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Pangium edule
Pangium edule Blanco2.391.jpg
Plate from book: Flora de Filipinas
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Achariaceae
Genus: Pangium
Species: P. edule
Binomial name
Pangium edule
Rowal (Pangium edule), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 462 kJ (110 kcal)
23.9 g
Sugars 14.1 g
Dietary fiber 6.2 g
2 g
2.3 g
Vitamin A equiv.
19 μg
230 μg
Vitamin C
25.8 mg
Trace metals
15 mg
2.2 mg
32 mg
0.155 mg
52 mg
151 mg
4 mg
0.43 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pangium edule (Indonesian: keluak or keluwak; Malay: kepayang) is a tall tree native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea[2]). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the "football fruit") which can be made edible by fermentation.

The taxonomy of the tree is uncertain and it may also be classed in the Flacourtiaceae[2] or the Violales.

Ecology and cultivation[edit]

The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate.[3] Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa).[4]

Culinary uses[edit]

Pangium edule seeds used as spice in Indonesian cooking (rawon beef stew)

The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide and are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation.[5][6][7] The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days,[8] during which time, they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black.[9] The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon, popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste,[10] and sambal rawon. A stew made with beef or chicken also exists in East Java.[11] The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder.[citation needed] In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak,[12][13] a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine.


The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.


  • Indonesian:
    • Keluak,[14] kluwak,[14] kluak,[14] kluwek,[14] keluwek[14] or kloewak (Dutch spelling).[15]
    • Pucung[14] or pucing (Sundanese)[14]
    • Rawan or rawon (adjective referring to food prepared with the seeds of this tree)
  • Malay:
  • Kadazan:


  1. ^ "Sylloge Plantarum Novarum Itemque Minus Cognitarum a Praestantissimis Botanicis adhuc Viventibus Collecta et a Societate Regia Botanica Ratisbonensi Edita. Ratisbonae (Regensburg)" 2. 1825. p. 13. 
  2. ^ a b Conn B, Damas K. "Pangium edule Reinw.". National Herbarium of New South Wales, and Papua New Guinea National Herbarium. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  3. ^ Andarwulan N, Fardiaz D, Wattimena GA, Shetty K (1999). "Antioxidant activity associated with lipid and phenolic mobilization during seed germination of Pangium edule Reinw.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (8): 3158–3163. doi:10.1021/jf981287a. 
  4. ^ Leus K, Morgan CA, Dierenfeld ES (2001). "Nutrition". In Fischer M. Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) Husbandry Manual. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 
  5. ^ Treub M (1896). "Sur la localisation, le transport, et le rôle de l'acide cyanhydrique dans le Pangium edule". Ann Jardin Bot Buitenzorg (in French) xiii: 1. 
  6. ^ Greshoff M (1906). Distribution of prussic acid in the vegetable kingdom. Report Brit Assn (York, England). p. 138. 
  7. ^ Willaman JJ (1917). "The estimation of hydrocyanic acid and the probable form in which it occurs in Sorghum vulgare". J Biol Chem 29 (1): 25–36. 
  8. ^ Chia CC. "Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  9. ^ Wong WH (11 Jan 2007). "Buah Keluak". National Parks. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  10. ^ Nyonya Rumah (24 July 2012). "Nasi Rawon Komplet" (in Indonesian). kompas.com. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Tarry, Tarry Night". 22 May 2007. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  12. ^ Ng L (29 Oct 2007). "Ayam/Pork Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  13. ^ Chia CC. "Ayam/Babi Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Kluwak Pangium edule Reinw Familia: Flacourtiaceae Indonesia: Keluwek, keluwak, kluwak, kluwek, picung (Sunda), kepayang. Malaysia: Kepayang, Payang". DipoKusumo Farm Nursery. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  15. ^ "Kloewak [Pangium edule]". Objectief. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangium_edule — Please support Wikipedia.
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29 news items

Yahoo! Singapore News
Wed, 11 Jul 2012 02:45:00 -0700

Native to the mangrove swamps in Southeast Asia, the buah keluak tree's (Pangium edule/keluak/ keluwak/kepayang) wood, leaves, fruit and seeds all contain a glycoside compound that converts to hydrocyanic acid, also known as cyanide. If you have ...

Blu Radio

Blu Radio
Thu, 19 Mar 2015 22:26:15 -0700

Pangium Edule: Se trata de una fruta muy común en el continente asiático, la cual en su interior contiene unas semillas que de no lavadas y hervidas correctamente, podría convertirse en un veneno para la sangre del consumidor. 4.Rana Catesbeiana ...
Huffington Post UK
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 02:45:58 -0800

Creuzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), known more commonly as 'mad cow disease', caused a major scare in the 1990s. But now it's lambs rather than cows that some are concerned about. A question mark over the safety of lamb has been raised after scientists ...

Wall Street Journal (blog)

Wall Street Journal (blog)
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 16:04:52 -0700

And Indonesians are known food adventurists. For some, however, black food isn't anything new. Indonesia's own famous Rawon is a black beef stew that gets its color from the fruit of the pangium edule, or keluak, tree. The kuro burger is only being ...

The Borneo Post

The Borneo Post
Sat, 04 Oct 2014 10:48:45 -0700

The traditional method uses soaked palm oil seeds or soaked buah kepayang, an oval-shaped tropical fruit scientifically known as pangium edule. But Chimon cautioned the fruit could be poisonous for consumption if not properly prepared, saying it had to ...
Sat, 08 Feb 2014 09:04:17 -0800

Pangium edule, the fruit from a tree native to Southeast Asia, is poisonous to humans due to the hydrogen cyanide it contains.(It's known as "the fruit that nauseates.") The seeds are eaten after either being boiled without their shells and soaked in ...
The Borneo Post
Sat, 24 May 2014 10:15:00 -0700

According to him, CFFRC is working with the Sarawak Department of Agriculture and stands as a platform for collaboration and networking so that many indigenous species in Sarawak such as dabai, kepayang (pangium edule), terung asam Sarawak or ...
The Australian
Fri, 07 Mar 2014 05:44:14 -0800

Sambal buah keluak is a kind of hard nut from the Pangium edule or kepayang tree, a poisonous mangrove species that grows in Malaysia and Indonesia, from which the centre is scooped and cooked. D'Silva cooked it with a sambal and a small amount of ...

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