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Tranquillizers, sleeping pills, opiates and alcohol.
Alcohol and benzodiazepines
Polydrug use
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F19

Polydrug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low.[1]

Risks[edit]

Polydrug use often carries with it more risk than use of a single drug, due to an increase in side effects, and drug synergy. The potentiating effect of one drug on another is sometimes considerable and here the licit drugs and medicines – such as alcohol, nicotine and antidepressants – have to be considered in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substances. The risk level will depend on the dosage level of both substances. Concerns exist about a number of pharmacological pairings: alcohol and cocaine increase cardiovascular toxicity; alcohol or depressant drugs, when taken with opioids, lead to an increased risk of overdose; and opioids or cocaine taken with ecstasy or amphetamines also result in additional acute toxicity.[2] Benzodiazepines are notorious for causing death when mixed with other CNS depressants such as opioids, alcohol, or barbiturates.[3][4][5]

Scheduling[edit]

Within the general concept of multiple drug use, several specific meanings of the term must be considered. At one extreme is planned use, where the effects of more than one drug are taken for a desired effect. Another type is when other drugs are used to counteract the negative side effects of a different drug (e.g. depressants are used to counteract anxiety and restlessness from taking stimulants). On the other hand, the use of several substances in an intensive and chaotic way, simultaneously or consecutively, in many cases each drug substituting for another according to availability.[2]

Research[edit]

The phenomenon is the subject of established academic literature.[6]

A study among treatment admissions found that it is more common for younger people to report polydrug drug use.[7]

MDMA taken in combination with or the day after low doses of viagra (20mg) has been shown to reduce MDMA-induced serotonin deficit in rats by increasing resistance to MDMA-induced oxidative stress.[8][9]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index34913EN.html
  2. ^ a b EMCDDA Annual Report 2006 ch. 8
  3. ^ Serfaty M, Masterton G (1993). "Fatal poisonings attributed to benzodiazepines in Britain during the 1980s". Br J Psychiatry 163: 386–93. doi:10.1192/bjp.163.3.386. PMID 8104653. 
  4. ^ Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Whyte IM, O'Connell DL. (1995). "[Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines in overdose.]". BMJ 310 (6974): 219–21. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6974.219. PMC 2548618. PMID 7866122. 
  5. ^ Drummer OH; Ranson DL (December 1996). "Sudden death and benzodiazepines". Am J Forensic Med Pathol 17 (4): 336–42. doi:10.1097/00000433-199612000-00012. PMID 8947361. 
  6. ^ Scholey AB, Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Rodgers J (June 2004). "Increased intensity of Ecstasy and polydrug usage in the more experienced recreational Ecstasy/MDMA users: a WWW study". Addict Behav 29 (4): 743–52. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.022. PMID 15135556. 
  7. ^ "Polydrug Use Among Treatment Admissions: 1998." OAS Home: Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Abuse and Mental Health Data from SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. [1]
  8. ^ Puerta, E.; Hervias, I.; Goñi-Allo, B.; Lasheras, B.; Jordan, J.; Aguirre, N. (2009). "Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors prevent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced 5-HT deficits in the rat". Journal of Neurochemistry 108 (3): 755–766. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05825.x. PMID 19187094.  edit
  9. ^ Puerta, E.; Barros-Miñones, L.; Hervias, I.; Gomez-Rodriguez, V.; Orejana, L.; Pizarro, N.; De La Torre, R.; Jordán, J. N.; Aguirre, N. (2011). "Long-lasting neuroprotective effect of sildenafil against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine- induced 5-hydroxytryptamine deficits in the rat brain". Journal of Neuroscience Research 90 (2): n/a. doi:10.1002/jnr.22759.  edit

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poly_drug_use — Please support Wikipedia.
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74 news items

Irish Examiner

Irish Examiner
Thu, 16 Apr 2015 18:30:00 -0700

Justice spokesman Niall Collins said the treatment services were “too focused on treatment for heroin addicts” and needed to cater for poly-drug use, as well as alcohol and cannabis, including synthetic cannabis. Mr Collins said he would not rule out ...

International Business Times AU

International Business Times AU
Mon, 30 Mar 2015 15:20:42 -0700

The report said the number of ice users has also increased with the practice of consuming more than one drug or “poly-drug use” and taking drugs with alcohol. The report has prompted Australia's Justice Minister Michael Keenan to warn against addiction ...

The Daily Telegraph

RTT News
Wed, 25 Mar 2015 05:22:30 -0700

The report highlights a greater tendency toward poly-drug use across Australia's illicit drug market, increasing the pool of methyl amphetamine users. It also outlines the pervasiveness of serious and organised crime groups, who are now dealing in ...
 
Cork News
Thu, 16 Apr 2015 14:27:36 -0700

The show aired just hours after Fianna Fáil published a National Drugs Action Plan to respond to the escalating drugs crisis, and the changes in patterns of drug abuse including poly–drug use and the sale and abuse of prescription drugs. The plan is ...

ABC Local

ABC Local
Wed, 01 Apr 2015 22:44:07 -0700

Scott's background is one of poly drug use. He has spent considerable amounts of time and effort learning to live illicit drugs and alcohol free lifestyle. Scott's youth was spent misusing and abusing alcohol and other drugs, which bought him into both ...

Sydney Morning Herald

Sydney Morning Herald
Tue, 07 Apr 2015 07:15:00 -0700

Among the worrying trends for police and health authorities is the growing tendency to multiple substance consumption - sometimes referred to as "poly-drug use" - including the consumption of ice. According to a major Australian Crime Commission report ...

Novinite.com

Novinite.com
Fri, 20 Mar 2015 01:06:07 -0700

According to government statistics, while the number of regular drug users in Bulgaria has not fluctuated much in recent years, poly-drug use has increased and presents a challenge for traditional methods of treatment. The authors of the report remind ...
 
Cowra Community News
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 18:41:15 -0700

The report highlights a greater tendency toward poly-drug use across Australia's illicit drug market, says Mr Dawson, increasing the pool of methylamphetamine users. “It also outlines the pervasiveness of serious and organised crime groups, who are now ...
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