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For the state of being, see patience. For other uses, see Patient (disambiguation).

A patient is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, physician assistant, advanced practice registered nurse, psychologist, podiatrist, veterinarian, or other health care provider.

Etymology[edit]

The word patient originally meant 'one who suffers'. This English noun comes from the Latin word patiens, the present participle of the deponent verb, patior, meaning 'I am suffering,' and akin to the Greek verb πάσχειν (= paskhein, to suffer) and its cognate noun πάθος (= pathos).

Outpatients and inpatients[edit]

An outpatient (or out-patient) is a patient who is not hospitalized for 24 hours or more but who visits a hospital, clinic, or associated facility for diagnosis or treatment. Treatment provided in this fashion is called ambulatory care. Sometimes surgery is performed without the need for a formal hospital admission or an overnight stay. This is called outpatient surgery. Outpatient surgery has many benefits, including reducing the amount of medication prescribed and using the physician's or surgeon's time more efficiently. More procedures are now being performed in a surgeon's office, termed office-based surgery, rather than in a hospital-based operating room. Outpatient surgery is suited best for healthy patients undergoing minor or intermediate procedures (limited urologic, ophthalmologic, or ear, nose, and throat procedures and procedures involving the extremities).

An inpatient (or in-patient), on the other hand, is "admitted" to the hospital and stays overnight or for an indeterminate time, usually several days or weeks (though some cases, such as coma patients, have been in hospitals for years). Treatment provided in this fashion is called inpatient care. The admission to the hospital involves the production of an admission note. The leaving of the hospital is officially termed discharge, and involves a corresponding discharge note.

Misdiagnosis is the leading cause of medical error in outpatient facilities. Ever since the National Institute of Medicine’s groundbreaking 1999 report, “To Err is Human,” found up to 98,000 hospital patients die from preventable medical errors in the U.S. each year, government and private sector efforts have focused on inpatient safety.[1] While patient safety efforts have focused on inpatient hospital settings for more than a decade, medical errors are even more likely to happen in a doctor’s office or outpatient clinic or center.

Day patient[edit]

A day patient or (day-patient) is a patient who is using the full range of services of a hospital or clinic but is not expected to stay the night. The term was originally used by psychiatric hospital services using of this patient type to care for people needing support to make the transition from in-patient to out-patient care. However, the term is now also heavily used for people attending hospitals for day surgery.

Alternative terminology[edit]

Because of concerns such as dignity, human rights and political correctness, the term "patient" is not always used to refer to a person receiving health care. Other terms that are sometimes used include health consumer, health care consumer or client. However, such terminology may be offensive to those receiving public health care as it implies a business relationship. (In at least some countries, it is illegal to practice business within any public hospital.)

In veterinary medicine, the client is the owner or guardian of the patient. These may be used by governmental agencies, insurance companies, patient groups, or health care facilities. Individuals who use or have used psychiatric services may alternatively refer to themselves as consumers, users, or survivors.

In nursing homes and assisted living facilities, the term resident is generally used in lieu of patient,[2] but it is common for staff members at such a facility to use the term patient in reference to residents. Similarly, those receiving home health care are called clients.

Patient Centred Healthcare[edit]

The Doctor-patient relationship has sometimes been characterized as silencing the voice of patients.[3] It is now widely agreed that putting patients at the centre of healthcare,[4] by trying to provide a consistent, informative and respectful service to patients, will improve both outcomes and patient satisfaction.

When patients are not at the centre of healthcare, when institutional procedures and targets eclipse local concerns, then patient neglect is possible.[5] Scandals in the UK, such as the Stafford Hospital scandal and the Winterbourne View hospital abuse scandal have shown the dangers of silencing the voice of patients. Investigations into these, and similar scandals, have recommended that the health service put patient experience at the heart of what it does, and especially, that the voice of patients is heard loud and clear within the health services.[6]

There are many reasons for why health services should listen more to patients. Patients spend more time in health care services than any regulators or quality controllers. Patients can recognize problems such as service delays, poor hygiene, and poor conduct.[7] Patients are particularly good at identifying soft problems, such as attitudes, communication, and 'caring neglect',[5] that are difficult to capture with institutional monitoring.[8]

