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Pangium edule
Pangium edule Blanco2.391.jpg
Plate from book: Flora de Filipinas
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Achariaceae
Genus: Pangium
Species: P. edule
Binomial name
Pangium edule
Rowal (Pangium edule), raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 462 kJ (110 kcal)
23.9 g
Sugars 14.1 g
Dietary fiber 6.2 g
2 g
2.3 g
Vitamin A equiv.
19 μg
230 μg
Vitamin C
25.8 mg
15 mg
2.2 mg
32 mg
0.155 mg
52 mg
151 mg
4 mg
0.43 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Pangium edule (Indonesian: keluak or keluwak; Malay: kepayang) is a tall tree native to the mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea[2]). It produces a large poisonous fruit (the "football fruit") which can be made edible by fermentation.

The taxonomy of the tree is uncertain and it may also be classed in the Flacourtiaceae[2] or the Violales.

Ecology and cultivation[edit]

The tree requires many years to mature and the seeds are therefore most frequently harvested from wild trees, as it is not economically feasible to cultivate.[3] Although poisonous to humans, the seeds of the tree form part of the natural diet of the babirusa (Babyroussa babyrussa).[4]

Culinary uses[edit]

Pangium edule seeds used as spice in Indonesian cooking (rawon beef stew)

The fresh fruit and seeds contain hydrogen cyanide and are deadly poisonous if consumed without prior preparation.[5][6][7] The seeds are first boiled and then buried in ash, banana leaves and earth for forty days,[8] during which time, they turn from a creamy white colour to dark brown or black.[9] The method relies on the fact that the hydrogen cyanide released by the boiling and fermentation is water-soluble and easily washed out.

The kernels may be ground up to form a thick black gravy called rawon, popular dishes include nasi rawon, beef stew in keluwek paste,[10] and sambal rawon. A stew made with beef or chicken also exists in East Java.[11] The Toraja dish pammarrasan (black spice with fish or meat, also sometimes with vegetables) uses the black keluak powder.[citation needed] In Singapore and Malaysia, the seeds are best known as an essential ingredient in ayam (chicken) or babi (pork) buah keluak,[12][13] a mainstay of Peranakan cuisine.


The edible portions of the plant are an excellent source of vitamin C and high in iron.


  • Indonesian:
    • Keluak,[14] kluwak,[14] kluak,[14] kluwek,[14] keluwek[14] or kloewak (Dutch spelling).[15]
    • Pucung[14] or pucing (Sundanese)[14]
    • Rawan or rawon (adjective referring to food prepared with the seeds of this tree)
  • Malay:
  • Kadazan:


  1. ^ "Sylloge Plantarum Novarum Itemque Minus Cognitarum a Praestantissimis Botanicis adhuc Viventibus Collecta et a Societate Regia Botanica Ratisbonensi Edita. Ratisbonae (Regensburg)" 2. 1825. p. 13. 
  2. ^ a b Conn B, Damas K. "Pangium edule Reinw.". National Herbarium of New South Wales, and Papua New Guinea National Herbarium. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  3. ^ Andarwulan N, Fardiaz D, Wattimena GA, Shetty K (1999). "Antioxidant activity associated with lipid and phenolic mobilization during seed germination of Pangium edule Reinw.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (8): 3158–3163. doi:10.1021/jf981287a. 
  4. ^ Leus K, Morgan CA, Dierenfeld ES (2001). "Nutrition". In Fischer M. Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) Husbandry Manual. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 
  5. ^ Treub M (1896). "Sur la localisation, le transport, et le rôle de l'acide cyanhydrique dans le Pangium edule". Ann Jardin Bot Buitenzorg (in French) xiii: 1. 
  6. ^ Greshoff M (1906). Distribution of prussic acid in the vegetable kingdom. Report Brit Assn (York, England). p. 138. 
  7. ^ Willaman JJ (1917). "The estimation of hydrocyanic acid and the probable form in which it occurs in Sorghum vulgare". J Biol Chem 29 (1): 25–36. 
  8. ^ Chia CC. "Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  9. ^ Wong WH (11 Jan 2007). "Buah Keluak". National Parks. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  10. ^ Nyonya Rumah (24 July 2012). "Nasi Rawon Komplet" (in Indonesian). kompas.com. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Tarry, Tarry Night". 22 May 2007. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  12. ^ Ng L (29 Oct 2007). "Ayam/Pork Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  13. ^ Chia CC. "Ayam/Babi Buah Keluak". Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Kluwak Pangium edule Reinw Familia: Flacourtiaceae Indonesia: Keluwek, keluwak, kluwak, kluwek, picung (Sunda), kepayang. Malaysia: Kepayang, Payang". DipoKusumo Farm Nursery. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 
  15. ^ "Kloewak [Pangium edule]". Objectief. Retrieved 15 Oct 2009. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangium_edule — Please support Wikipedia.
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44 news items

Yahoo! Singapore News

Yahoo! Singapore News
Thu, 12 Jul 2012 17:46:23 -0700

Native to the mangrove swamps in Southeast Asia, the buah keluak tree's (Pangium edule/keluak/ keluwak/kepayang) wood, leaves, fruit and seeds all contain a glycoside compound that converts to hydrocyanic acid, also known as cyanide. If you have ...


Tue, 17 Nov 2015 01:07:47 -0800

Namun nama latin biji bercangkang keras ini adalah Pangium edule. Pohonnya banyak ditemukan di negara-negara Asia Tenggara seperti Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Papua Nugini. Pemilihan keluak perlu diperhatikan agar mendapat keluak yang tidak pahit.

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Thu, 10 Sep 2015 03:38:09 -0700

We have come to expect unusual sounding animals and fruits from the depths of the rain-forest to have deadly dining consequences, but there are 'regular' foods that should come with a warning sign too. Elderberries, cashews and rhubarb leaves have made ...


Sat, 04 Apr 2015 23:45:00 -0700

A luscious example of this is his riff on ayam buah keluak, a Peranakan classic whose hauntingly good umami-rich sauce is made from the nuts of the Pangium edule tree, which grows in mangrove swamps. The nuts have to be soaked for five days after being ...
Planète Québec
Tue, 03 Nov 2015 23:30:00 -0800

Le Pangium edule est un arbre de la mangrove indonésienne, malaisienne et papoue. Le fruit qu'il produit est très populaire dans la culture alimentaire de cette région asiatique. Mais il contient, comme ses graines, du cyanure d'hydrogène, et peut donc ...

Huffington Post UK

Huffington Post UK
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 02:45:58 -0800

Creuzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), known more commonly as 'mad cow disease', caused a major scare in the 1990s. But now it's lambs rather than cows that some are concerned about. A question mark over the safety of lamb has been raised after scientists ...


Sat, 08 Feb 2014 09:04:17 -0800

Pangium edule, the fruit from a tree native to Southeast Asia, is poisonous to humans due to the hydrogen cyanide it contains.(It's known as "the fruit that nauseates.") The seeds are eaten after either being boiled without their shells and soaked in ...

Wall Street Journal (blog)

Wall Street Journal (blog)
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 16:04:52 -0700

And Indonesians are known food adventurists. For some, however, black food isn't anything new. Indonesia's own famous Rawon is a black beef stew that gets its color from the fruit of the pangium edule, or keluak, tree. The kuro burger is only being ...

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