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This article is about the broadcasting term. For relegation playoffs in many sports, see playoff.
Not to be confused with the play-out groove leading to the centre of a gramophone record.

In broadcasting, playout is a term for the transmission of radio or TV channels from the broadcaster into broadcast networks that delivers the content to the audience. Those networks can consist of terrestrial transmitters for analogue or digital radio and TV, cable networks or satellites (either for direct reception, DTH, or intended for cable television headends).

The playout happens in master control in a playout area, which can be either situated in the central apparatus room or in purposely built playout centres, which can be owned by a broadcaster or run by an independent specialist company that has been contracted to handle the playout for a number of channels from different broadcasters.

Some of the larger playout centres in Europe, South-east Asia and the United States handle well in excess of 50 radio and TV "feeds". Feeds would often consist of several different versions of a core service, often different language versions or with separately scheduled content, such as local opt outs for news or promotions.

Playout systems[edit]

Centralcasting is multi-channel playout that generally uses a broadcast automation systems with broadcast programming applications. These systems generally work in a similar way, controlling video servers, video tape recorder (VTR) devices, Flexicarts, audio mixing consoles, vision mixers and video routers, and other devices using a serial communications 9-Pin Protocol (RS-232 or RS-422). This provides deterministic control, enabling frame accurate playback, Instant replay or video switching. Many systems consist of a front end operator interface on a separate platform to the controllers – e.g. a Windows GUI will present a friendly easy to use method of editing a playlist, but actually control would be done on a platform with a "real time" operating system such that any large scale playlist amendments do not cause any delays to device control.

Most broadcast automation systems will have a series of common device drivers built in, for example Sony VTR control (aka Sony Serial), Louth Video Disk Control Protocol (VDCP, a proprietary communications protocol), General Purpose Interface (GPI), or Grass Valley Group M21 Master Control. This ensures that a broadcast automation system bought "off the shelf" will at least be able to ingest and playout content, although may not be able to take advantage of more efficient methods of control. Most server, and especially most digital on-screen graphic and character generator (CG) manufacturers will have a specific device driver for their device, with increasing degrees of complexity, and different automation companies will include these drivers to enhance their product or to fit a customers need.

This is the "traditional" method of Playout Automation, where there are multiple devices. Modern automation systems use the Automated Playout method, which is where the broadcast server fulfills the functions of the multiple devices, and is a self-contained system (see Channel in a Box section below).

Playout devices[edit]

Playout will usually involve an airchain of devices which begin with content, typically stored on video server, and ultimately an output, either as an (Asynchronous serial interface) (ASI) or (Serial Digital Interface) (SDI) for on pass to a distribution company.

The devices in the chain depend on the service required under the contact with the Channel. Typically a standard television channel would require a Master Control Video switcher, and therefore a Video router to allow switching of live sources. This video switcher may include other functions such as keying (graphics) (also known as Down Stream Keyers), Audio Overs for mixing in voice overs (VO) or announcements, and facilitate transitions between events, such as a fade through black or crossfade (also known as mix).

Other devices include:

Graphics inserters – At least one Graphics inserter, or one with several layers. This allows for Station identification/Logo/Digital on-screen graphic (Dog or Bug) insertion, and can also be' used for end credits sequences, coming next graphics or programme information straps

Subtitling inserters – This can be either closed or open – i.e. in vision as a graphic for all to see, or closed either as an MPEG stream item, Closed Captioning or World System Teletext.

Audio servers – An audio playout system would provide scheduled voiceovers

Aspect Ratio Converters – These alter the picture shape or send an embedded signal to allow the material format to be displayed correctly on a particular feed (e.g. Widescreen on a standard non-widescreen Analogue terrestrial feed)

Some of these more advanced devices require information from the playlist, and so do not tend to use an RS422/232 driver, but a complex XML based system which allows for more complex metadata to be passed, e.g. a "Now" or "Next" Graphic can be created from a template using text information from the playlist.

In recent years there has been a move to replicate all of these functions in a single system, often called a "channel in a box" solution. These are often cheaper to introduce and allow for a more scalable Playout system.


A common workflow is for the broadcast automation system to have a recording schedule to ingest material from a satellite or line feed source and then time-shift that material based on a playlist or schedule.

The playout schedule will have been created in the customer's broadcast programming scheduling system and exported into a format suitable to be used in the Playout system. There is a move to SMPTE-22, known as Broadcast Exchange Format (BXF) to try to standardise the messaging involved in this interaction.

The resulting playlist is "loaded" into the appropriate channel of the broadcast automation system in advance of the transmission time. Various processes will take place to ensure the content is available on the correct servers for playout at the right time, typically this involves advance requests to move material from deep storage such as Tape Archives or FTP Clusters to Broadcast Video servers, often using FTP.

On playing out the material, the audio and video signals are usually transported from the playout area to the network via a studio/transmitter link (STL), which may be fibre backlink, microwave or satellite uplink.

Playout is often referred to as Presentation or Transmission (TX), and is under control of an automatic transmission system.

See also[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Playout — Please support Wikipedia.
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708 news items

Screen Africa
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 09:07:30 -0700

Veset Nimbus Cloud Playout is a professional broadcast grade playout solution that incorporates key industry standards and workflow processes. Whilst enabling users to take full advantage of the efficiency and flexibility of cloud technologies, its ...
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 10:48:45 -0700

Level 3 introduced a Channel Origination system designed for broadcasters to use to create linear channels for secure distribution to cable headends and satellite TV network operations centers. Content owners provide their channel playlist and digital ...
Screen Africa
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 03:04:38 -0700

GV Stratus Playout works with Grass Valley's Densité SSP-3801 solid-state playout card, which enables broadcasters to leverage the immense flexibility of the cloud-enabled playout control system with the security of housing all media content on site.

Broadband TV News

Tue, 08 Jul 2014 01:15:00 -0700

Agama Technologies, the video service quality assurance expert, today announced that British Sky Broadcasting (Sky) has extended its Agama DTV Monitoring Solution deployment to also cover its over-the-top (OTT) service playout. Sky has two OTT ...
TV News Check
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 12:18:45 -0700

Some 90 local television stations around the country are backing up their on-air weather presence during severe weather conditions with robotic calls sent automatically to viewers who sign up for the service and pay the service provider a $10 annual ...
TV Technology
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 17:56:15 -0700

ANCHORAGE, ALASKA—KTVA Alaska, a CBS affiliate owned by Denali Media Holdings, has built a "lightweight and flexible" media center media center in Anchorage using a wide range of file processing, playout and channel branding technology from ...

TV News Check

TV News Check
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 07:26:15 -0700

Front Porch Digital announced that Phil Jackson has been promoted from chief operations officer to chief strategy officer. In his new position, Jackson is responsible for driving innovation and strategy for Front Porch Digital. FrontPorchDigital ...
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Wed, 23 Jul 2014 17:22:30 -0700

Engineered, integrated, and installed by Harmonic channel partner TI Broadcast Solutions Group (TIBSG) based in Norcross, Georgia, the facility leverages a solution made of Harmonic's Spectrum ChannelPort(TM) integrated channel playout system, ...

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