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This article is about the instrument in the flute family. For other uses, see Piccolo (disambiguation).
Piccolo
Piccolo.jpg
A Yamaha piccolo. The body is made of ABS resin, and the head is plated with silver.
Woodwind instrument
Classification
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 421.121.12-71
(Flute-like aerophone with keys)
Playing range
Written range of piccolo.png

The piccolo sounds one octave higher than written.

Sounding:
Sounding range of piccolo.png
Related instruments

The piccolo[1] /ˈpɪkəl/ (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpikkolo]; Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy)[2] is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute,[3] but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave rise to the name ottavino (Italian for "little octave"), the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers.[4]

Piccolos are now only manufactured in the key of C[citation needed]; however, they were once also available in D. It was for this D piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section (trio) of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever".

In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is often designated as "piccolo/flute III", or even "assistant principal". The larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are often orchestrated to double (play together with) the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards. In concert band settings, the piccolo is almost always used and a piccolo part is almost always available.

The first known use of the word piccolo was circa 1854,[5] though the English were using the term already at least thirteen years earlier.[6]

Traditional use[edit]

Piccolo being played

Historically, the piccolo had no keys, and should not be confused with the fife, which has a smaller bore and is therefore more strident. The piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland.

It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Hoffmeister, Süssmayr and Michael Haydn.[7] Also, Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Rameau show.[8]

Although once made of various kinds of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from a range of materials, including plastic, resin, brass, nickel silver, silver, and a variety of hardwoods, most commonly grenadilla. Finely made piccolos are often available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, which is like the Baroque flute and later flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos the tenon joint connecting the head to the body has two interference fit points which surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint.[citation needed]

Repertoire[edit]

There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Robert Dick, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Polly Moller, Vincent Persichetti, and Karlheinz Stockhausen.

Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, and Gary Schocker.

Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman,[9] Martin Amlin,[10] Will Gay Bottje,[11] Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman,[12] Jean Doué, Michael Easton,[13] Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.

Additionally, there is a small selection of chamber music that uses the piccolo. One example is the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse. Another is Stockhausen's Zungenspitzentanz, for piccolo and two euphoniums (or one synthesizer), with optional percussionist and dancer.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Piccolo". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  2. ^ "Piccolo". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  3. ^ "Transverse flute". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  4. ^ "The Names of Instruments and Voices in English, French, German, Italian, Russian1, and Spanish". Yale University Music Library. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  5. ^ "Piccolo". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  6. ^ J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner (eds.), "piccolo, n.2", Oxford English Dictionary, second edition. 20 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0198611862. Citing the Times, 6 January 1841.
  7. ^ Nourse, Nancy (April 2008). "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?". Flute Focus (14): 26–29. 
  8. ^ Nourse, Nancy (April 2008). "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?". Flute Focus (14): 26–29. 
  9. ^ "Todd Goodman: Composer". Quincy Symphony Orchestra Association. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  10. ^ Martin Amlin page of Presser website.
  11. ^ Will Gay Bottje Piccolo Concerto, American Composers' Alliance website. Archived November 10, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Avner Dorman on the Cabrillo Music Festival website. Archived July 24, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Concerto for Piccolo, Percussion and Strings, Australian Music Centre page.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gippo, Jan (ed.). The Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings, Repertoire, and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff; contributing editors, Therese Wacker, Morgan Williams, and Tammy Sue Kirk. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 1-59806-111-9
  • Nourse, Nancy. "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?" Flute Focus 14 (April 2008): 26–29.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piccolo — Please support Wikipedia.
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375347 news items

 
Washington Post
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:06:42 -0700

I think safe is a good policy,” Piccolo wrote online. “What I have a problem with is too safe. Too safe is what gets me. It's having the comics page get so circumspect that, often, all the best humor is washed away and scrubbed clean, or replaced ...

Omaha World-Herald

Omaha World-Herald
Fri, 21 Aug 2015 22:48:34 -0700

In the glory days of Cornhusker football, when Saturday home games almost always started at 1:30 p.m., fans would drive back from Lincoln and wait as long as an hour to get into packed Piccolo's. From May through August, customers would come from the ...

Palm Beach Daily News

Palm Beach Daily News
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 19:03:45 -0700

When the late Renato Desiderio opened his restaurant 27 years ago, he wanted to offer workers in the neighborhood the same quality food he served at Renato's and at reasonable prices. The carry-out window is tucked behind the larger restaurant in Via ...

Evanston Now

Evanston Now
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 13:48:45 -0700

This year's fifteenth anniversary season at Piccolo Theatre opens with “The Outfit,” a play by Laura Schellhardt that has garnered attention in the past from Evanston area folks as well as the Jeff Committee. “The Outfit” is a “reworked” version of ...

People Magazine

People Magazine
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 08:59:44 -0700

In the book Piccolo Uovo, which means "Little Egg," Italian author Francesca Pardi writes about an egg that comes across a pair of gay penguins and lesbian rabbits raising a family, as well as a single-parent hippo, a mixed-race dog couple, and ...

Chicago Tribune

Chicago Tribune
Mon, 24 Aug 2015 12:18:38 -0700

Playwright Laura Schellhardt was mining similar themes over a decade ago, when she penned "The Outfit," a one-act play getting a revival at Evanston's Piccolo Theatre. Eleven years may have passed since "The Outfit" debuted in a taut, powerful ...
 
Eater LA
Mon, 10 Aug 2015 11:56:15 -0700

The switcheroo is taking place on ever-changing Rose Avenue, where the upcoming Pono will take over what was previously the three-year-old Hostaria del Piccolo. It's a pretty wonderful location for the burger team, considering the big bar and all that ...
 
Evening Observer
Sat, 08 Aug 2015 21:52:30 -0700

Mayor Piccolo, trustees clash on increasing clerk's hours. August 9, 2015. By NICOLE GUGINO - OBSERVER Assistant News Editor , Observer Today. Save | Comments (1) | Post a comment |. SILVER CREEK - The Silver Creek Village Board took a lot of time ...
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