digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Tranquillizers, sleeping pills, opiates and alcohol.
Alcohol and benzodiazepines
Poly drug use
Classification and external resources
Specialty psychiatry
ICD-10 F19

Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low.[1]

Risks[edit]

Poly drug use often carries with it more risk than use of a single drug, due to an increase in side effects, and drug synergy. The potentiating effect of one drug on another is sometimes considerable and here the licit drugs and medicines – such as alcohol, nicotine and antidepressants – have to be considered in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substances. The risk level will depend on the dosage level of both substances. If the drugs taken are illegal, they have a chance of being mixed (also known as "cutting") with other substances which dealers are reported to do to increase the perceived quantity when selling to others to increase their returns. This is particularly common with powdered drugs such as cocaine or MDMA which can be mixed with relative ease by adding another white powdery substance to the drug. This cumulative effect can lead to further unintended harm to health dependant on what is being maliciously added. Concerns also exist about a number of pharmacological pairings: alcohol and cocaine increase cardiovascular toxicity; alcohol or depressant drugs, when taken with opioids, lead to an increased risk of overdose; and opioids or cocaine taken with ecstasy or amphetamines also result in additional acute toxicity.[2] Benzodiazepines are notorious for causing death when mixed with other CNS depressants such as opioids, alcohol, or barbiturates.[3][4][5]

Scheduling[edit]

Within the general concept of multiple drug use, several specific meanings of the term must be considered. At one extreme is planned use, where the effects of more than one drug are taken for a desired effect. Another type is when other drugs are used to counteract the negative side effects of a different drug (e.g. depressants are used to counteract anxiety and restlessness from taking stimulants). On the other hand, the use of several substances in an intensive and chaotic way, simultaneously or consecutively, in many cases each drug substituting for another according to availability.[2]

Research[edit]

The phenomenon is the subject of established academic literature.[6]

A study among treatment admissions found that it is more common for younger people to report polydrug drug use.[7]

MDMA taken in combination with or the day after low doses of viagra (20mg) has been shown to reduce MDMA-induced serotonin deficit in rats by increasing resistance to MDMA-induced oxidative stress.[8][9]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index34913EN.html
  2. ^ a b EMCDDA Annual Report 2006 ch. 8
  3. ^ Serfaty M, Masterton G (1993). "Fatal poisonings attributed to benzodiazepines in Britain during the 1980s". Br J Psychiatry 163: 386–93. doi:10.1192/bjp.163.3.386. PMID 8104653. 
  4. ^ Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Whyte IM, O'Connell DL. (1995). "[Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines in overdose.]". BMJ 310 (6974): 219–21. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6974.219. PMC 2548618. PMID 7866122. 
  5. ^ Drummer OH; Ranson DL (December 1996). "Sudden death and benzodiazepines". Am J Forensic Med Pathol 17 (4): 336–42. doi:10.1097/00000433-199612000-00012. PMID 8947361. 
  6. ^ Scholey AB, Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Rodgers J (June 2004). "Increased intensity of Ecstasy and polydrug usage in the more experienced recreational Ecstasy/MDMA users: a WWW study". Addict Behav 29 (4): 743–52. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.022. PMID 15135556. 
  7. ^ "Polydrug Use Among Treatment Admissions: 1998." OAS Home: Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Abuse and Mental Health Data from SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. [1]
  8. ^ Puerta, E.; Hervias, I.; Goñi-Allo, B.; Lasheras, B.; Jordan, J.; Aguirre, N. (2009). "Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors prevent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced 5-HT deficits in the rat". Journal of Neurochemistry 108 (3): 755–766. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05825.x. PMID 19187094. 
  9. ^ Puerta, E.; Barros-Miñones, L.; Hervias, I.; Gomez-Rodriguez, V.; Orejana, L.; Pizarro, N.; De La Torre, R.; Jordán, J. N.; Aguirre, N. (2011). "Long-lasting neuroprotective effect of sildenafil against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine- induced 5-hydroxytryptamine deficits in the rat brain". Journal of Neuroscience Research 90 (2): n/a. doi:10.1002/jnr.22759. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poly_drug_use — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
5834 videos foundNext > 

Marijuana & Heroin: "The Terrible Truth" 1951 Sid Davis Productions

more at http://quickfound.net/links/history_search_and_news.html "Early (and sensational) film on marijuana use as a route to heroin addiction." Also see ...

