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Pallar/Mallar/Devendrakula Vellalar
Total population
2,272,265 (19.2%)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Sri Lanka, Burma, Andhra pradesh, pondicherry, Africa, fiji, Indonesia, malayasia, Singapore, Canada, USA, Guyana,, Maharastra,
Languages
Tamil
Religion
Hindu, Christianity, Islam

The Pallar [2] is a caste from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pallar are mostly agriculturalists in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, and some of them are still involved as agricultural labourers. They are spread across the Tamil diaspora demographic and densely populated in southern parts of Tamilnadu.

The Devendrakula Vellalars/ Mallars/ Pallars are an ancient community of people, engaged extensively in wet land farming and distributed mainly in Thanjavur,Madurai and Ramanathapuram districts (Ramaiah 2004). The Pallars were given scheduled castes status due to their weak economic status during the introduction of listed community reservation post Independence, and they number around 2.2 million (Census of India 2001).[3]

  1. Kudumban SC List (SC 35)
  2. Moopan BC List (BC 65)
  3. Kaaladi BC List (BC 35)
  4. Kaaladi DNC List (DNC 28)
  5. Mannadi MBC List (MBC 16)
  6. Vathiriyar SC List (SC 72)[4]
  7. Devendrakulathan(17)[4]

Origin[edit]

They claim to be the descendants of Devendran (the god of Marutham Land). Worship of the God Devendran was popular in ancient Tamil Nadu. Their ancestral linkage to the Sangam age God Devendran explains their rich heritage. Because these people were known for charity, heading and presiding village panchayat meetings, and being kind, they were referred to as kudumban. For their ability to control flood, on the other hand, they were Velallar. From the available research on ancient Tamil paddy history and evolution, there is a strong paddy culture prevailing in Tamil Nadu – Marutha Nilam and it is a continuation of 5000 years old paddy cultivation heritage by native people (pallars). Their age old customs, festivals and day-to-day life activities supports their claim to be the first cultivators of rice in Tamil Nadu.[citation needed] So these people prefer to call themselves Devendra Kula Vellalar.[5][6]

The ancient people were described as warriors and farmers. The leader of the group, called the vendan (Indran) was later called the god of their land.[7][8][9][10] The Pallars of today were most likely actually known as Mallar belonging to the Dravidian race about 2,300 years ago. These people were the rulers of Tamil country (Chera, Chola and Pandiya Trikings called Moovendhars - Vendhar or Vendhan). They are also most likely the descendants of Pallavas,who once ruled the Andhra and Tamil countries. Putting all these qualities together, the Mallar (Pallar) call themselves Devendra Kula Velalar. There are over 84 branches among Pallars. The Mallar were called Pallar only after the 15th century by more powerful tribes from other parts of South India with a view to degrading their social status.[5][6]

Ethnonym[edit]

Some of the Pallar consider the term Pallar to be derogatory, instead preferring to be known as Mallar (Tamil: மள்ளர்) (a term also used by an ancient tribe that lived in the region), or by the name Devendra Kula Vellalar (DKV), a name connoting they were created by Devendra.[11] They say that the Pallar term was introduced in the 17th century by Nayak kings to discriminate against them and that prior to this they were known as Mallar. In support of a name change to DKV, Pallars have undertaken hunger strikes and rallies. In January 2011, the government of Tamil Nadu appointed a one-man commission to consider this latest name change.[12]

The name of the caste was previously given as Pallan, however some caste members replaced the Tamil non-honorific terminal-"n" with an honorific "r", resulting in the name Pallar; a similar process was seen in the fellow Dalit Paraiyar (or Paraiyan) community.[13]

Alternately, the term Pallar may derive from the word pallam, meaning a pit or low-lying region. Accordingly the community may have been named at one point Pallam after the type of land they cultivated.[6]

In Tamil literature[edit]

Mallars are mentioned in Tamil literature from the ancient Sangam Literature to the recent 19th century poems, including Purananuru, Kamba Ramayanam, Thirumurukkatruppatai, Silapathigaram, Agananuru, Pathirtrupattu, Kurunthogai, Aingurunooru, Kalithogai, Natrinai, and Paripaadal.

The Mallar (farmer) are praised in the Tamil poem Tirukkuṛaḷ. The name Pallar is mentioned only in pallu poems and later poems.[14]

Pallu poetry[edit]

The Pallar are the focus of a genre of Tamil poetry known as pallu. The genre developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, and depicts the Pallar hero dealing with the jealousies of his two wives and the oppression of his landlord in a satirical depiction of Pallar zeitgeist. The pallu, while maintaining its basic storyline, developed into many forms, with the Mukkudal pallu the oldest, including depiction of the struggles between Shaivites and Vaishnavites.[15]

Among the Christian Tamils of Sri Lanka, the genre has been modified into nanapallu, a genre where the same story is told, but with the satirical and erotic elements replaced by Christian religious themes.[16]

