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Notionally, the paschal full moon refers to the ecclesiastical full moon of the northern spring used in the determination of the date of Easter. The name "paschal" is derived from "Pascha", a transliteration of the Greek word, which is itself a transliteration of the Hebrew pesach, both words meaning Passover. The date of Easter is determined as the first Sunday after the "paschal full moon" falling on or after the Spring Equinox (March 21). This "full moon" does not currently correspond directly to any astronomical event, but is instead the 14th day of a lunar month, determined from tables. It may differ from the date of the actual full moon by up to two days.[1] The use of tables instead of actual observations of the full moon is useful and necessary since the full moon may occur on different dates depending where one is in the world.

The calculations to determine the date of the paschal full moon are somewhat complex, but can be described briefly as follows:

  • Nineteen civil calendar years are divided into 235 lunar months of 30 and 29 days each (the so-called "ecclesiastical moon".)
  • The period of 19 years (the metonic cycle) is used because it produces a set of civil calendar dates for the ecclesiastical moons that repeats every nineteen years while still providing a reasonable approximation to the astronomical facts.
  • The first day of each of these lunar months is the ecclesiastical new moon. Exactly one ecclesiastical new moon in each year falls on a date between March 8 and April 5, both inclusive. This begins the paschal lunar month for that year, and thirteen days later (that is, between March 21 and April 18, both inclusive) is the paschal full moon.
  • Easter is the Sunday following the paschal full moon.

In other words, Easter falls from one to seven days after the paschal full moon, so that if the paschal full moon is on Sunday, Easter is the following Sunday. Thus the earliest possible date of Easter is March 22, while the latest possible date is April 25.

Earliest Easter[edit]

In 1818, as a paschal full moon fell on Saturday March 21 (the Spring Equinox), Easter was the following day - Sunday March 22 - the earliest date possible. It will not fall on this date again until 2285, a span of 467 years.

Latest Easter[edit]

In 1943 a full moon fell on Saturday March 20. As this was before the Equinox the next full moon, which fell on Sunday April 18, determined the date of Easter - the following Sunday, April 25. It will not fall on this date again until 2038, a span of 95 years.

For a detailed discussion of the paschal computations, see Computus.

Easter tables[edit]

By the middle of the third century AD computists of some churches, among which were the Church of Rome and the one of Alexandria, had begun to calculate their own periodic sequences of dates of paschal full moon, to be able to determine their own dates of Easter Sunday.[2] The motivation for these experiments was a dissatisfaction with the Jewish calendars that Christians had hitherto relied on to fix the date of Easter. These Jewish calendars, according to their Christian critics, sometimes placed Nisan 14, the paschal full moon and the day of preparation for the Jewish Passover, before the spring equinox (see Easter). The Christians who began the experiments with independent computations held that the paschal full moon should never precede the equinox.

The computational principles developed at Alexandria eventually became normative, but their reception was a centuries-long process during which Alexandrian Easter tables competed with other tables incorporating different arithmetical parameters. So for a period of several centuries the sequences of dates of the paschal full moon applied by different churches could show great differences (see Easter controversy).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Montes, Marcos J. "Calculation of the Ecclesiastical Calendar" Retrieved on 2008-01-12
  2. ^ Georges Declercq, Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian era (Brepols, Turnhout, Belgium, 2000)

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paschal_Full_Moon — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

104 news items

Today's Zaman

Today's Zaman
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 08:52:30 -0800

Because of the events included in the Easter commemoration, long church tradition holds that Easter will be celebrated on “the Sunday immediately following the Paschal Full Moon date of the year” (christianity.about.com). There are tables to determine ...

Grimsby Telegraph

Grimsby Telegraph
Thu, 05 Mar 2015 06:10:37 -0800

In Western Christianity, Easter marks the end of Lent, a 40-day period of fasting, repentance, moderation and spiritual discipline in preparation for Easter. Lent begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Easter Sunday. Easter is a religious event (Jesus' ...

ChesterChronicle.co.uk

ChesterChronicle.co.uk
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 07:56:15 -0800

The paschal full moon, which coincides with the date of Passover on the Jewish calendar, was chosen as a basis for setting Easter; as such, Easter Sunday is always on the Sunday following Passover. As the paschal full moon can occur on different dates ...

Birmingham Mail

Birmingham Mail
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 10:32:17 -0800

It's become known as the Paschal Full Moon and can differ by as much as two days from the actual astronomical full moon. Once the date of that full moon is known, then Easter can be given its annual slot on the calendar. Still confused? Then watch the ...

ChronicleLive

ChronicleLive
Sat, 28 Feb 2015 07:48:02 -0800

The paschal full moon was chosen as a basis, as this coincides with the date of Passover on the Jewish calendar. As such, Easter is set as the Sunday following Passover. As the paschal full moon can occur on different dates in different time zones, it ...

AberdeenNews.com

AberdeenNews.com
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 11:02:08 -0800

Elsie Wells puts a palm leaf shaped like a cross back into place where it is displayed in her Aberdeen home. Wells continues a family tradition by fashioning the leaves into decorative shapes and placing them near the Catholic religious symbols in her ...

Manchester Evening News

Manchester Evening News
Thu, 19 Feb 2015 07:18:27 -0800

They chose to celebrate the resurrection of Christ - which must be celebrated on a Sunday - the first Sunday after the paschal full moon, which is the day of the Jewish festival Passover. As the Last Supper (Holy Thursday) occurred on the Passover ...

Space.com

Space.com
Thu, 15 Jan 2015 04:45:00 -0800

This is also the Paschal Full Moon — the first full moon of the spring season. The first Sunday following the Paschal Moon is Easter Sunday, which indeed will be observed the very next day on Sunday, April 5. Full Flower Moon, May 3, 11:42 p.m. EDT ...
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