digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all.

Almost all languages have the lexical categories noun and verb, but beyond these there are significant variations in different languages.[1] For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have nominal classifiers whereas European languages do not; many languages do not have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see stative verbs) or adjectives and nouns[citation needed], etc. This variation in the number of categories and their identifying properties entails that analysis be done for each individual language. Nevertheless the labels for each category are assigned on the basis of universal criteria.[1]

Controversies[edit]

Since the Greek grammar of 2nd century BC, parts of speech have been defined by morphological, syntactic and semantic criteria. However, there is currently no generally agreed-upon classification scheme that can apply to all languages, or even a set of criteria upon which such a scheme should be based.

English[edit]

A diagram of English categories in accordance with modern linguistic studies

English words have been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories, or parts of speech (and are still done so in most dictionaries):

Noun
any abstract or concrete entity; a person (police officer, Michael), place (coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery)
Pronoun
any substitute for a noun or noun phrase (them)
Adjective
any qualifier of a noun or pronoun (big)
Verb
any action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be)
Adverb
any qualifier of an adjective, verb, clause, sentence, or other adverb (very)
Preposition
any establisher of relation and syntactic context (in)
Conjunction
any syntactic connector (and)
Interjection
any emotional greeting (or "exclamation") (ow)

Linguists recognize that the above list of eight word classes is drastically simplified and artificial.[2] For example, "adverb" is to some extent a catch-all class that includes words with many different functions. Some have even argued that the most basic of category distinctions, that of nouns and verbs, is unfounded,[3] or not applicable to certain languages.[4][5] Although these eight are the traditional eight English parts of speech, modern linguists have been able to classify English words into even more specific categories and subcategories based on function.

The four main parts of speech in English, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are labelled form classes as well. This is because prototypical members of each class share the ability to change their form by accepting derivational or inflectional morphemes. The term form is used because it refers literally to the similarities in shape of the word in its pronunciation and spelling for each part of speech.[6]

Neither written nor spoken English generally marks words as belonging to one part of speech or another, as they tend to be understood in the context of the sentence. Words like neigh, break, outlaw, laser, microwave, and telephone might all be either verb forms or nouns. Although -ly is a frequent adverb marker, not all adverbs end in -ly (-wise is another common adverb marker) and not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. For instance, tomorrow, fast, very can all be adverbs, while early, friendly, ugly are all adjectives (though early can also function as an adverb). Verbs can also be used as adjectives (e.g. "The astonished child watched the spectacle unfold" instead of the verb usage "The unfolding spectacle astonished the child"). In such cases, the verb is in its participle form.

In certain circumstances, even words with primarily grammatical functions can be used as verbs or nouns, as in, "We must look to the hows and not just the whys."

Functional classification[edit]

The study of linguistics has expanded the understanding of lexical categories in various languages and allowed for better classifying words by function. Common lexical categories in English by function may include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kroeger, Paul (2005). Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-521-01653-7. 
  2. ^ Zwicky, Arnold (30 March 2006). "What part of speech is "the"". Language Log. Retrieved 26 December 2009. "...the school tradition about parts of speech is so desperately impoverished" 
  3. ^ Hopper, P; Thompson, S (1985). "The Iconicity of the Universal Categories 'Noun' and 'Verbs'". In John Haiman. Typological Studies in Language: Iconicity and Syntax 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 151–183. 
  4. ^ Launey, Michel (1994). Une grammaire omniprédicative: essai sur la morphosyntaxe du nahuatl classique. Paris: CNRS Editions. 
  5. ^ Broschart, Jürgen (1997). "Why Tongan does it differently: Categorial Distinctions in a Language without Nouns and Verbs". Linguistic Typology 1 (2): 123–165. doi:10.1515/lity.1997.1.2.123. 
  6. ^ Klammer, Thomas; Schulz, Muriel R.; Della Volpe, Angela (2009). Analyzing English Grammar (6th ed.). Longman. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part_of_speech — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH #1 - INTRO

Introduction to the eight parts of speech with a mnemonic device to help remember the first initials of all eight. For more lessons in grammar, go to www.321...

EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH #3 - VERB

The eight parts of speech are reviewed. The action verb and state-of-being verb are discussed. For more lessons in grammar, go to www.321grammar.com.

ไวยากรณ์ภาษาอังกฤษ เรื่อง Part of speech

สวัสดีค่ะทุกคน คลิปนี้สร้างขึ้นเพื่อถ่ายทอดความรู้เกี่ยวกับภาษาอังกฤษ เรื่อง Part of speech และเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของการเรียนการสอนรายวิชา การประเมินและพัฒนานวัตกร...

Parts of Speech - English Grammar Lesson

SuccessCDs Education ( https://www.youtube.com/successcds1 ) is an online channel focused on providing education through Videos as per CBSE, ICSE and NCERT s...

8 parts of speech (grammar) lecture by Jyotsna Saini

This is a part of lecture presented by Ms. Jyotsna saini, Asst.Proffesor of Biyani Girls College. The video is about the 8 parts of speech 1. Noun 2. Pronoun...

Mr. Folkes - Parts of Speech (Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives)

A song that explains nouns, verbs, and adjectives to the tune of "Give It to Me" by Timbaland (performed by Mr. Folkes).

part of speech and function

Grammar: Brief and Naughty - Part 1: The 8 Parts of Speech

Teach Kids Productions humbly presents Grammar: Brief and Naughty. Noah Webster joins us to explore all eight parts of speech (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, v...

Grammar 1-1: Parts of Speech

CCEL SMRT instructor Mark Roberts explains five parts of speech in English.

4.Spoken English - Parts of speech Part.A

Spoken English tutorials in Telugu.This video is about parts of speech in English language.Hope it is useful for you folks.

1000000 videos foundNext > 

35 news items

 
Elgin Courier
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:56:15 -0700

He played football, baseball, tennis, ran track, and was a part of speech and drama. After spending a year at Blinn Junior College and another at Tyler Junior College, Larson made his way to The University of Texas at Austin where he received dual ...
 
Dallas Cowboys Nation
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 08:05:32 -0700

So is it Kyle Wilbur, or Kyle Wilber? Perhaps Willber? Wilburrer? Can you use it in a sentence? Part of speech, please? Half the meth-heads in Philly can spell Heisenberg, but some of the most staunch Cowboys faithful aren't yet familiar enough with ...

Motherboard

Motherboard
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 02:31:11 -0700

"Whom" is already, basically, a dead word walking—a vestige of a time long ago, when all English nouns carried suffixes to indicate which part of speech they were functioning as. Even though it seems easy enough to remember the rules for “He v. Him ...

spyghana.com

spyghana.com
Sat, 05 Jul 2014 05:22:30 -0700

The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary of English language defines noun as “a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality.” As a part of speech in English, a noun is defined as “a name of any person, animal, place or thing.
 
Wired
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 11:00:00 -0700

An open-source tool called the Stanford Part of Speech Tagger comes in handy for this. It then uses custom-build algorithms to assign 150 different attributes—beaches, hiking, sunsets, and so on—to different locations. What you see on the homepage is ...
 
American Thinker
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 23:18:10 -0700

If you took all the words typed into the forum every day and arranged them according to what part of speech they were, you'd quickly notice that nouns expressing the emotions of anger, aggression, and disgust, and verbs speaking of destruction ...

eWeek

eWeek
Mon, 07 Jul 2014 15:40:40 -0700

Natural language processing is the topic of the paper, "Token and Type Constraints for Cross-Lingual Part-of-Speech Tagging," which looks at new techniques in this field. "Knowing the parts of speech (verb, noun, etc.) of words is important for many ...
 
gulfnews.com
Sat, 28 Jun 2014 08:56:15 -0700

we add a third part of speech — adjective. (I'm figuring buffalo from Buffalo, New York, the biggest “Buffalo,” are the ones doing the buffaloing.) Steven Pinker, in his 1994 book, The Language Instinct, cited an eight-word “buffalo” sentence ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Part of speech

You can talk about Part of speech with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!