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This article is about Catholic ecclesial communities. For local churches in other Christian denominations, see local church.
Catholic Church
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In Catholic canon law, a particular Church (Latin: ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community headed by a bishop or someone recognised as the equivalent of a bishop.

There are two kinds of particular Churches:

  1. Local particular Churches . A diocese is the most familiar form of such local particular Churches, but there are other forms, including that of a territorial abbacy, an apostolic vicariate and an apostolic prefecture: "Particular Churches, in which and from which the one and only Catholic Church exists, are principally dioceses. Unless the contrary is clear, the following are equivalent to a diocese: a territorial prelature, a territorial abbacy, a vicariate apostolic, a prefecture apostolic and a permanently established apostolic administration."[1]
  2. Autonomous particular Churches, also known as "sui iuris Churches". These are aggregations of local particular Churches that share a specific liturgical, theological and canonical tradition. They have also been called "particular Churches or rites".[2] The largest such autonomous particular Church is the Latin Church. The others are referred to collectively as the Eastern Catholic Churches. The larger Eastern Catholic Churches are headed by a bishop who has the title and rank of patriarch or major archbishop.

Autonomous particular Churches or Rites[edit]

There are 23 such autonomous Churches, one "Western" and 22 "Eastern", a distinction by now more historical than geographical. The term sui iuris means, literally, "of their own law", or self-governing. Although all of the particular Churches espouse the same beliefs and faith, their distinction lies in their varied expression of that faith through their traditions, disciplines, and Canon law. All 23 are in communion with the Pope in Rome.

For this kind of "particular Church" the 1983 Code of Canon Law uses the unambiguous phrase "autonomous ritual Church" (in Latin Ecclesia ritualis sui iuris). The 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which is instead concerned principally with what the Second Vatican Council called "particular Churches or rites", has shortened this phrase to "autonomous Church" (in Latin, Ecclesia sui iuris), as in its canon 27: "A group of Christ’s faithful hierarchically linked in accordance with law and given express or tacit recognition by the supreme authority of the Church is in this Code called an autonomous Church."

Communion between particular Churches has existed since the Apostles: "Among these manifold particular expressions of the saving presence of the one Church of Christ, there are to be found, from the times of the Apostles on, those entities which are in themselves Churches, because, although they are particular, the universal Church becomes present in them with all its essential elements."[3]

Local particular Churches[edit]

In Catholic teaching, each diocese (Latin Church term) or eparchy (Eastern term) is also a local or particular Church, though it lacks the autonomy of the particular Churches described above: "A diocese is a section of the People of God entrusted to a bishop to be guided by him with the assistance of his clergy so that, loyal to its pastor and formed by him into one community in the Holy Spirit through the Gospel and the Eucharist, it constitutes one particular church in which the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church of Christ is truly present and active."[4]

The 1983 Code of Canon Law, which is concerned with the Latin Church alone and so with only one autonomous particular Church, uses the term "particular Church" only in the sense of "local Church", as in its canon 373: "It is within the competence of the supreme authority alone to establish particular Churches; once they are lawfully established, the law itself gives them juridical personality."[5]

The standard form of these local or particular Churches, each of which is headed by a bishop, is called a diocese in the Latin Church and an eparchy in the Eastern Churches. At the end of 2011, the total number of all these jurisdictional areas (or "sees") was 2,834.[6]

Theological significance[edit]

Unlike "families" or "federations" of Churches formed through the grant of mutual recognition by distinct ecclesial bodies,[7] the Catholic Church considers itself a single Church ("one Body") composed of a multitude of particular Churches, each of which, as stated, is an embodiment of the fullness of the one Catholic Church. For the particular Churches within the Catholic Church, whether autonomous ritual Churches (e.g., Coptic Catholic Church, Melkite Catholic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, etc.) or dioceses (e.g., Archdiocese of Birmingham, Archdiocese of Chicago, etc.), are seen as not simply branches, divisions or sections of a larger body. Theologically, each is considered to be the embodiment in a particular place or for a particular community of the one, whole Catholic Church. "It is in these and formed out of them that the one and unique Catholic Church exists."[8][9]

