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Piccolo
Piccolo.jpg
A Yamaha piccolo. The body is made of ABS resin, and the head is plated with silver.
Woodwind instrument
Classification
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 421.121.12-71
(Flute-like aerophone with keys)
Playing range
Written range of piccolo.png

The piccolo sounds one octave higher than written.

Sounding:
Sounding range of piccolo.png
Related instruments

The piccolo[1] (Italian for small, but named ottavino in Italy)[2] is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute,[3] but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave rise to the name "ottavino," the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers.[4]

Piccolos are now only manufactured in the key of C[citation needed]; however, they were once also available in D. It was for this D piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section (trio) of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever".

In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is often designated as "piccolo/flute III", or even "assistant principal". The larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are often orchestrated to double (play together with) the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards. In concert band settings, the piccolo is almost always used and a piccolo part is almost always available.

The first known use of the word piccolo was in 1856,[5] though the English were using the term already some fifteen years earlier.[6]

Traditional use[edit]

Historically, the piccolo had no keys, and should not be confused with the fife, which has a smaller bore and is therefore more strident. The piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland.

It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Hoffmeister, Süssmayr and Michael Haydn.[7] Also, Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Rameau show.[8]

Although once made of various kinds of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from a range of materials, including plastic, resin, brass, nickel silver, silver, and a variety of hardwoods, most commonly grenadilla. Finely made piccolos are often available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, which is like the Baroque flute and later flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos the tenon joint connecting the head to the body has two interference fit points which surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint.[citation needed]

Repertoire[edit]

There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Polly Moller, and Vincent Persichetti.

Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, and Gary Schocker.

Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman,[9] Martin Amlin,[10] Will Gay Bottje,[11] Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman,[12] Jean Doué, Michael Easton,[13] Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.

Additionally, there is a small selection of chamber music that uses the piccolo. One example is the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gippo, Jan (ed.). The Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings, Repertoire, and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff; contributing editors, Therese Wacker, Morgan Williams, and Tammy Sue Kirk. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 1-59806-111-9
  • Nourse, Nancy. "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?" Flute Focus 14 (April 2008): 26–29.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Piccolo". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  2. ^ "Piccolo". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  3. ^ "Transverse flute". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  4. ^ "The Names of Instruments and Voices in English, French, German, Italian, Russian1, and Spanish". Yale University Music Library. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  5. ^ "Piccolo". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  6. ^ J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner (eds.), "piccolo, n.2", Oxford English Dictionary, second edition. 20 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0198611862. Citing the Times, 6 January 1841.
  7. ^ Nourse, Nancy (April 2008). "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?". Flute Focus (14): 26–29. 
  8. ^ Nourse, Nancy (April 2008). "The Symphonic Debutante Piccolo: Was it Really Beethoven's Fifth?". Flute Focus (14): 26–29. 
  9. ^ "Todd Goodman: Composer". Quincy Symphony Orchestra Association. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  10. ^ Martin Amlin page of Presser website.
  11. ^ Will Gay Bottje Piccolo Concerto,[dead link] American Composers' Alliance website.
  12. ^ Avner Dorman[dead link] on the Cabrillo Music Festival website.
  13. ^ Concerto for Piccolo, Percussion and Strings, Australian Music Centre page.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piccolo — Please support Wikipedia.
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Sun-Sentinel
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 17:45:56 -0700

Samuels was one of four overall winners of the Piccolo Award, presented by the National Football Foundation & College Hall of Fame's Brian Piccolo Chapter to Broward's best high school football scholar-athletes. American Heritage offensive lineman ...

Charleston City Paper

Charleston City Paper
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 10:36:39 -0700

That said, Scott Watson, the new executive director of the Office of Cultural Affairs has a plan for sharing 2014 Piccolo information, saying this year's fest will take on more of a social media approach. “We want to inject the festival with the sense ...

Oxford Mail

Oxford Mail
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 02:33:45 -0700

Piccolo Amore, the new boy in town in the centre of Bicester on the site of the former Six Bells pub. Piccolo Amore means 'little love' and has been opened by Mauro Braiotta from Calabria in Italy who has spent a life in catering and decided to finally ...
 
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Mon, 14 Apr 2014 09:07:30 -0700

Airman 1st Class Danielle Piccolo Air National Guard Airman 1st Class Danielle Piccolo has graduated from basic military training at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, San Antonio, Texas. The airman completed an intensive eight-week program that included ...
 
Hyde Park Herald
Wed, 09 Apr 2014 05:56:15 -0700

This year, the Consulate General of Argentina in Chicago chose Piccolo Mondo, 1642 E. 56th St. — whose owner, Norberto Zas, is Argentinian — to mark Malbec World Day. “Whenever I feel homesick, I go there, so it's a place that's very dear to me ...
 
Zacks.com
Wed, 09 Apr 2014 11:33:45 -0700

Piccolo Blood Chemistry Analyzers allow healthcare providers to perform routine multi-chemistry panels using 0.1cc of whole blood, serum or plasma. This blood analysis system uses patented reagent discs that contain up to 15 chemistry tests. These ...
 
KRNV My News 4
Thu, 10 Apr 2014 19:17:48 -0700

RENO, Nev. (MyNews4.com & KRNV) -- News 4 has learned Washoe County School Police and Child Protective Services are both looking into allegations a teacher abused a student. The claims surround a 9-year-old who attends Marvin Piccolo School.
 
MarketWatch
Tue, 08 Apr 2014 05:00:00 -0700

With the Piccolo delivering lab-accurate blood chemistry results on-site in minutes, Canadian physicians can make confident treatment decisions while the patient is in their office, thereby increasing the speed and quality of care. Traditionally ...
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