Pallu poems are part of chitrilakiyangal in Tamil literature. Pallu poems were also known as 'aesal'(a kind of ironical poem). They were written during the Nayak rule. The first pallu poem was 'mukkoodar pallu'. Many pallu poems were written which include vaiyapuri pallu, sengottu pallu, thandigai kanagaraayan pallu.[clarification needed] All the Pallu poems consist of a Pallan who has got two wives. It also explains about the farming and the life of a Pallar farmer.[17]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tamil Nadu Date Highlights: The Scheduled Castes Census of India 2001 (pdf)
  2. ^ John R. Campbell; Alan Rew (20 February 1999). Identity And Affect: Experiences of Identity in a Globalising World. Pluto Press. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-0-7453-1423-5. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  3. ^ http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/Vol87No2/171.pdf
  4. ^ a b http://www.tnpsc.gov.in/communities-list.html
  5. ^ a b Ramaiah, A. (1998). Protest Movement and Scheduled Caste Identity: The Impact of Constitutional Provisions on Scheduled Castes in Selected Villages of Tamil Nadu (Ph.D.). CSSS/SSS, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 
  6. ^ a b c Ramaiah, A. (2004). "Untouchability and Inter-Caste Relations in Rural India: The Case of Southern Tamil Villages". Journal of Religious Culture (70). 
  7. ^ N. Subrahmanian (1996). Śaṅgam polity: the administration and social life of the Śaṅgam Tamils. Ennes. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  8. ^ S. Viswanathan; S. Viswanathan (Journalist.) (2005). Dalits in Dravidian land: Frontline reports on Anti-Dalit violence in Tamil Nadu, 1995-2004. Navayana. ISBN 978-81-89059-05-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  9. ^ Sachchidanand Sinha (1982). Caste system: myths, reality, challenge. Intellectual Pub. House. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  10. ^ T. K. Venkatasubramanian (1986). Political Change and Agrarian Tradition in South India, C. 1600-1801: A Case Study. Mittal Publications. GGKEY:G5HUNAS9SN3. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  11. ^ Political Change and Agrarian Tradition in South India. Mittal Publications. pp. 51–. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  12. ^ "Tamil Nadu government constitutes panel to rechristen sub-castes – World News 133641". New Kerala News (Chennai). 27 January 2012. [dead link]
  13. ^ Leo Paul Dana (2007). Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Co-Evolutionary View on Resource Management. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 602–. ISBN 978-1-84542-733-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  14. ^ "Folk music genre". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 July 2006. 
  15. ^ Ayyappappanikkar; Sahitya Akademi (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 531–. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  16. ^ Jorge Manuel Flores; Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian (2007). Re-Exploring the Links: History and Constructed Histories Between Portugal and Sri Lanka. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-3-447-05490-4. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  17. ^ Gnanasekran, Thiru. Pallu ilakiyam maruvasippu. 

External links[edit]


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Helsingborgs Dagblad
Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:44:54 -0800

VARALÖV Publicerad 19 november 2014 kl. 09:40. En lastbilschaufför som övernattade vid Erikslund natten mot onsdagen, drabbades av stöld. Vid 06-tiden när han vaknat upptäckte han att någon tagit sig in i lastutrymmet. Enligt polisen är det sex-sju ...

Aftonbladet

Aftonbladet
Tue, 11 Nov 2014 03:08:23 -0800

Då tänkte jag för mig själv, eller jag gick hem och sa när de kollat röntgen men innan jag fått svar, att är det något nu då pallar jag inte. Men det hade jag väl sagt i två timmar och sedan hade jag väl fortsatt. Jag tycker det är så kul att spela ...

Aftonbladet

Aftonbladet
Mon, 03 Nov 2014 22:44:19 -0800

Vi lämnar Köpenhamn bakom oss. Svetten är just på väg att kallna utmed ryggen när vi slår oss ned i tågsätena. Väskorna är med. Barnvagnen. Annika och jag turas om att hålla sonen på humör. Det är som en filmscen när det sedan händer. Inte för att det ...

The Hindu

The Hindu
Fri, 07 Nov 2014 23:28:03 -0800

Led by K. Krishnaswamy, president of the party, they raised slogans seeking immediate notification for the benefit of the people belonging to 'Pallar', 'Kudumbar', 'kaalaadi', 'pannadi', 'moopan' 'vathiriyar' and 'Devendra kulathan'as 'Devendra kula ...

Expressen

Expressen
Thu, 27 Nov 2014 10:45:44 -0800

Nu har organisationen bokat en långtradare som lämnar Södertälje i kväll med 33 pallar sovsäckar, filtar och mattor och destination Erbil i norra Irak. – Vi har samlat in mer än två långtradare med helt nya grejer som ska skickas till Erbil, säger Nuri ...
 
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Wed, 05 Nov 2014 02:02:41 -0800

Similarly, six sections--Pallar, Kudumba, Kaladi, Pannadi, Moopar and Devendra Kulathan, should be brought under one head of Devendra Kulavelalar and to exert pressure on both the Centre and State, a demonstraton will be held in front of the office of ...
 
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Thu, 27 Nov 2014 06:37:30 -0800

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Helsingborgs Dagblad
Sun, 23 Nov 2014 19:04:36 -0800

Efter två imponerande setvinster och solklara 14–7 i tredje började jag så smått fundera på hur jag skulle formulera den här krönikan och just då kändes det som om ingenting ska kunna stoppa årets upplaga av EVS. Sedan rasade plötsligt spelet ihop ...
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