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A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person[1] instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".

In the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions, God is described as being a personal creator, speaking in the first person and showing emotion such as anger and pride, and sometimes appearing in anthropomorphic shape.[2] In the Pentateuch, for example, God talks with and instructs his prophets and is conceived as possessing volition, emotions (such as anger, grief and happiness), intention, and other attributes characteristic of a human person. Personal relationships with God may be described in the same ways as human relationships, such as a Father, as in Christianity, or a Friend as in Sufism.[3]

A 2008 survey by the Pew Research Center reported that, of U.S. adults, 60% view that "God is a person with whom people can have a relationship," while 25% believe that "God is an impersonal force."[4] A 2008 survey by the National Opinion Research Center reports that 67.5% of U.S. adults believe in a personal god.[5]


In the Baha'i Faith God is described as "a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty".[6][7] Although transcendent and inaccessible directly, his image is reflected in his creation. The purpose of creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator.[8] God communicates his will and purpose to humanity through intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God, who are the prophets and messengers that have founded religions from prehistoric times up to the present day.[9]


Christian theologian Alister McGrath writes that there are good reasons to suggest that a "personal god" is integral to the Christian outlook, but that one has to understand it is an analogy. "To say that God is like a person is to affirm the divine ability and willingness to relate to others. This does not imply that God is human, or located at a specific point in the universe."[10]

In the case of the Christian belief in the Trinity, whether the Holy Spirit is impersonal – that is, a "force...often likened to electricity"[11] by some – or a personal one,[12] is the subject of dispute,[11] with experts in pneumatology debating the matter. Jesus (or God the Son) and God the Father are believed to be two persons or aspects of the same god: Jesus is of the same ousia or substance as God the Father, manifested in three hypostases or persons (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit). Nontrinitarian Christians dispute that Jesus is a "hypostasis" or person of God.

Moreover, the belief in Holy Communion and Last Supper implies an intensely communal understanding of religion which very often goes beyond the boundaries of individuality, in what theologians have called the "mystical body".[clarification needed]


Vaishnavism and Shaivism[13] traditions of Hinduism subscribe to an ultimate personal nature of God. The Vishnu Sahasranama[14] declares the person of Vishnu as both the Paramatma (supreme soul) and Parameshwara (supreme God) while the Rudram describes the same about Shiva. In Krishna-centered theology (Krishna is seen as a form of Vishnu by most, except Gaudiya Vaishnavism) the title Svayam Bhagavan is used exclusively to designate Krishna in his personal feature,[15][16] it refers to Gaudiya Vaishnava, the Nimbarka Sampradaya and followers of Vallabha, while the person of Vishnu and Narayana is sometimes referred to as the ultimate personal god of other Vaishnava traditions.[17][18]


Jewish theology states that God is not a person[citation needed]. However, there exist frequent references to anthropomorphic characteristics of God in the Hebrew Bible such as the "Hand of God." Judaism holds that these are to be taken only as figures of speech. Their purpose is to make God more comprehensible to the human reader. As God is beyond human understanding, there are different ways of describing him. He is said to be both personal and impersonal, he has a relationship with his creation but is beyond all relationships.[19]


Most Islamic sources teach that God is a Personal God. God is seen as the provider of compassion and justice. The Qur'an exhorts Muslims to turn to God for help, guidance and support. Islam also teaches that God is beyond comprehension and the best way for Muslims to have a relationship of God is to obey His commands.[20]

Quranic view[edit]

The Qur'an asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the entire creation.[21] Qur'an clearly opposes conceiving God as resembling "the creation" and it maintains that whatever image a believer has of God, is not God, and that he is truly transcendental. According to the Qur'an:[21]

"Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him." (Sura 112:1-4, Yusuf Ali)
Thy Lord is self-sufficient, full of Mercy: if it were God's will, God could destroy you, and in your place appoint whom God will as your successors, even as God raised you up from the posterity of other people." (Sura 6:133, Yusuf Ali)

Muslim view[edit]

There is a distinct difference between the two major Islamic sects, Shia and Sunni, regarding belief in a personal god. Most Sunni Muslims believe in a personal god.[2][22]

Some Sunni scholars hold beliefs which would imply that Allah has a body, but not like the bodies that we know. A vast amount of Sunnis do not interpret the face, hand, and leg of Allah as physical organs.[22] There are quite a number of traditions in Sahih Bukhari describing that God has a sign in his leg, and he put his leg over the hell and so on. For instance see Sahih Bukhari, Arabic-Englich version, 9.532s in which Allah is said to have a sign in his shin (leg) and when he uncovers his shin (leg) people will recognize him. Or in the same volume see Tradition 9.604 and 9.510 where it is said that Allah has fingers.Such reference are used metaphorically and do not refer to actual finger,hand or leg .[23]

This belief is strongly rejected by Shia Muslims.[22] An example can be seen in Nahj al-Balagha,one of the greatest Shia books:[24]

