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Pleurotus eryngii
Pleurotus eryngii.jpg
Pleurotus eryngii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Pleurotaceae
Genus: Pleurotus
Species: P. eryngii
Binomial name
Pleurotus eryngii
(DC.) Quél. 1872
Pleurotus eryngii
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is depressed

or offset
hymenium is decurrent
stipe is bare
spore print is white
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: choice

Pleurotus eryngii (also known as king trumpet mushroom, French horn mushroom, king oyster mushroom, king brown mushroom, boletus of the steppes,[Note 1] trumpet royale) is an edible mushroom native to Mediterranean regions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, but also grown in many parts of Asia.[1]


P. eryngii is the largest species in the oyster mushroom genus, Pleurotus, which also contains the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. It has a thick, meaty white stem and a small tan cap (in young specimens). Its natural range extends from the Atlantic Ocean through the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe into Western Asia and India.[2] Unlike other species of Pleurotus, which are wood-decay fungi, the P. eryngii complex are weak parasites on the roots of herbaceous plants, although they may also be cultured on organic wastes.[3][2] Typically King Oysters are cultivated on substrates consisting of sawdust and bran, as much as 40% bran by dry weight has been used with good results. They have also been grown on spent brewers grain blended with hardwood sawdust with good results. The levels of CO2 greatly affects the shape of the fruit bodies. Grown outdoors or in a grow room with high air exchange the stems will be short and caps will be large. With higher concentrations of CO2 from low air exchange the fruits will develop thick long stems with small caps. Since the cap and stem have the same texture many commercial grows use a lower air exchange to achieve large thick fruits. This also saves on heating or cooling energy by reducing the volume of outside air to be tempered. King Oysters grow best under 60 °F, any warmer and they develop hollow stems. They also prefer much higher humidity than most other oyster mushrooms, around 95–99%.


Its species name is derived from the fact that it grows in association with the roots of Eryngium campestre or other Eryngium plants (English names: 'Sea Holly' or 'Eryngo'). P. eryngii is a species complex, and a number of varieties have been described, with differing plant associates in the carrot family (Apiaceae).

  • P. eryngii var. eryngii (DC.) Quél 1872 – associated with Eryngium ssp.
  • P. eryngii var. ferulae (Lanzi) Sacc. 1887 – associated with Ferula communis[4]
  • P. eryngii var. tingitanus Lewinsohn 2002 – associated with Ferula tingitana[4]
  • P. eryngii var. elaeoselini Venturella, Zervakis & La Rocca 2000 – associated with Elaeoselinum asclepium[5][6]
  • P. eryngii var. thapsiae Venturella, Zervakis & Saitta 2002 – associated with Thapsia garganica[7]

Other specimens of P. eryngii have been reported in association with plants in the genera Ferulago, Cachrys, Laserpitium, and Diplotaenia.[2]

Molecular studies have shown Pleurotus nebrodensis to be closely related to, but distinct from, P. eryngii.[2] Pleurotus fossulatus may be another closely related species.[2]


The mushroom has a good shelf life. An effective cultivation method was introduced to Japan around 1993 and has become popular there in a variety of dishes,[8] and is now cultivated and sold commercially in Australia. Imported product is also commercially available in Australia and South Africa. It is also cultivated in Taiwan, China, South Korea, Italy, and the United States.[3] It has little flavor or aroma when raw. When cooked, it develops typical mushroom umami flavors with a texture similar to that of abalone.

Pleurotus eryngii may naturally contain chemicals that stimulate the immune system.[9] Dietary intake of Pleurotus eryngii may function as natural cholesterol lowering dietary agent.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The name "boletus of the steppes" is misleading as Pleurotus eryngii is a gilled mushroom in order Agaricales and Boletus is a genus of mushrooms with pores rather than gills in order Boletales.