Smart and Safe - Understanding Risk - Polydrug Use

Concepts explored • polydrug use • responsible use of medication • personal resilience • communication • accessing help and adolescent support services.

Mephedrone Bolsters Illegal Drug Use

Experienced clubbers are more likely to add the former 'legal high' mephedrone to their drug repertoires rather than use it to replace popular established club ...

Polydrug Abuse and Nicotine

PDHPE - Poly-Drug Use Video

This video displays the consequences of poly-drug use and how it affects different people.

I have done every drug || Recovery from addiction

I have done a lot of drugs. I wanted to stop for a long time before I did. How did I change my addictive behavior? Check out 30 Days, a self-guided program to ...

4.3 Drugs

By David Elwin Lewis, PhD Topics include drug types, patterns of drug use, polydrug abuse, kinds of stimulants, kinds of depressants, and kinds of ...

Corporate Video Polydrug- Pharma Manufacturing

The Haynes Clinic - Addiction

The Haynes Clinic is an exclusive rehabilitation centre for the treatment of addiction and alcohol dependency. The Haynes Clinic is located approximately 40 ...

Polydrug Meaning

Video shows what polydrug means. Of, pertaining to, or using multiple different drugs. Polydrug Meaning. How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. How to ...

5834 videos foundNext > 

176 news items

 
UC Santa Cruz
Fri, 15 Apr 2016 14:40:11 -0700

Although many associate this event with just marijuana, our experience has been that there are high levels of poly-drug use in the meadow. This includes alcohol, prescription drugs, Ecstasy (MDMA), LSD, mushrooms, and other drugs. Moreover, those ...

Herald Sun

Herald Sun
Fri, 22 Apr 2016 07:03:06 -0700

Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association executive officer Sam Biondo said the statistics showed “poly drug use in the community”. “Pharmaceuticals are causing the most deaths in this community, and usually, they are in combination with other substances ...

hotpress.com

hotpress.com
Wed, 20 Jan 2016 08:17:42 -0800

Huge numbers of you have been completing this year's Global Drug Survey which, with the government green lighting supervised injecting rooms and generally moving towards a Portuguese decriminalisation model, is more relevant than ever. Following last ...

Irish Medical Times

Irish Medical Times
Mon, 25 Apr 2016 04:48:45 -0700

It notes that the trend has “mainly been seen in chaotic drug users, who report poly-drug use, and are often homeless” with the patterns of use of the drug being associated with “more frequent injecting, and unsafe sexual and needle-sharing practices”.

TodayFM

TodayFM
Wed, 18 Nov 2015 02:41:15 -0800

Recent results of a National Student Drug survey found that 34% of students have used an unknown white powder or an unknown pill-and evidence suggests that there is a increase of poly drug use. The documentary looks at the issues around drug dealing, ...

Bangor Daily News

Bangor Daily News
Mon, 29 Feb 2016 04:53:12 -0800

It depends on the strength of the prescribed opioid, body chemistry, existing dependence/addiction issues, existing lung, heart or liver conditions, poly-drug use, whether a person has tolerance, whether a person understands the implication of the ...

AlterNet

AlterNet
Sat, 30 Jan 2016 20:47:36 -0800

The few deaths where kratom is implicated include poly-drug use, or as in a case reported by the New York Times, suicide by a young kratom user who was also being treated for depression. "Direct kratom overdoses from the life-threatening respiratory ...

Irish Times

Irish Times
Fri, 01 Apr 2016 22:03:42 -0700

Over the past few decades the historical heroin problem has given way to a poly-drug-use problem, with methadone-prescribed heroin users and others frequently topping up their drug use with alcohol, increasingly strong strains of cannabis and black ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight