digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















For other uses, see Parallel Lives (disambiguation).
Engraving facing the title page of an 18th-century edition of Plutarch's Lives

Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, written in the late 1st century.[not verified in body] The surviving Parallel Lives (Greek: Βίοι Παράλληλοι Bíoi Parállēloi) contain twenty-three pairs of biographies, each pair consisting of one Greek and one Roman, as well as four unpaired, single lives.[citation needed] It is a work of considerable importance, not only as a source of information about the individuals biographized, but also about the times in which they lived.[not verified in body]


As he explains in the first paragraph of his Life of Alexander, Plutarch was not concerned with writing histories, as such, but in exploring the influence of character — good or bad — on the lives and destinies of famous men, and he wished to prove that the more remote past of Greece could show its men of action and achievement as well as the nearer, and therefore more impressive, past of Rome.[citation needed] The interest is primarily ethical, although the lives have significant historical value as well. The Lives were published by Plutarch late in life after his return to Chaeronea, and, if one may judge from the long lists of authorities given, must have taken many years in the compilation.[1]


Third Volume of a 1727 edition of Plutarch's Lives, printed by Jacob Tonson

The chief manuscripts of the Lives date from the 10th and 11th centuries; the first edition appeared at Florence in 1517.[citation needed] Jacob Tonson printed several editions of the Lives in English in the late 17th century, beginning with a 5-volume set printed in 1688 and subsequent editions printed in 1693, 1702, 1716, and 1727.[citation needed] The most generally accepted text is that of the minor edition of Carl Sintenis in the Bibliotheca Teubneriana (5 vols., Leipzig 1852-55; reissued without much change in 1873-75).[citation needed] There are annotated editions by I. C. Held, E. H. G. Leopold, Otto Siefert and Friedrich Blass and Carl Sintenis, all in German; and by Holden, in English.[1]

Several of the lives, such as those of Epaminondas and Scipio Africanus are lost,[2] and many of the remaining lives are truncated, contain obvious lacunae and/or have been tampered with by later writers.[citation needed]

His Life of Alexander is one of the five surviving secondary or tertiary sources about Alexander the Great and it includes anecdotes and descriptions of incidents that appear in no other source. Likewise, his portrait of Numa Pompilius, an early Roman king, also contains unique information about the early Roman calendar.[citation needed]

Plutarch is criticized for his lack of judicious discrimination in use of authorities and the consequent errors and inaccuracies, but he gives an abundance of citations and incidentally a large number of valuable bits of information which fill up numerous gaps in historical knowledge obtained elsewhere.[citation needed] He is praised for the liveliness and warmth of his portrayals and his moral earnestness and enthusiasm, and the Lives have attracted a large circle of readers throughout the ages.[1]


Plutarch structured his Lives by alternating lives of famous Greeks ("Grecians") with those of famous Romans. After such a set of two (and one set of four) lives he generally writes out a comparison of the preceding biographies. The table below links to several on-line English translations of Plutarch's Lives;[1] see also "Other links" section below. The LacusCurtius site has the complete set; the others are incomplete to varying extents. There are also four paperbacks published by Penguin Books, two with Greek lives, two Roman, rearranged in chronological order, and containing a total of 36 of the lives.

Key to abbreviations[edit]

D = Dryden

Dryden is famous for having lent his name as editor-in-chief to the first complete English translation of Plutarch's Lives. This 17th-century translation is available at The MIT Internet Classics Archive.

These translations are linked with D in the table below; those marked (D) in parentheses are incomplete in the HTML version.

G = Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg contains several versions of 19th-century translations of these Lives, see: http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/authrec?fk_authors=342 and http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14114

The full text version (TXT) of the English poet, Arthur Hugh Clough's translation is available (via download) at Gutenberg.

These translations are linked with G in the table below.

L = LacusCurtius

LacusCurtius has the Loeb translation by Bernadotte Perrin (published 1914‑1926) of part of the Moralia and all the Lives; see http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/home.html

These translations are linked with L in the table below.

P = Perseus Project

The Perseus Project has several of the Lives, see: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cache/perscoll_Greco-Roman.html

The Lives available on the Perseus website are in Greek and English according to the Loeb edition by Bernadotte Perrin; and/or in English according to an abbreviated version of the Thomas North translations[2]. This last edition concentrates on those of the Lives Shakespeare based his plays upon: Thomas North's translation of most of the Lives, based on a French version published in the 16th century, preceded Dryden's translation mentioned above.

These translations are linked with P in the table below.

  1. ^ The last line of the table contains the four "unpaired" lives, as mentioned above.
  2. ^ The Perseus project also contains a biography of Caesar Augustus appearing in the North translation, but not coming from Plutarch's Parallel Lives: P
  3. ^ Though the majority of the Parallel Lives were written with the Greek hero (or heroes) placed in the first position followed by the Roman hero, there are three sets of Lives where this order is reversed : Aemilius Paulus-Timoleon, Coriolanus-Alcibiades and Sertorius-Eumenes.
  4. ^ At the time of composing this table there appears some confusion in the internal linking of the Perseus project webpages, responsible for this split in two references.

Chronology of the lives[edit]

The following chronology of legendary and historical figures whose biographies appear in the Lives is organized by date of death, as birth dates in antiquity are more often uncertain. All dates are BC except Galba and Otho.