The local particular Church of Rome[edit]

The Holy See of Rome is seen as the central local Church. Its bishop, the Pope, is considered to be, in a unique sense, the successor of Saint Peter, the chief (or "prince") of the Apostles. Quoting the Second Vatican Council’s document Lumen Gentium, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, 'is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful.'"[10]

All the particular Catholic Churches — eastern or western, autonomous (rites) or local (dioceses or eparchies) — are by definition in full communion with the see or local particular Church of Rome.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 368
  2. ^ Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 2
  3. ^ Communionis Notio, 7)
  4. ^ Second Vatican Council, Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church Christus Dominus,11
  5. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 373
  6. ^ Central Statistics Office (March 2012). Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Yearbook). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. p. 1142. ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0. 
  7. ^ Also unlike the situation of those countries within the Commonwealth that consider the British monarch to be their head of state, but are nonetheless fully independent and quite distinct states, not just one state.
  8. ^ Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Decree on the Church Lumen Gentium, 23
  9. ^ "The particular Churches, insofar as they are 'part of the one Church of Christ' (Second Vatican Council: Decree Christus Dominus, 6/c), have a special relationship of mutual interiority with the whole, that is, with the universal Church, because in every particular Church 'the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church of Christ is truly present and active' (Second Vatican Council: Decree Christus Dominus, 11/a). For this reason, the universal Church cannot be conceived as the sum of the particular Churches, or as a federation of particular Churches. It is not the result of the communion of the Churches, but, in its essential mystery, it is a reality ontologically and temporally prior to every individual particular Church" (Communionis Notio, 9).
  10. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 882

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particular_Church — Please support Wikipedia.
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ThinkProgress

ThinkProgress
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 05:22:30 -0700

As the Uptown Messenger reports, anti-abortion activists interrupted worship at the church — specifically, disrupting a moment of silence for a church member who recently passed away — to declare that this particular church isn't a “true faith” and ...
 
Fort Morgan Times
Sat, 26 Jul 2014 10:15:00 -0700

This is a Bible-based school, but children do not have to be of a particular church affiliation. Tuesday, July 29. 9:30 a.m. Story time at the Fort Morgan Children's Library, 414 Main St., Fort Morgan. Noon & 8 p.m. Alcoholics Anonymous meeting, at 115 ...

East Anglian Daily Times

East Anglian Daily Times
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 21:52:30 -0700

Each of the groups will start at a particular church, part of the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich, and will call at others along the route which will follow footpaths or minor roads wherever possible. Mr Lucas said he wanted everyone who wished ...

The New Republic

The New Republic
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 10:08:02 -0700

Many more affiliate with Orthodoxy in general, but no particular church. Much ink has been spilled over the Kremlin's attempts to make Moscow a “Third Rome,” to reunite the people of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus under the rule of “Holy Russia ...
 
azcentral.com
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 21:45:33 -0700

The Bible was not associated with that particular church and it was turned over to police as evidence, according to a police report. A custodian also found a burned Bible near the rear door of Calvary Baptist Church. The warning issued to churches said ...

Florida Courier

Florida Courier
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 05:45:00 -0700

While speaking at a local church over the weekend, I learned that this particular church (Cargle Chapel A.M.E. Church) in Walton County, Georgia was at the forefront of the civil rights movement in the 1960's. Just reflecting on the many heroes and ...

ChristianityToday.com

ChristianityToday.com
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 03:19:45 -0700

At my particular church they never gave an invitation. They felt it was manipulative. You know? Somehow, we get the idea that people don't want to hear it. But in fact, many of them are waiting for somebody with humble authority to tell them, "Give ...
 
Associated Baptist Press (blog)
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 07:03:45 -0700

Regardless of the particular church service, the whole church wins! We may hang out in different rooms, but we're in the same big family, in the same big house. And that's a good thing. Israel was called as one people to love and serve God and neighbor.
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