(DC.) Quél. 1872
|gills on hymenium|
cap is depressedor offset
|hymenium is decurrent|
|stipe is bare|
|spore print is white|
|ecology is saprotrophic|
Pleurotus eryngii (also known as king trumpet mushroom, French horn mushroom, king oyster mushroom, king brown mushroom, boletus of the steppes, trumpet royale) is an edible mushroom native to Mediterranean regions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, but also grown in many parts of Asia.
In Italian it is called cardoncello; in Chinese, it is called xìng bào gū (杏鮑菇, lit. "apricot abalone mushroom"), cì qín gū (刺芹菇, lit. "thorny celery mushroom"), or cì qín cè ěr (刺芹側耳, lit. "thorny celery bended ear"); in Korean, it is called "saesongi peoseot" (새송이버섯, lit. "new pine mushroom"); in Japanese, it is called eringi (katakana: エリンギ).
P. eryngii is the largest species in the oyster mushroom genus, Pleurotus, which also contains the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. It has a thick, meaty white stem and a small tan cap (in young specimens). Its natural range extends from the Atlantic Ocean through the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe into Western Asia and India. Unlike other species of Pleurotus, which are wood-decay fungi, the P. eryngii complex are weak parasites on the roots of herbaceous plants, although they may also be cultured on organic wastes.
Its species name is derived from the fact that it grows in association with the roots of Eryngium campestre or other Eryngium plants (English names: 'Sea Holly' or 'Eryngo'). P. eryngii is a species complex, and a number of varieties have been described, with differing plant associates in the carrot family (Apiaceae).
- P. eryngii var. eryngii (DC.) Quél 1872 - associated with Eryngium ssp.
- P. eryngii var. ferulae (Lanzi) Sacc. 1887 - associated with Ferula communis
- P. eryngii var. tingitanus Lewinsohn 2002 - associated with Ferula tingitana
- P. eryngii var. elaeoselini Venturella, Zervakis & La Rocca 2000 - associated with Elaeoselinum asclepium
- P. eryngii var. thapsiae Venturella, Zervakis & Saitta 2002 - associated with Thapsia garganica
The mushroom has a good shelf life. An effective cultivation method was introduced to Japan around 1993 and has become popular there in a variety of dishes, and is now cultivated and sold commercially in Australia. Imported product is also commercially available in Australia and South Africa. It is also cultivated in China, South Korea, Italy, and the United States. It has little flavor or aroma when raw. When cooked, it develops typical mushroom umami flavors with a texture similar to that of abalone.
Pleurotus eryngii may naturally contain chemicals that stimulate the immune system.
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- Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada & Daniel J. Royse (February 2008). "Pleurotus eryngii and P. nebrodensis: from the wild to commercial production". Mushroom News.
- Zervakis, Georgios I.; Venturella, Giuseppe; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi (2001). "Genetic polymorphism and taxonomic infrastructure of the Pleurotus eryngii species-complex as determined by RAPD analysis, isozyme profiles and ecomorphological characters". Microbiology 147 (11): 3183–3194.
- Lewinsohn, D.; Wasser, S.P.; Reshetnikov, S.V.; Hadar, Y.; Nevo, E. (2002). "The Pleurotus eryngii species-complex in Israel: Distribution and morphological description of a New Taxon". Mycotaxon 81: 51–67.
- Venturella, G.; Zervakis, G.; La Rocca, S. (2000). "Pleurotus eryngii var. elaeoselini var. nov. from Sicily". Mycotaxon 76: 419–427.
- Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada, Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco and Daniel J. Royse (May–June 2010). "Pleurotus eryngii species complex: Sequence analysis and phylogeny based on partial EF1α and RPB2 genes". Fungal Biology 114 (5-6): 421–428. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2010.03.003. PMID 20943152.
- Venturella, G., G. Zervakis & A. Saitta (2002). "Pleurotus eryngii var. thapsiae var. nov. from Sicily". Mycotaxon 81: 69–74.
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- Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y. (Aug 2008), "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 alpha/beta TCR-double positive cells in vitro", Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 373 (3): 435–9, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.047, PMID 18577373
- Rudabe Ravash, Behrouz Shiran, Aziz-Allah Alavi, Fereshteh Bayat, Saeideh Rajaee and Georgios I. Zervakis. "Genetic variability and molecular phylogeny of Pleurotus eryngii species-complex isolates from Iran, and notes on the systematics of Asiatic populations". Mycological Progress 9 (2): 181–194. doi:10.1007/s11557-009-0624-2.
- Abdollahzadeh, J., M.R. Asef and T. Mirmahmoodi (2007). "The Pleurotus eryngii species-complex in Kurdistan region of Iran". Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10: 3006–3009. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2007.3006.3009.
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