  1. ^ [1] Archived May 18, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e Zervakis, Georgios I.; Venturella, Giuseppe; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi (2001). "Genetic polymorphism and taxonomic infrastructure of the Pleurotus eryngii species-complex as determined by RAPD analysis, isozyme profiles and ecomorphological characters". Microbiology 147 (11): 3183–3194. doi:10.1099/00221287-147-11-3183. 
  3. ^ a b Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada & Daniel J. Royse (February 2008). "Pleurotus eryngii and P. nebrodensis: from the wild to commercial production". Mushroom News. 
  4. ^ a b Lewinsohn, D.; Wasser, S. P.; Reshetnikov, S. V.; Hadar, Y.; Nevo, E. (2002). "The Pleurotus eryngii species-complex in Israel: Distribution and morphological description of a New Taxon". Mycotaxon 81: 51–67. 
  5. ^ Venturella, G.; Zervakis, G.; La Rocca, S. (2000). "Pleurotus eryngii var. elaeoselini var. nov. from Sicily". Mycotaxon 76: 419–427. 
  6. ^ Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada, Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco and Daniel J. Royse (May–June 2010). "Pleurotus eryngii species complex: Sequence analysis and phylogeny based on partial EF1α and RPB2 genes". Fungal Biology 114 (5-6): 421–428. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2010.03.003. PMID 20943152. 
  7. ^ Venturella, G., G. Zervakis & A. Saitta (2002). "Pleurotus eryngii var. thapsiae var. nov. from Sicily". Mycotaxon 81: 69–74. 
  8. ^ [2] Archived December 15, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y. (Aug 2008), "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 alpha/beta TCR-double positive cells in vitro", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 373 (3): 435–9, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.047, PMID 18577373 
  10. ^ Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Tae Soo (Oct 2011). "Dietary effect of Pleurotus eryngii on biochemical function and histology in hypercholesterolemic rats". Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18 (4): 403–409. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.07.001. ISSN 1319-562X. PMC 3730794. PMID 23961153. 
  • Rudabe Ravash, Behrouz Shiran, Aziz-Allah Alavi, Fereshteh Bayat, Saeideh Rajaee and Georgios I. Zervakis. "Genetic variability and molecular phylogeny of Pleurotus eryngii species-complex isolates from Iran, and notes on the systematics of Asiatic populations". Mycological Progress 9 (2): 181–194. doi:10.1007/s11557-009-0624-2. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleurotus_eryngii — Please support Wikipedia.
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151 news items

Allgemeine Zeitung

Allgemeine Zeitung
Thu, 14 Jan 2016 17:30:00 -0800

Kräuterseitlinge (Pleurotus eryngii) kosten 14/10 Euro, Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) 13/9 Euro je Kilo. Zu den Trockenprodukten zählen Bio-Pilze im 20-Gramm-Glas (2,50 Euro), Bio-Pilzpulver im 30-Gramm-Glas (3,50 Euro) und Pilzbuttermischung (10 Gramm ...

Huffington Post (blog)

Huffington Post (blog)
Fri, 25 Jan 2013 13:39:57 -0800

Of all mushrooms commonly consumed, oyster mushrooms in the genus Pleurotus stand out as exceptional allies for improving human and environmental health. These mushrooms enjoy a terrific reputation as the easiest to cultivate, richly nutritious and ...

Korea JoongAng Daily

Korea JoongAng Daily
Wed, 18 Mar 2015 15:30:07 -0700

The KREI interviewed 190 B2B food merchandisers in 15 Chinese cities who identified 10 Korean fresh foods as having the best export prospects: fresh milk, Hanwoo (Korean beef), shiitake and pleurotus eryngii mushrooms, red pepper paste, soybean paste, ...

Blog.nl (Blog)

Blog.nl (Blog)
Wed, 09 Oct 2013 04:35:03 -0700

Daarom heet de paddenstoel officieel kruisdistelzwam (Pleurotus eryngii), maar hij wordt ook wel koningsoesterzwam genoemd. Deze koning onder de oesterzwammen groeit ook in delen van Azië. En als je wilt in jouw eigen kelder, want hij is prima thuis te ...

Scoop News

Scoop News
Tue, 28 Apr 2015 03:07:30 -0700

We have achieved food security by producing over 200 million tonnes of food grain. However, our struggle to achieve nutritional security is still on. In future, the ever-increasing population, depleting agricultural land, changes in environment, water ...

Dagens Nyheter

Dagens Nyheter
Sun, 27 Sep 2015 22:26:15 -0700

Smak och doft påminner om hasselnöt. På hattens undersida finns rör, som kan vara vita till gulgröna. Hatten kan vara olika nyanser av brun. Kungsmussling (pleurotus eryngii). Kallas ofta kejsarhatt i Sverige. En odlad svamp som är släkt med ...


Wed, 12 Jun 2013 05:56:15 -0700

"We produce giant blueberries in 150 greenhouses and, in the remaining 30, we grow Pleurotus Eryngii mushrooms, which are also known as trumpet mushrooms. We are the only ones producing giant blueberries in Central-Southern Italy," explains Sergio ...

La Nuova Sardegna

La Nuova Sardegna
Sun, 11 Oct 2015 20:05:19 -0700

Si tratta di un'antunna di ferula, il pleurotus eryngii, un fungo commestibile molto ricercato e apprezzato che cresce in questo periodo. dopo le piogge sulle radici morte della ferula. Decisamente un colpo fortunato quello messo a segno da Samuele Cadau.

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