Praise be to God who is proof of His existence through His creation, of His being external through the newness of His creation, and through their mutual similarities of the fact that nothing is similar to Him. Senses cannot touch Him and curtains cannot veil Him, because of the difference between the Maker and the made, the Limiter and the limited and the Sustainer and the sustained. He is One but not by the first in counting, is Creator but not through activity or labour, is Hearer but not by means of any physical organ, is Looker but not by a stretching of eyelids, is Witness but not by nearness, is Distinct but not by measurement of distance, is Manifest but not by seeing and is Hidden but not by subtlety (of body). He is Distinct from things because He overpowers them and exercises might over them, while things are distinct from Him because of their subjugation to Him and their turning towards Him. He who describes Him limits Him. He who limits Him numbers Him. He who numbers Him rejects His eternity. He who said "how" sought a description for Him. He who said "where" bounded him. He is the Knower even though there be nothing to be known. He is the Sustainer even though there be nothing to be sustained. He is the Powerful even though there be nothing to be overpowered.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's concepts of God
  2. ^ a b Williams, W. Wesley, "A study of anthropomorphic theophany and Visio Dei in the Hebrew Bible, the Qur'an and early Sunni Islam", University of Michigan, March 2009
  3. ^ "The man who realizes God as a friend is never lonely in the world, neither in this world nor in the hereafter. There is always a friend, a friend in the crowd, a friend in the solitude; or while he is asleep, unconscious of this outer world, and when he is awake and conscious of it. In both cases the friend is there in his thought, in his imagination, in his heart, in his soul." Hazrat Inayat Khan, quoted from The Sufi Message of Hazrat Inayat Khan
  4. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Beliefs and Practices". U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. June 1, 2008. II. Religious Beliefs: God. 
  5. ^ Smith, Tom W. (April 18, 2012). "Beliefs about God across Time and Countries". NORC at the University of Chicago. Table 3: Believing in a Personal God (2008). 
  6. ^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-521-86251-5. 
  7. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 139. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. 
  8. ^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-521-86251-5. 
  9. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1991). The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 113–114. ISBN 0-87743-231-7. 
  10. ^ McGrath, Alister (2006). Christian Theology: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing. p. 205. ISBN 1-4051-5360-1. 
  11. ^ a b http://www.spotlightministries.org.uk/personhoodofthespirit.htm
  12. ^ http://christianity.about.com/od/topicalbiblestudies/a/whoisholyspirit.htm
  13. ^ Satguru Sivaya, Subramuniyaswami. "Dancing with Shiva". Himalayan Academy. Retrieved 17 June 2011. 
  14. ^ Sri Vishnu Sahasaranama - Transliteration and Translation of Chanting
  15. ^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3. 
  16. ^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2004). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. University Of Oxford. 
  17. ^ Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant (Columbia University Press). ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  18. ^ Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. 
  19. ^ http://www.jewfaq.org/g-d.htm
  20. ^ Norcliffe (1999), p.32-33
  21. ^ a b Vincent J. Cornell, Encyclopedia of Religion, Vol 5, pp.3561-3562
  22. ^ a b c Outline of Differences Between Shi'ite and Sunnit, provided by Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project
  23. ^ Al-Islam Encyclopedia Chapter 9
  24. ^ Nahj al-Balagha,Sermon 152


External links[edit]


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People's Pundit Daily
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 08:11:15 -0700

“No one can read the Gospels without feeling the actual presence of Jesus. His personality pulsates in every word. No myth is filled with such life.” Einstein did not believe in a personal God, but a God outside of our relatively limited human ...
First Things (blog)
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 03:07:30 -0700

The doctrine of creation tells us what kind of God the Creator is: A personal God who wills and acts in freedom. Understood as a doctrine of the faith rather than a piece of natural theology, the doctrine of creation also hints at the Trinitarian ...
Reno Gazette Journal
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 20:56:15 -0700

But in reply to another query, he said “I cannot conceive of a personal God who would directly influence the actions of individuals or would sit in judgment on creatures of his own creation” (Isaacson, p. 387). So, while Einstein was an ethnic Jew, he ...

Economic Times

Economic Times
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 17:56:15 -0700

"I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly," he said. "If something is in me that can be called religious, then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can ...
Daily Beast
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 03:04:40 -0700

But he vacillates between believing in a personal God and thinking theism is just an absurd fabrication: “Depending on the day you ask me, both statements seem true,” he writes in his new book. In another passage, he says he holds two ideas about God ...

National Catholic Reporter (blog)

National Catholic Reporter (blog)
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 08:22:30 -0700

I would say faith in a living and personal God, hope in the joys of serving this loving God, and love that comes from God to us and through us to others. What changes would you like to see in it? Again, since we are the church, I would like to see all ...
The Logan Banner
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 17:00:00 -0700

God the Father punished the nation of Israel many times for its sinfulness, but because God the Son made salvation individual and personal, God the Son will not punish His followers for the sins of others. Jesus reserved the punishing of sinners unto ...
New York Times (blog)
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 16:01:03 -0700

Whether believed in or not, a personal God does not figure prominently as the source of the idea of the divine, and instead non-theistic concepts of the divine prevail. G.G.: What do you mean by “non-theistic” concepts of the divine? J.G.: One such ...

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