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Coordinates: 50°20′2.98″N 4°8′55.18″W / 50.3341611°N 4.1486611°W / 50.3341611; -4.1486611

Plymouth breakwater from Kingsand showing the 1844 lighthouse and the Breakwater Fort beyond.
Plymouth breakwater from Wembury.
Plymouth breakwater, viewed from above Kingsand.

Plymouth Breakwater is a 1,560-metre (1,710 yd) stone breakwater protecting Plymouth Sound and the anchorages near Plymouth, Devon, England. It is 13 metres (43 ft) wide at the top and the base is 65 metres (213 ft). It lies in about 10 metres (33 ft) of water. Around 4 million tons of rock were used in its construction in 1812 at the then-colossal cost of £1.5 million (equivalent to £87.2 million today).


In 1806, as the Napoleonic Wars impended, Lord St. Vincent commissioned John Rennie and Joseph Whidbey to plan a means of making Plymouth Bay a safe anchorage for the Channel Fleet. In 1811 came the order to begin construction; Whidbey was appointed Acting Superintending Engineer. This task required great engineering, organizational and political skills, as the many strictly technical challenges were complicated by the significant resources devoted to the project, from which various parties evidenced a desire for advantage. Nearly 4,000,000 (four million) tons of stone were quarried and transported, using about a dozen ships innovatively designed by the two engineers. A paper to the Royal Society suggests that Whidbey found many fossils as a result of the quarrying necessary to the breakwater.[1]

The foundation stone was laid on Shovel Rock on August 8, 1812. It followed a line over Panther Rock, Shovel and St. Carlos Rocks, and was sufficiently completed by 1814 to shelter ships of the line. Napoleon was reported as commenting that the breakwater was a grand thing, as he passed by it on the way to exile on St. Helena in 1815.

Severe storm damage in 1817 and 1824 prompted a change in the profile and height. Whidbey continued to work on the breakwater and other engineering projects, including the breakwater's lighthouse (designed by Walker & Burgess for Trinity House), until retirement around 1830. It was finished by 1841, the final work being finished by Rennie's son, Sir John Rennie. The lighthouse became operational in 1844, and soon afterwards a horse-drawn omnibus was driven from end to end, with a full complement of passengers and accompanied by a military band.[2] A beacon was placed at the eastern end, consisting of a 6-foot (1.8 m) spherical cage on a 17-foot (5.2 m) pole; the cage was designed as a refuge for six shipwrecked sailors.[3]

Plymouth Breakwater Fort[edit]

Plymouth Breakwater Fort from inside the Sound

In 1860, a Royal Commission, established by Lord Palmerston, produced a plan for the defence of Plymouth and other Royal Dockyards.[4] The Breakwater Fort was designed to defend the entrances to Plymouth Sound in conjunction with forts and batteries on either shore. Designed by Captain Siborne, work on the oval masonry sea fort started in 1861 and the main structure was completed in 1865. It has its foundations on Shovel Rock and is 35 yards inside the Breakwater. After several changes in plan, the fort was finally armed in 1879 with fourteen 12.5-inch and four 10-inch rifled muzzle-loading guns in armoured casemates. Although the fort had been disarmed before World War I, it served as a signal station, and from 1937, an anti-aircraft training school. It was finally released by the military in 1976.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Whidbey, Joseph (1817). "A Farther Account of Fossil Bones Discovered in Caverns Inclosed in the Lime Stone Rocks at Plymouth". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 111. pp. 133–135. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 
  2. ^ Plymouth Times, 27 July 1844
  3. ^ Moseley, Brian (26 February 2013). "[Plymouth] Breakwater". The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "The Breakwater Fort, Plymouth - the Palmerston battery at the mouth of the Sound". BBC. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth_Breakwater — Please support Wikipedia.
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Plymouth Herald

Plymouth Herald
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 23:47:26 -0700

THE HERALD has been given exclusive access inside one of the city's most out-of-reach structures – Plymouth Breakwater. As these incredible pictures show, the iconic fort has seen many different uses since being built in the late 19th century ...

Plymouth Herald

Plymouth Herald
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 10:22:30 -0800

Now in its fourth year, the Plymouth Breakwater swim regularly attracts around 180 swimmers to the event which has raised over £60,000 for the Chestnut Appeal. This year the swim will take place on Sunday, August 16. “Its an amazing event and if you ...

BBC News

BBC News
Sun, 08 Mar 2015 10:15:04 -0700

The men, who were in their 20s and 50s, were diving with a group close to the city's breakwater when they failed to surface at about 11:30 GMT. Two Plymouth lifeboats and a rescue helicopter from RMB Chivenor were called to search for them. A lifeboat ...

Plymouth Herald

Plymouth Herald
Thu, 12 Mar 2015 23:00:33 -0700

Children can wave goodbye to Saturday boredom by helping create a giant collage inspired by Plymouth Breakwater. The British Science Week event is free, flows 11am-3pm and is at City Museum and Art Gallery. Laugh? I nearly choked on my pasty.

Plymouth Herald

Plymouth Herald
Fri, 20 Mar 2015 08:31:01 -0700

In May, professional divers will survey sea life on the drop-off zone, where the depth suddenly increases, two miles south of Plymouth Breakwater. You can find out more and put your comments to Defra at http://www.wildlifetrusts.org/mcz. Share0 Share0 ...
Plymouth Herald
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 23:45:00 -0700

Families will have the opportunity to work with the illustrator to create a huge collage in the shape of the giant wave breakers used to reinforce Plymouth's Breakwater. The following week families can meet real specimens from the museum's natural ...

Plymouth Herald

Plymouth Herald
Sat, 07 Mar 2015 04:30:27 -0800

WEST HOE PIERSheltered by Plymouth Breakwater and Drake's Island, the horseshoe-shaped pier provides a popular vantage point. Most anglers float-fish for mackerel and garfish, plus resident small pollack, while fishing with big baits after dark ...

Plymouth Herald

Plymouth Herald
Sat, 04 Oct 2014 06:00:52 -0700

THE genius engineer behind Plymouth's famous breakwater has finally been recognised in his homeland - nearly 200 years after his death. John Rennie, considered an unsung hero in Scotland for deigning the Leith Dock, has been inducted into the Scottish ...

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