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Paul R. Frommer
Born (1944-09-17) September 17, 1944 (age 71)
New York City, New York, United States
Education Doctorate in linguistics, 1981, University of Southern California
Occupation Communications professor at University of Southern California
Known for Constructed languages

Paul R. Frommer (/ˈfrmər/; born September 17, 1944) is an American communications professor at the University of Southern California (USC) and a linguistics consultant. He is the former Vice President, Special Projects Coordinator, Strategic Planner, and Writer-Researcher at Bentley Industries in Los Angeles, California. From 2005 to 2008, he served as Director of the Center for Management Communication at the USC Marshall School of Business.[1]

Youth and education[edit]

Frommer was born in New York City.[2] Interested in astronomy from an early age, he changed his college major from astrophysics to math, graduating from the University of Rochester with a bachelor of arts in mathematics in 1965. He soon taught English and math in Malaysia in the Malay language with the Peace Corps. He had studied languages earlier, but this experience switched his focus to linguistics. He began a doctoral program in linguistics at the University of Southern California (USC). During the program, he taught English in Iran for a year in the mid-1970s and studied Persian.[3] He earned his master's degree and doctorate in linguistics at USC in 1981 under Bernard Comrie; his doctorate was on aspects of Persian syntax and entitled "Post-verbal Phenomena in Colloquial Persian Syntax".[1]


Frommer taught for several years and then moved into business, becoming a Vice President, Special Projects Coordinator, Strategic Planner, and Writer-Researcher at Bentley Industries in Los Angeles. Frommer was also a writer for the 1989 film Step Into the Third Dimension.[4] In 1996, he returned to USC as a full professor of clinical management communication at the Marshall School of Business. In 1999, he co-authored a linguistics workbook called Looking at Languages: A Workbook in Elementary Linguistics.[5] From 2005 to 2008, he served as Director of the Center for Management Communication at Marshall School of Business.[1]

After a search by James Cameron, writer and director of the 2009 film Avatar, Frommer was chosen to create a language for the Na'vi, the film's fictional alien race of sentient blue humanoid inhabitants of the moon Pandora.[6] Frommer says that his process for creating the language began with phonetics and phonology: "The sound system has to be all nailed down first, so that there is consistency in the language". The morphology, syntax and vocabulary followed. Cameron had already created several dozen words that he wanted to incorporate into the new language. That gave Frommer "a sense of what kinds of sounds he had in mind". Cameron also told Frommer that he "wanted the language to be pleasant sounding and appealing to the audience."[5] "When you create a language, you experience the joy of rolling sounds around in your mouth, hearing unusual sounds, playing with the sounds and structural properties of language – it's a process that took about six months for the basics".[3]

Frommer based some Na'vi grammar on Polynesian languages and used consonants such as ejectives and word-initial velar nasals that do not occur in Western languages, while omitting common Western sounds like "b", "d" and "g". He placed verb modifiers in the middle of words, instead of at the beginning or end of them. Cameron wrote some songs for the Na'vi characters that Frommer translated into a poetic form of Na'vi language, and he then coached the singers on pronunciation.[7] He then worked personally with the actors who needed to speak the Na'vi language in the film and created MP3 files for them to use to study it. The actors' voices were not altered in the film, as Cameron wanted the Na'vi characters to have human-sounding voices.[3] Since the film opened, Frommer has received numerous e-mails from fans with suggestions for expanding the language[7] and websites have grown up devoted to the study and use of the language.[2]

Frommer also created the Barsoomian language for the Disney film John Carter.[8]


  1. ^ a b c "Marshall Faculty Directory: Paul Frommer". USC.edu. Retrieved January 9, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b McCally, Karen (March–April 2010). "Avatar of Language". Rochester Review 72 (4). 
  3. ^ a b c Andrews, Susan (January 20, 2010). "Paul Frommer Sounds Off on Avatar Language". USC News. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  4. ^ Paul R. Frommer at the Internet Movie Database
  5. ^ a b Milani, Matteo (November 24, 2009). "An interview with Paul Frommer, Alien Language Creator for Avatar". Unidentified Sound Object. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  6. ^ Jensen, Jeff (January 15, 2007). "Great Expectations". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 9, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Genlen, Larry (April 19, 2010). "How to say 'ass' in Na'vi". New York Post. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Meeting with Avatar Na'vi language creator in L.A.". 2M Language Services. April 6, 2010. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Frommer — Please support Wikipedia.
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213 news items


Thu, 07 Apr 2016 04:37:30 -0700

Like Tolkien himself, many inventors of today's fictional languages have been linguists and communicators: Marc Okrand, the inventor of Klingon, has a PhD in linguistics from Berkeley; Paul Frommer, creator of Na'vi, is professor emeritus of clinical ...

Sciences et Avenir

Sciences et Avenir
Mon, 25 Apr 2016 06:07:39 -0700

Il existe quelques précédents fameux : le na'vi d'Avatar, conçu par l'universitaire californien Paul Frommer, le klingon dans Star Trek, inventé par le linguiste diplômé de l'université de Berkeley Marc Okrand, et bien sûr les langues elfiques du ...


Mon, 14 Dec 2009 16:44:44 -0800

Paul Frommer, a professor at the University of Southern California, is the linguist who built it for him — and he says the bar Cameron set was pretty high. "He wanted a complete language, with a totally consistent sound system, morphology, syntax ...

Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Times
Fri, 20 Nov 2009 17:15:38 -0800

James Cameron has big aspirations for “Avatar,” and here at Hero Complex we're stepping up with some epic coverage plans: a 30-day countdown. Today's topic: The USC professor who found himself on an unexpected Hollywood adventure when he was ...
Sun, 17 Apr 2016 21:18:45 -0700

Heute wünschen wir unsere Wilden in Games und Kino nicht mehr edel, sondern vor allem authentisch: Für "Avatar" ließ James Cameron sich vom Linguisten Paul Frommer die Sprache Na'vi erfinden. In "Game of Thrones" wird außer Dothraki auch noch ...
USC News
Wed, 20 Jan 2010 10:12:31 -0800

From the age of 8 until he was a junior in college, Paul Frommer thought astronomy was his destiny. But he changed his path from astrophysics to math as an undergraduate and then to linguistics as a graduate student. “Linguistics can be quite technical ...

Voci di Città

Voci di Città
Mon, 18 Apr 2016 05:56:15 -0700

Si tratta stavolta del regista James Cameron e del linguista Paul Frommer della University of Southern California, grazie alla cui unione delle forze è nato l'idioma parlato a Pandora, nella pellicola di Avatar. Il sistema è simile a tratti a quello ...


Thu, 17 Mar 2016 06:45:25 -0700

He was referring to the complete language that linguist and University of Southern California professor Paul Frommer spent years creating for “Avatar.” Na'vi, which has a community of real-life speakers who study it the way some “Star Trek” fans really ...

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