  • Theseus 1264–1204 (myth)
  • Romulus 771–717 (myth)
  • Numa Pompilius d. 673 (Semi-Legendary)
  • Lycurgus circa 700–630 (Semi-Legendary)
  • Solon 638–558
  • Poplicola d. 503
  • Coriolanus c. 475
  • Aristides 530–468
  • Themistocles 524–459
  • Cimon 510–450
  • Pericles 495–429
  • Nicias 470–413
  • Alcibiades 450–404
  • Lysander d. 395
  • Camillus 446–365
  • Pelopidas d. 364
  • Agesilaus 444–360
  • Artaxerxes c.440–358
  • Dion 408–354
  • Timoleon 411–337
  • Alexander the Great 356–323
  • Demosthenes 384–322
  • Phocion 402–318
  • Eumenes 362–316
  • Demetrius d. 283
  • Pyrrhus 318–272
  • Agis c. 245
  • Cleomenes d. 219
  • Aratus 271–213
  • Marcellus 268–208
  • Fabius Maximus 275–203
  • Philopoemen 253–183
  • Flamininus 228–174
  • Aemilius Paulus 229–160
  • Cato the Elder 234–149
  • Tiberius Gracchus 163–133
  • Gaius Gracchus 154–121
  • Gaius Marius 157–86
  • Sulla 138–78
  • Sertorius b. c. 123 – d. 72
  • Lucullus 118–56
  • Crassus 115–53
  • Pompey 106–48
  • Cato the Younger 95–46
  • Julius Caesar 100 or 102–44
  • Cicero 106–43
  • Brutus 85–42
  • Mark Antony 83–30
  • Galba 3 BC – 69 AD
  • Otho 32 AD – 69 AD


  1. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Lives, Parallel". Encyclopedia Americana. 
  2. ^ "Translator's Introduction". The Parallel Lives (Vol. I ed.). Loeb Classical Library Edition. 1914. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_Lives — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
959980 videos foundNext > 

Dolores on Parallel Lives

Dolores talks about parallel lives and situations we create when we make decisions. For more videos, visit: http://www.dolorescannon.com/

Parallel Worlds, Parallel Lives - Part I

"My father never, ever said anything to me about his theories. I was in the same house with him for at least 18 years but he was a total stranger to me. He w...

[HD] Sarah Cheng-De Winne 郑雪梅 - Parallel Lives Official MV (Album: Brand New)

Download Parallel Lives from iTunes: http://sarah.cd/1aHIF2U 郑雪梅 Sarah FB Page: http://www.fb.com/sarahchengdewinne http://www.sarahchengdewinne.com (Officia...

Revolver - Parallel Lives

www.revolvermusic.tv Revolver "Parallel Lives", extrait de la BO du film "Comme Des Frères", de Hugo Gélin. Retrouvez la version originale de Parallel Lives ...

Parallel Life (2010) Trailer

Parallel Life (2010) Trailer.

Róisín Murphy - Parallel Lives

Lyrics: My ring kept him on, been learnin' fast I just got you wrong, it's not built to last, it's not built to last Time keeps on trippin' on, though I lear...

Soul Groups, Parallel Lives and Direct Source Incarnations

Magenta Pixie's website: http://www.magentapixie.com Products: http://www.magentapixie.com/shop In response to a previous video posted, "Dreamtime - Dreamspa...

Parallel Lives

A salesman on the verge of losing everything. A girl on the verge of breaking down. Their paths cross but there is more to it than what meets the eye.

REVOLVER - Parallel lives

NEW ALBUM » http://bit.ly/Revolver-LetGo http://www.revolvermusic.tv http://www.facebook.com/revolvermusic http://www.twitter.com/revolver_music.

The Starseeds - Parallel Life (1998) [Full Album /tracks]

Chillout / Downtempo / Ambient / Trip Hop Tracklist: 01. Parallel Life [00:00] 02. Behind the Sun [08:15] 03. Timequakes [13:19] 04. Sonne, Mond und Sterne [...

959980 videos foundNext > 

63 news items

Lancashire Telegraph
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:57:07 -0700

Although they seemed to be living parallel lives – both are musicians, were brought up in Colne and share many of the same friends – it wasn't until they appeared as solo artists at the town's blues festival, one following the other, at Jim's Cafe ...


Mon, 01 Sep 2014 22:22:28 -0700

In the words of the Cantle Report on community cohesion, published in 2001, they will have often lived “parallel lives” to their peers, with little or no experience of modern British values. Unless this root cause of extremism is fixed, we will be ...
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 02:56:15 -0700

The [NBA] players and I sort of live parallel lives because we both found something that we love very much, and only faith can push you through such a non-traditional journey.” How does Ravin connect with high-profile NBA stars? “There are several ...
New York Post
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 08:22:30 -0700

Even so, they lived eerily parallel lives. Both looked strikingly similar, possessed angelically beautiful voices and ended up dying young — Tim from a heroin overdose in 1975 at age 28, Jeff by drowning in 1997 at 30. Although Jeff only lived long ...
Daily Californian
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 21:39:53 -0700

“We lived parallel lives,” Moses Grossman said, describing his cousin as a serious man with a “wry sense of humor.” Although Grossman was unable to see the rest of his family often, he still made an effort to support his relatives in Russia emotionally ...
Wall St. Cheat Sheet
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:03:45 -0700

Despite their separation, the twins — both played by Blake Rayne — end up living parallel lives, even in very different surroundings. While one becomes a famous rock star, the other struggles to pursue his own love for music under the watchful eyes ...
Bega District News
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 22:40:20 -0700

“I was part of the agricultural community here, I grew up on a farm in Jellat Jellat and I was surprised to see a picture in the book of that farmland. “It's a disappointment that we grew up living parallel lives but in the same town, I had a different ...

New York Times

New York Times
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 10:37:30 -0700

Shenk's language, when he steps away from his engrossing narratives, veers toward the academic, yet it's precisely this analytical sensibility that distinguishes his book from others that discuss creative couples, from Phyllis Rose's “Parallel Lives ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Parallel Lives

You can talk about Parallel Lives with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!