digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















This article is about the political arrangement. For the Christian theological teaching, see Hypostatic union.

A personal union is the combination of two or more different states who have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.[1][2] It differs from a federation in that each constituent state has an independent government, whereas a federal state is united by a central government. The ruler in a personal union need not be a hereditary monarch.[3]

Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings). They can also be codified (i.e., the constitutions of the states clearly express that they shall share the same person as head of state) or non-codified, in which case they can easily be broken (e.g., by the death of the monarch when the two states have different succession laws).

The Commonwealth realms, not addressed in the list of personal unions, are contemporary independent states that share the same person as monarch.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Joseph Lalor, ed., Cyclopaedia of Political Science. New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co. Accessed 13 June 2013
  2. ^ Oppenheim, Lassa; Roxbrough, Ronald (2005). International Law: A Treatise. The Lawbook Exchange. ISBN 1-58477-609-9. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  3. ^ In the Holy Roman Empire, many prince-bishops had themselves elected to separate prince-bishoprics, that they ruled in a personal union. For example, Joseph Clemens von Bayern (1671-1723) was Prince-Bishop of Freising (1685-1694), Prince-Bishop of Regensburg (1685-1694), Prince-Elector of Cologne (1688-1723), Prince-Bishop of Liège (1694-1723) and Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1702-1723).

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_union — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

Europa Universalis 4 France "Personal Union with Russia!!!" EP:53 [1651-1655]

France realizes she has the same dynasty as Russia and Russia is up for disputed succession! In this series we will be playing France in the time period betw...

Let's Play: Europa Universalis IV - Korea (27) - Very First Personal Union!

Let's Play Korea! My first real gameplay as an Asian nation :) Join me on my quest to conquer the far east! Any feedback would be much appreciated :) If you ...

[09] Let's Play Hungary - EU3 DW "Personal Union Imminent"

We begin another war with the Ottomans, I regret letting my allies join, and then Ulaszlo II leaves us. Now Burgundy is sure to get us. :| Game: Europa Unive...

EU4 Extended Timeline Mod Part 61 - A Personal Union with the Western Roman Empire

Interesting... I'm not sure what happened here, but I think the Western Roman Empire changed their government, because now they could enter into Royal Marria...

[Deutsch] Europa Universalis IV - Portugal 06 (Personal Union)

Während sich unsere Kolonien sich in der lukrativen Karibik ausbreiten, nehmen wir zu Hause einen der kleinen Staaten unter unsere Fittiche, vor allem um ihn...

Korean Personal Union over Ming

Welp, never expected this.

Wealth of Venice - Episode 50 - Personal Union

Welcome to Europa Universalis 4: Wealth of Nations! We'll be playing as Venice, one of the biggest Merchant Republics in Europe, and our goal will be to seiz...

Gordon H Kraft Personal Union avoids Estate Taxes - #BigCasino

good thing they reduced Estate Taxes, I don't need to worry about being the #bigcasino as much now... This helps explain why I MIGHT need to worry about Esta...

Kaplan Plays EU4 - Bohemia part 1 - Oh fu*k personal union

Personal Union sibiu

Astia au cu capu...:)))))))))

1000000 videos foundNext > 

288 news items

Central Valley Business Times
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 20:56:15 -0700

As the charcoal in the grill gets hot, here are some factoids about Labor Day to ponder, as assembled by the Census Bureau. The first observance of Labor Day was likely on Sept. 5, 1882, when some 10,000 workers assembled in New York City for a parade.
Yahoo!7 News
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 21:30:00 -0700

"It appears that the former throne of Scotland would be revived and [Queen] Elizabeth would be invited to accept it," he said. "There would then be a 'personal union' - a single person on both thrones - of the monarchies of Scotland and of remaining ...
Yahoo!7 News
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 21:30:00 -0700

"The Yes camp still doesn't seem to have clarified what would happen to the monarchy," Professor Stewart said. "They may mean a revival of the Scottish monarchy, inviting Queen Elizabeth II to take it on, so that there would once again be a personal ...
Deccan Chronicle
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 10:37:30 -0700

On the other hand, Deepika has Ketu and Mars in her Libra sign. Ketu is “Mangalvat” as per Vedic Astrology, which means that Ketu acts like Mars, it possesses Mars-like strength. This combination in Deepika's chart heats up the 7th house of personal union.
First Things (blog)
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 03:04:46 -0700

If, as many have argued of late, “we need a participation-oriented account of salvation in order to do justice to the heart of the gospel, it seems that we need a relational model of the Trinity for that very same reason: the deeply personal union and ...

Catholic News Agency

Catholic News Agency
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 21:52:30 -0700

By physically retreating from the world, leaving everything behind, she accomplished a final and deeply personal union with God. Yet once this personal martyrdom had been achieved – in ways hidden from the world and hardly understood by her own family ...


Thu, 14 Aug 2014 03:06:29 -0700

Der Tag nach dem schlimmen Unfall von Natalie Charlos (21). Noch immer sind bei der Schwimm-EM in Berlin alle geschockt, auch wenn es der Elmshornerin, die für Polen startet, schon besser geht. Beim 10-Kilometer-Freiwasser-Rennen am Mittwoch in ...
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:52:30 -0700

3) Der Clip besteht aus langen, langsamen Einstellungen mit einer einzigen Schauspielerin, die die Rollen der Streitenden in Personal-Union übernimmt. Schuld an diesem Mahnmal des Minimalimus ist Regisseur RobisRob (Franz Ferdinand, Depeche ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Personal union

You can talk about Personal union with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!