One important way in which patients can be put at the centre of healthcare is for health services to be more open about patient complaints. Each year many hundreds of thousands of patients complain about the care they have received, and these complaints contain valuable information for any health services which want to learn and improve patient experience [9]

Patient satisfaction[edit]

Patients' satisfaction with an encounter with health care service is mainly dependent on the duration and efficiency of care, and how empathetic and communicative the health care providers are.[10] It is favored by a good doctor-patient relationship. Also, patients who are well-informed of the necessary procedures in a clinical encounter, and the time it is expected to take, are generally more satisfied even if there is a longer waiting time.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janet, Howard. "Malpractice Lawsuits Shed Light on Ailing Outpatient System". My Advocates. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  2. ^ Foundations of Caregiving, published by the American Red Cross
  3. ^ Clark, J. A., & Mishler, E. G. (1992). Attending to patients’ stories: Reframing the clinical task. Sociology of Health & Illness, 14(3), 344–372.
  4. ^ Stewart, M. (2001). Towards a global definition of patient centred care. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 322(7284), 444–445.
  5. ^ a b Reader, T. W., & Gillespie, A. (2013). Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), 156.
  6. ^ Francis R. Report of the mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry. London: The Stationary Office, 2013.
  7. ^ Weingart SN, Pagovich O, Sands DZ, et al. Patient-reported service quality on a medicine unit. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 2006;18(2):95-101
  8. ^ Levtzion-Korach O, Frankel A, Alcalai H, et al. Integrating incident data from five reporting systems to assess patient safety: making sense of the elephant. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 2010;36(9):402-10.
  9. ^ Reader, T. W., Gillespie, A., & Roberts, J. (2014). Patient complaints in healthcare systems: a systematic review and coding taxonomy. BMJ Quality & Safety, bmjqs–2013–002437. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2013-002437
  10. ^ a b Simple Tips to Improve Patient Satisfaction By Michael Pulia. American Academy of Emergency Medicine. 2011;18(1):18–19.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patient — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

4120420 news items

CBS News

The Post-Standard
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 03:30:00 -0700

(AP) -- Authorities are attempting to determine why a patient fatally shot a caseworker at a hospital complex in a Philadelphia suburb and whether a psychiatrist who pulled out his own gun and wounded the patient had concerns about him. The ...
 
Philly.com
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:07:06 -0700

A troubled patient opened fire on a caseworker and psychiatrist in a small office at a unit of Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital in Delaware County on Thursday afternoon, police said, leading the doctor to draw his own weapon and shoot the assailant.
 
The Times-Picayune
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 03:41:15 -0700

A rendering of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center currently under construction. The nearly $2 billion project is planned for completion in 2016 and projected to serve 70,000 veterans. Officials with the Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Center said ...
 
Florida Times-Union
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 23:22:30 -0700

An officer stands guard near the scene of a shooting Thursday, July 24, 2014, at Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital in Darby, Pa. A doctor grazed by gunfire from a patient who had entered his office in a suburban hospital's psychiatric unit stopped him by ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 07:39:36 -0700

"The family of the patient stormed the hospital and forcefully removed her and took her away," Tunis said. "We are searching for her." Fighting one of the world's deadliest diseases is straining the region's fragile health systems, while a lack of ...

fox4kc.com

fox4kc.com
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 05:56:15 -0700

Whelan said it appears an outpatient psychiatric patient shot and killed a caseworker before the doctor, who was carrying his own weapon, shot the patient. Authorities said they did not know why the patient opened fire. Whelan identified the patient as ...
 
WDIV Detroit
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 22:10:23 -0700

Psychiatrist Lee Silverman may have saved lives Thursday afternoon, when a patient opened fire in a suburban Philadelphia hospital. Delaware County District Attorney Jack Whelan said the shooting happened around 2:30 p.m. in a treatment room at Mercy ...

The Independent

The Independent
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 08:02:22 -0700

A psychiatrist who was grazed on his temple by gunfire took down a patient that had shot and killed a hospital case worker with his own weapon, after a gunfight broke out in an office at a suburban hospital in Pennsylvania where there is a strict no ...
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