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This article is about the instrument in the flute family. For other uses, see Piccolo (disambiguation).
Piccolo
Piccolo.jpg
A Yamaha piccolo. The body is made of ABS resin, and the head is plated with silver.
Woodwind instrument
Classification
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 421.121.12-71
(Flute-like aerophone with keys)
Playing range
Written range of piccolo.png

The piccolo sounds one octave higher than written.

Sounding:
Sounding range of piccolo.png
Related instruments

The piccolo[1] (Italian for "small", but named ottavino in Italy)[2] is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute,[3] but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave rise to the name ottavino (Italian for "little octave"), the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers.[4]

Piccolos are now only manufactured in the key of C[citation needed]; however, they were once also available in D. It was for this D piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section (trio) of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever".

In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is often designated as "piccolo/flute III", or even "assistant principal". The larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are often orchestrated to double (play together with) the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards. In concert band settings, the piccolo is almost always used and a piccolo part is almost always available.

The first known use of the word piccolo was circa 1854,[5] though the English were using the term already some thirteen years earlier.[6]

Traditional use[edit]

piccolo being played

Historically, the piccolo had no keys, and should not be confused with the fife, which has a smaller bore and is therefore more strident. The piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland.

It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Hoffmeister, Süssmayr and Michael Haydn.[7] Also, Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Rameau show.[8]

Although once made of various kinds of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from a range of materials, including plastic, resin, brass, nickel silver, silver, and a variety of hardwoods, most commonly grenadilla. Finely made piccolos are often available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, which is like the Baroque flute and later flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos the tenon joint connecting the head to the body has two interference fit points which surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint.[citation needed]

Repertoire[edit]

There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Polly Moller, Vincent Persichetti, and Karlheinz Stockhausen.

Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, and Gary Schocker.

Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman,[9] Martin Amlin,[10] Will Gay Bottje,[11] Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman,[12] Jean Doué, Michael Easton,[13] Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.

Additionally, there is a small selection of chamber music that uses the piccolo. One example is the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse. Another is Stockhausen's Zungenspitzentanz, for piccolo and two euphoniums (or one synthesizer), with optional percussionist and dancer.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Piccolo". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  2. ^ "Piccolo". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  3. ^ "Transverse flute". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  4. ^ "The Names of Instruments and Voices in English, French, German, Italian, Russian1, and Spanish". Yale University Music Library. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  5. ^ "Piccolo". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  6. ^ J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner (eds.), "piccolo, n.2", Oxford English Dictionary, second edition. 20 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0198611862. Citing the Times, 6 January 1841.
  7. ^ Nourse, Nancy (April 2008). "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?". Flute Focus (14): 26–29. 
  8. ^ Nourse, Nancy (April 2008). "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?". Flute Focus (14): 26–29. 
  9. ^ "Todd Goodman: Composer". Quincy Symphony Orchestra Association. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  10. ^ Martin Amlin page of Presser website.
  11. ^ Will Gay Bottje Piccolo Concerto,[dead link] American Composers' Alliance website.
  12. ^ Avner Dorman[dead link] on the Cabrillo Music Festival website.
  13. ^ Concerto for Piccolo, Percussion and Strings, Australian Music Centre page.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gippo, Jan (ed.). The Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings, Repertoire, and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff; contributing editors, Therese Wacker, Morgan Williams, and Tammy Sue Kirk. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 1-59806-111-9
  • Nourse, Nancy. "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?" Flute Focus 14 (April 2008): 26–29.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piccolo — Please support Wikipedia.
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196755 news items

Pittsburgh Post Gazette

Pittsburgh Post Gazette
Thu, 16 Oct 2014 14:01:05 -0700

Domenic Branduzzi, the owner of Piccolo Forno, an Italian restaurant in Lawrenceville, hopes to start the build-out for Grapparia, a wine bar and grappa destination behind his restaurant, sometime next month. "I wanted to have a space where my ...

Good Food

Good Food
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 04:37:30 -0700

There is, naturally, a bit of debate about what a piccolo latte actually is: a single espresso shot (30ml) topped up with steamed milk in a demitasse glass (about 80ml), says Padre's Joel Corb, while others say a double ristretto (20ml) topped up with ...

ElectronicsWeekly.com

ElectronicsWeekly.com
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 05:00:00 -0700

Texas instrument's is aiming at solar inverters, motor controls, and digital power supplies with an upgrade to its Piccolo family of DSP/CPUs. Called F2807x, it adds three phase capability with: three 12bit 3.1Msample/s ADCs instead of one, and three ...

Guardian Liberty Voice

Guardian Liberty Voice
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 10:20:19 -0700

It is not often that an ethnic restaurant in the U.S. actually evokes the cuisine and overall feeling of its country of interest, but Piccolo Trattoria in Pennington, N.J. is the exception to the rule. When food is so good that it absolutely compels a ...

The Yucatan Times

The Yucatan Times
Sat, 04 Oct 2014 07:01:09 -0700

I met the owner Ernesto G. Piccolo, he assured me that they only uses real Mozzarella cheese, with the freshest ingredients, and a tomato sauce recipe handed down from his family, that is Italian. I asked for extra sauce, and it came with pepperoni and ...
 
Yahoo!7 News
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 14:43:32 -0700

An Opposition suggestion the South Australian Government will struggle to meet its police recruitment target has been rejected by Police Minister Tony Piccolo. Liberal frontbencher John Gardner said a report from the Auditor-General cast doubt on a ...

Chicago Sun-Times

Chicago Sun-Times
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 22:09:08 -0700

Piccolo School of Excellence in Humboldt Park still ranks at about the halfway point, 1,241st out of about 2,100 elementary schools statewide. But it jumped 864 places last year from 2,105th, one of the biggest leaps within CPS. Piccolo students went ...

Tallahassee.com

Tallahassee.com
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 03:52:30 -0700

They say we sound a lot more clear and our precision is better," Geralda Ambroise, a senior piccolo player from Miami, said. "A lot of people generally love the size we are now." CONNECT 2 TWEETLINKEDINCOMMENTEMAILMORE. Read or Share this ...
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