and political stability led to efforts to reduce population growth rates. While population control can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, a few programmes, most notably the Chinese government's one-child per family policy, have resorted to coercive measures.

In the 1970s, tension grew between population control advocates and women's health activists who advanced women's reproductive rights as part of a human rights-based approach.[22] Growing opposition to the narrow population control focus led to a significant change in population control policies in the early 1980s.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population". Biology Online. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Definition of population (biology)". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 December 2012. a community of animals, plants, or humans among whose members interbreeding occurs 
  3. ^ Hartl, Daniel (2007). Principles of Population Genetics. Sinauer Associates. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-87893-308-2. 
  4. ^ Hartl, Daniel (2007). Principles of Population Genetics. Sinauer Associates. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-87893-308-2. 
  5. ^ Fisher, R. A. (1999). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850440-3. 
  6. ^ Gordon, Ian L. (2000). "Quantitative genetics of allogamous F2 : an origin of randomly fertilized populations". Heredity 85: 43–52. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00716.x. PMID 10971690. 
  7. ^ Gordon, Ian L. (2001). "Quantitative genetics of autogamous F2". Hereditas 134 (3): 255–262. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.2001.00255.x. PMID 11833289. 
  8. ^ U.S. Census Bureau – World Pop Clock Projection
  9. ^ to a World of Seven Billion People UNFPA 12.9.2011
  10. ^ "Cities in Nigeria: 2005 Population Estimates – MongaBay.com". Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  11. ^ "Country Profile: Nigeria". BBC News. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  12. ^ Haub, C. 1995/2004. "How Many People Have Ever Lived On Earth?" Population Today, http://www.prb.org/Articles/2002/HowManyPeopleHaveEverLivedonEarth.aspx
  13. ^ a b As graphically illustrated by population since 10,000BC and population since 1000AD
  14. ^ "The end of India's green revolution?". BBC News. 29 May 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  15. ^ Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy
  16. ^ "World population will increase by 2.5 US billion/2500 million by 2050; people over 60 to increase by more than 1 US billion/1000 million" (Press release). United Nations Population Division. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2007. The world population continues its path towards population ageing and is on track to surpass 9 billion persons by 2050. 
  17. ^ World Population Development Statistics: Forecast, United Nations, 2011.
  18. ^ "The End of World Population Growth". Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  19. ^ Ojovan M.I., Loshchinin M.B. Heuristic Paradoxes of S.P. Kapitza Theoretical Demography. European Researcher, 92 (3), 237-248 (2015). http://www.erjournal.ru/journals_n/1427563722.pdf (2015)
  20. ^ Shackman, Gene, Xun Wang and Ya-Lin Liu. 2011. Brief review of world population trends. Available at http://gsociology.icaap.org/report/demsum.html
  21. ^ a b http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Populations.html
  22. ^ Knudsen, Lara (2006). Reproductive Rights in a Global Context. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780826515285. 
  23. ^ Knudsen, Lara (2006). Reproductive Rights in a Global Context. Vanderbilt University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9780826515285. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

World Population

Watch human population grow from 1 CE to present and see projected growth in under six minutes. One dot = 1 million people. © Population Connection, 2015.

Population, Sustainability, and Malthus: Crash Course World History 215

In which John Green teaches you about population. So, how many people can reasonably live on the Earth? Thomas Malthus got it totally wrong in the 19th ...

Population pyramids: Powerful predictors of the future - Kim Preshoff

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/population-pyramids-powerful-predictors-of-the-future-kim-preshoff Population statistics are like crystal balls -- when ...

Earth 2025 : POPULATION EXPLOSION - AFTERMATH (Full Documentary)

Watch More full Documentary Truth About ALIEN: How THEY LIVE AMONG US! Best Evidence (Full Documentary) ...

Jim Marrs Reveals the Agenda of the Elite: Population Control

David Knight talks with Jim Marrs about the eugenics agenda of the globalists and how it is designed to let them rule and control the population that they decide ...

Hans Rosling's Yardstick of Wealth - Don't Panic - The Truth About Population - BBC Two

More about this programme: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03h8r1j Hans Rosling is famous for presenting public data about the world with the style and ...

Hans Rosling: Global population growth, box by box

http://www.ted.com The world's population will grow to 9 billion over the next 50 years -- and only by raising the living standards of the poorest can we check ...

7 Billion: How Did We Get So Big So Fast?

http://skunkbear.tumblr.com It was just over two centuries ago that the global population was 1 billion — in 1804. But better medicine and improved agriculture ...

Projet de réduction massive de la population mondiale

Du fait du perfectionnement des techniques, l'élite aura un pouvoir grandement accru sur les masses, et comme le travail humain ne sera plus nécessaire, les ...

Population Growth

The growing world population affects food and water supplies, ecological balance, and the overall quality of life for everyone. This animation presents a variety ...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

76156653 news items

Lincoln Journal Star

Lincoln Journal Star
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 14:56:15 -0700

Faced with declining rural populations, Kansas decided in 2011 to offer incentives to people who move to rural counties that are losing population. The state offers state income-tax breaks to people from out of state and will repay some student loans.

Business Insider

Business Insider
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 17:22:32 -0700

The number of China's single men could exceed the entire population of Australia in five years' time, a Fujian government statistician has calculated. There are likely to be 118.9 boys born for every 100 girls by 2020, Yao Meixiong, deputy director of ...

KXNet.com

KXNet.com
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 18:18:45 -0700

But, the Director of the state's Department of Corrections says the female inmate population is climbing as well. "We're experiencing the same type of rapid growth in the female population as well. Probably a little more rapid growth although they're ...

Reno Gazette Journal

Reno Gazette Journal
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:32:36 -0700

Loosen that belt a bit, Northern Nevada. A wide-ranging study is projecting significant growth in Washoe County and surrounding areas in the next five years. The study, which was commissioned by the Economic Planning Indicator Committee, projects ...

CNSNews.com

CNSNews.com
Sun, 30 Aug 2015 11:00:00 -0700

(CNSNews.com) - Roman Catholic Bishop Thomas John Paprocki of Springfield, Ill., said in a sermon delivered on Aug. 16 that a lack of young people may pose a greater threat to national well-being than population growth. “The prospect of an additional ...

KTVN

KTVN
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 16:03:45 -0700

"How we handle our projected job and population growth will be key to our region's future success. That's why our Reno City Council has pinpointed planning for growth as a top priority," stated Reno Mayor Hillary Schieve. "We thank EDAWN and the EPIC ...
 
Buffalo News
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 15:18:45 -0700

BATAVIA – Enrollment through New York State's health insurance exchange has increased Genesee County's Medicaid population to nearly 12,000, a number that mystifies its county's social services commissioner. “That's the number that the state is giving ...

Newsday

Newsday
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 10:35:11 -0700

New York City's increasingly visible homeless population is "real" and the city is trying to give people the tools they need to get off the streets, Mayor Bill de Blasio said Tuesday in his second WNYC radio interview in two weeks. The mayor again took ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight