Pedagogy (// or //) is the science and art of education. Its aims range from the full development of the human being to skills acquisition. For example, Paulo Freire referred to his method of teaching people as "critical pedagogy". In correlation with those instructive strategies the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic schools of thought.
Etymology and generalizations 
The word comes from the Greek παιδαγωγέω (paidagōgeō); in which παῖς (país, genitive παιδός, paidos) means "child" and άγω (ágō) means "lead"; so it literally means "to lead the child". Other relevant roots from Greek include μικρό παιδί or toddler; αγόρι or boy child; κοριτσιών or girl child; μικρό παιδί or young child, indicating that παιδί is used with very young children of both sexes.
An instructor develops conceptual knowledge and manages the content of learning activities in pedagogical settings. This is consistent with the Cognitivism of Piaget, 1926, 1936/1975; Bruner, 1960, 1966, 1971, 1986; and Vygotsky, 1962, where sequential development of individual mental processes such as recognize, recall, analyze, reflect, apply, create, understand, and evaluate are scaffolded. The learning technique is adoptive learning of procedures, organization, and structure to develop an internal cognitive structure that strengthens synapses in the brain. The learner requires assistance to develop prior knowledge and integrate new knowledge using Verbal/Linguistic and Logical/Mathematical intelligences. The learner must learn how to learn while developing existing schema and adopting knowledge from both people and the environment. This is low order learning of conceptual knowledge, techniques, procedures, and algorithmic problem solving.
Academic degree 
An academic degree, Ped. D., Doctor of Pedagogy, is awarded honorarily by some U.S. universities to distinguished teachers (in the U.S. and U.K. earned degrees within the instructive field are classified as an Ed. D., Doctor of Education or a Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy). The term is also used to denote an emphasis in education as a specialty in a field (for instance, a Doctor of Music degree in piano pedagogy).
Contributors to pedagogy 
A number of people contributed to the theories of pedagogy, among these are
In Denmark, a pedagogue is a practitioner of pedagogy. The term is primarily used for individuals who occupy jobs in pre-school education (such as kindergartens and nurseries) in Scandinavia. But can occupy various kinds of jobs e.g. in retirement homes, prisons, orphanages, and human resource management. These are often recognised as social pedagogues as they perform on behalf of society.
The pedagogue's job is usually distinguished from teachers by primarily focusing on teaching children life-preparing knowledge such as social skills and cultural norms etc. There is also a very big focus on care and well-being of the child. Many pedagogical institutions also practice social inclusion. The pedagogue's work also consists of supporting the child in his or her mental- and social development. 
In Denmark all pedagogues are trained at a series of national institutes for social educators located in all major cities. The programme is a 3.5 year academic course giving the student the title of a Bachelor in Social Education (Danish: Professionsbachelor som pædagog)
See also 
- Concept learning
- Contemporary Educational Psychology — a Wikibook about educational psychology
- Creative Pedagogy
- Critical pedagogy
- Education theory
- Educational philosophy
- Educational psychology
- Horace Mann
- Instructional design
- Learning theory (education)
- Piano pedagogy
- Problem-based learning
- Team-based learning
- List of important publications in pedagogy
Further reading 
- Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Bruner, J. S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, MA: Belkapp Press.
- Bruner, J. S. (1971). The relevance of education. New York, NY: Norton
- Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J., Austin, G. A. (1986). A study of thinking. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press.
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum
- Montessori, M. (1909). Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica applicato all'educazione infantile nelle Case dei Bambini.
- Montessori, M. (1910). Antropologia Pedagogica.
- Montessori, M. (1921). Manuale di pedagogia scientifica.
- Montessori, M. (1934). Psico Geométria.
- Montessori, M. (1934). Psico Aritmética.
- Piaget, J. (1926). The language and thought of the child. London: Routledge & Kegan.
- Piaget, J. (1975/1936). La naissance de l’intelligence chez l’enfant. [Emergence of intelligence in the child]. Neuchatel: Delachaux et Nieslé. Cited in Tomic, W. & Kingma, J (1996). Three theories of cognitive representation and their evaluation standards of training effect. Heerlson, The Netherlands: The Open University.
- Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- "pedagogy noun - definition in British English Dictionary & Thesaurus - Cambridge Dictionary Online". Dictionary.cambridge.org. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- "Analysis of Pedagogy". Educ.utas.edu.au. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Petrie et al. (2009). Pedagogy – a holistic, personal approach to work with children and young people, across services. p. 4.
- Aarhus University Department of Education (DPU) - Research
- "Google Translate".
- Lombardi, S.M. . (2011). Internet Activities for a Preschool Technology Education Program Guided by Caregivers. Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University. p. 140.
- Taipei Times Learning from Denmark
- Educational Guide - Denmark Pædagog - UddannelsesGuiden.dk.
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- Pedagogics as a System Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, 1848, Translated 1872 by Anna C. Brackett, R.P. Studley Company
- The philosophy of education Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, D. Appleton and Co., 1899
- Methods and Theories of Education at the Open Directory Project
- TeachShare.org (Techniques) describes how to use a variety of teaching techniques (step-by-step).
- Pedagogy: Critical Approaches to Teaching Literature, Language, Composition, Culture
- SocialPedagogyUK.com Developments in the field of Social Pedagogy in the UK