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This article is about Catholic ecclesial communities. For local churches in other Christian denominations, see local church.
Catholic Church
Major sui iuris Churches

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In Catholic canon law, a particular Church (Latin: ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community headed by a bishop or someone recognised as the equivalent of a bishop.

There are two kinds of particular Churches:

  1. Local particular Churches . A diocese is the most familiar form of such local particular Churches, but there are other forms, including that of a territorial abbacy, an apostolic vicariate and an apostolic prefecture:

    Particular Churches, in which and from which the one and only Catholic Church exists, are principally dioceses. Unless the contrary is clear, the following are equivalent to a diocese: a territorial prelature, a territorial abbacy, a vicariate apostolic, a prefecture apostolic and a permanently established apostolic administration.[1]

  2. Autonomous particular Churches, also known as "sui iuris Churches". These are aggregations of local particular Churches that share a specific liturgical, theological and canonical tradition. They have also been called "particular Churches or rites".[2] The largest such autonomous particular Church is the Latin Church. The others are referred to collectively as the Eastern Catholic Churches. The larger Eastern Catholic Churches are headed by a bishop who has the title and rank of patriarch or major archbishop.

Autonomous particular Churches[edit]

There are 23 such autonomous Churches, one "Western" and 22 "Eastern", a distinction by now more historical than geographical. The term sui iuris means, literally, "of their own law", or self-governing. Although all of the particular Churches espouse the same beliefs and faith, their distinction lies in their varied expression of that faith through their traditions, disciplines, and Canon law. All 23 are in communion with the Pope in Rome.

For this kind of "particular Church" the 1983 Code of Canon Law uses the unambiguous phrase "autonomous ritual Church" (in Latin Ecclesia ritualis sui iuris). The 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which is instead concerned principally with what the Second Vatican Council called "particular Churches or rites", has shortened this phrase to "autonomous Church" (in Latin, Ecclesia sui iuris), as in its canon 27: "A group of Christ’s faithful hierarchically linked in accordance with law and given express or tacit recognition by the supreme authority of the Church is in this Code called an autonomous Church."

Communion between particular Churches has existed since the Apostles: "Among these manifold particular expressions of the saving presence of the one Church of Christ, there are to be found, from the times of the Apostles on, those entities which are in themselves Churches, because, although they are particular, the universal Church becomes present in them with all its essential elements."[3]

Local particular Churches[edit]

In Catholic teaching, each diocese (Latin Church term) or eparchy (Eastern term) is also a local or particular Church, though it lacks the autonomy of the particular Churches described above: "A diocese is a section of the People of God entrusted to a bishop to be guided by him with the assistance of his clergy so that, loyal to its pastor and formed by him into one community in the Holy Spirit through the Gospel and the Eucharist, it constitutes one particular church in which the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church of Christ is truly present and active."[4]

The 1983 Code of Canon Law, which is concerned with the Latin Church alone and so with only one autonomous particular Church, uses the term "particular Church" only in the sense of "local Church", as in its canon 373: "It is within the competence of the supreme authority alone to establish particular Churches; once they are lawfully established, the law itself gives them juridical personality."[5]

The standard form of these local or particular Churches, each of which is headed by a bishop, is called a diocese in the Latin Church and an eparchy in the Eastern Churches. At the end of 2011, the total number of all these jurisdictional areas (or "sees") was 2,834.[6]

Theological significance[edit]

Unlike "families" or "federations" of Churches formed through the grant of mutual recognition by distinct ecclesial bodies,[7] the Catholic Church considers itself a single Church ("one Body") composed of a multitude of particular Churches, each of which, as stated, is an embodiment of the fullness of the one Catholic Church. For the particular Churches within the Catholic Church, whether autonomous ritual Churches (e.g., Coptic Catholic Church, Melkite Catholic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, etc.) or dioceses (e.g., Archdiocese of Birmingham, Archdiocese of Chicago, etc.), are seen as not simply branches, divisions or sections of a larger body. Theologically, each is considered to be the embodiment in a particular place or for a particular community of the one, whole Catholic Church. "It is in these and formed out of them that the one and unique Catholic Church exists."[8][9]

