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Tranquillizers, sleeping pills, opiates and alcohol.
Alcohol and benzodiazepines
Polydrug use
Classification and external resources
Specialty psychiatry
ICD-10 F19

Polydrug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low.[1]

Risks[edit]

Polydrug use often carries with it more risk than use of a single drug, due to an increase in side effects, and drug synergy. The potentiating effect of one drug on another is sometimes considerable and here the licit drugs and medicines – such as alcohol, nicotine and antidepressants – have to be considered in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substances. The risk level will depend on the dosage level of both substances. Concerns exist about a number of pharmacological pairings: alcohol and cocaine increase cardiovascular toxicity; alcohol or depressant drugs, when taken with opioids, lead to an increased risk of overdose; and opioids or cocaine taken with ecstasy or amphetamines also result in additional acute toxicity.[2] Benzodiazepines are notorious for causing death when mixed with other CNS depressants such as opioids, alcohol, or barbiturates.[3][4][5]

Scheduling[edit]

Within the general concept of multiple drug use, several specific meanings of the term must be considered. At one extreme is planned use, where the effects of more than one drug are taken for a desired effect. Another type is when other drugs are used to counteract the negative side effects of a different drug (e.g. depressants are used to counteract anxiety and restlessness from taking stimulants). On the other hand, the use of several substances in an intensive and chaotic way, simultaneously or consecutively, in many cases each drug substituting for another according to availability.[2]

Research[edit]

The phenomenon is the subject of established academic literature.[6]

A study among treatment admissions found that it is more common for younger people to report polydrug drug use.[7]

MDMA taken in combination with or the day after low doses of viagra (20mg) has been shown to reduce MDMA-induced serotonin deficit in rats by increasing resistance to MDMA-induced oxidative stress.[8][9]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index34913EN.html
  2. ^ a b EMCDDA Annual Report 2006 ch. 8
  3. ^ Serfaty M, Masterton G (1993). "Fatal poisonings attributed to benzodiazepines in Britain during the 1980s". Br J Psychiatry 163: 386–93. doi:10.1192/bjp.163.3.386. PMID 8104653. 
  4. ^ Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Whyte IM, O'Connell DL. (1995). "[Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines in overdose.]". BMJ 310 (6974): 219–21. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6974.219. PMC 2548618. PMID 7866122. 
  5. ^ Drummer OH; Ranson DL (December 1996). "Sudden death and benzodiazepines". Am J Forensic Med Pathol 17 (4): 336–42. doi:10.1097/00000433-199612000-00012. PMID 8947361. 
  6. ^ Scholey AB, Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Rodgers J (June 2004). "Increased intensity of Ecstasy and polydrug usage in the more experienced recreational Ecstasy/MDMA users: a WWW study". Addict Behav 29 (4): 743–52. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.022. PMID 15135556. 
  7. ^ "Polydrug Use Among Treatment Admissions: 1998." OAS Home: Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Abuse and Mental Health Data from SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. [1]
  8. ^ Puerta, E.; Hervias, I.; Goñi-Allo, B.; Lasheras, B.; Jordan, J.; Aguirre, N. (2009). "Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors prevent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced 5-HT deficits in the rat". Journal of Neurochemistry 108 (3): 755–766. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05825.x. PMID 19187094.  edit
  9. ^ Puerta, E.; Barros-Miñones, L.; Hervias, I.; Gomez-Rodriguez, V.; Orejana, L.; Pizarro, N.; De La Torre, R.; Jordán, J. N.; Aguirre, N. (2011). "Long-lasting neuroprotective effect of sildenafil against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine- induced 5-hydroxytryptamine deficits in the rat brain". Journal of Neuroscience Research 90 (2): n/a. doi:10.1002/jnr.22759.  edit

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poly_drug_use — Please support Wikipedia.
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81 news items

Irish Examiner

Irish Examiner
Wed, 29 Jul 2015 17:00:00 -0700

... testing) checkpoints were performed at various locations, with 9,112 breath tests carried out and 144 DUI (driving under the influence) arrests. The figures did not indicate how many of the arrests were down to drug-driving, or poly-drug use ...

Irish Times

Irish Times
Tue, 14 Jul 2015 10:48:45 -0700

“One is the potential for drug decriminalisation, secondly is to talk about the potential for the introduction of consumption rooms, and third is to tackle this epidemic, in my view, of poly drug use.” The Minister also said he was confident the Misuse ...

Irish Examiner

Irish Examiner
Thu, 09 Jul 2015 16:26:15 -0700

Mr Ó Ríordáin told the committee there had been an increasing trend towards poly-drug use, involving a combination of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription medication. The national drugs strategy aims to tackle the harm caused to individuals and ...

RTE.ie

RTE.ie
Thu, 09 Jul 2015 04:19:32 -0700

Mr Ó Ríordáin, who has responsibility for Drugs Strategy, told the committee that there has been an increasing trend towards poly-drug use, involving alcohol, illicit drugs and prescription medication, and this was a major concern for Government. The ...

Perth Now

Perth Now
Wed, 22 Jul 2015 00:07:30 -0700

“Alcohol addiction goes hand in hand with poly-drug use sadly and AOD workers such as those at CAAAPU need to be provided with up-to-date training in the identification and treatment of Ice and how to safely manage people who may be affected. “It is ...
 
BMC Blogs Network
Mon, 23 Mar 2015 22:02:25 -0700

Comparisons on several clinical and back-ground variables demonstrated that the patients had on average eight years of regular dependence on heroin and poly-drug use of the same severity as opiate dependent patients in other maintenance programs [12] ...

VICE

VICE
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 08:19:29 -0800

Over the last decade Ireland's street drug culture has changed rapidly. These days you're more likely to find Dublin's street dealers selling Zimmovanes—strong sleeping tablets commonly known as "Zimmos"—or benzodiazepines—sedative drugs like Valium ...
 
Aidsmap
Thu, 19 Apr 2007 16:57:29 -0700

Several gay men's health promotion agencies have expressed concern that gay men are more likely than the general population to smoke, with some offering smoking cessation courses. Because of these concerns, the survey, for the first time, included ...
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