The local particular Church of Rome[edit]

The Holy See of Rome is seen as the central local Church. Its bishop, the Pope, is considered to be, in a unique sense, the successor of Saint Peter, the chief (or "prince") of the Apostles. Quoting the Second Vatican Council’s document Lumen Gentium, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, 'is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful.'"[10]

All the particular Catholic Churches — eastern or western, autonomous (rites) or local (dioceses or eparchies) — are by definition in full communion with the see or local particular Church of Rome.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 368
  2. ^ Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 2
  3. ^ Communionis Notio, 7)
  4. ^ Second Vatican Council, Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church Christus Dominus,11
  5. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 373
  6. ^ Central Statistics Office (March 2012). Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Yearbook). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. p. 1142. ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0. 
  7. ^ Also unlike the situation of those countries within the Commonwealth that consider the British monarch to be their head of state, but are nonetheless fully independent and quite distinct states, not just one state.
  8. ^ Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Decree on the Church Lumen Gentium, 23
  9. ^ "The particular Churches, insofar as they are 'part of the one Church of Christ' (Second Vatican Council: Decree Christus Dominus, 6/c), have a special relationship of mutual interiority with the whole, that is, with the universal Church, because in every particular Church 'the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church of Christ is truly present and active' (Second Vatican Council: Decree Christus Dominus, 11/a). For this reason, the universal Church cannot be conceived as the sum of the particular Churches, or as a federation of particular Churches. It is not the result of the communion of the Churches, but, in its essential mystery, it is a reality ontologically and temporally prior to every individual particular Church" (Communionis Notio, 9).
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 882

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particular_Church — Please support Wikipedia.
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1308 news items

Columbus Ledger-Enquirer

Columbus Ledger-Enquirer
Sun, 21 Dec 2014 16:39:16 -0800

I was commuting from Nashville at least 3 weekends out of the month, and I wanted to attend a graduate school that provided me with reasonable access to that particular church. The Morehouse School of Religion in Atlanta was the perfect choice. I ...

Corpus Christi Caller Times

Corpus Christi Caller Times
Mon, 22 Dec 2014 02:07:03 -0800

Her mission is independent, and she is not affiliated with any particular church group, although when she is in Corpus Christi, she attends Church Unlimited, a large nondenominational church. And she attends a church in Kampala that includes Ugandans ...

The Economist (blog)

The Economist (blog)
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:04:19 -0800

Cyprus as a whole is most certainly NOT under the Patriarchate of Jerusalem; this one particular church building happens to be. If I had claimed that the entire Cypriot church was under the authority of Jerusalem, that would indeed have been surprising ...
 
Cross Rhythms
Sat, 20 Dec 2014 23:52:30 -0800

So naturally we all want to keep making music and worshipping together. The mission and vision has shifted though. We've always had a clear goal, to serve a particular church in a particular city every Sunday. The goal is different now, but no less ...
 
The-review
Sat, 13 Dec 2014 00:10:30 -0800

"Although this particular church was not built in the traditional Byzantine style -- as the Byzantine style has the apses and the domes, and it's made in the form of a cross -- the iconography being done will respect the traditional Orthodox order ...
 
Portsmouth Daily Times
Sat, 13 Dec 2014 11:29:56 -0800

You don't just have to be from one particular church, you can see some of the other different churches, and it lets you see that God is everywhere.” The Tour of Churches offered a unique opportunity to behold the beauty contained in the four walls of ...

Aleteia

Aleteia
Sun, 07 Dec 2014 21:11:28 -0800

Some years ago I preached a retreat to a group of parish priests and suggested to them that they might consider, if they became pastors (as was likely at some point), an opening homily on what a parish is about. It is not about the school or the CYO or ...
 
McCook Daily Gazette
Fri, 05 Dec 2014 11:18:45 -0800

McCOOK NEB. -- While researching the McCook Tribune articles on early Christmas celebrations in McCook I kept seeing references to the South McCook Methodist Church. Since I had never heard of that particular church it sparked my interest to continue ...
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