digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Pallar/Mallar
மள்ளர்
Total population
2,272,265 (19.2%)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Sri Lanka, Burma, Andhra pradesh, pondicherry, Africa, fiji, Indonesia, malayasia, Singapore, Canada, USA, Guyana,, Maharastra,
Languages
Tamil
Religion
Hindu, Christianity, Islam

The Pallar (previously Mallar)[2] is a caste from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pallar are mostly agriculturalists in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, and some of them are still involved in menial jobs. They are spread across the Tamil diaspora demographic.

The Pallan are an ancient community, engaged extensively in wet land farming and distributed mainly in Thanjavur,Madurai and Ramanathapuram districts (Ramaiah 2004). The Pallan rank themselves highest among the scheduled castes, and number around 2.2 million (Census of India 2001).[3]

  1. Kudumban SC List (SC 35)
  2. Moopan BC List (BC 65)
  3. Kaaladi BC List (BC 35)
  4. Kaaladi DNC List (DNC 28)
  5. Mannadi MBC List (MBC 16)
  6. Vathiriyar SC List (SC 72)[4]
  7. Devendrakulathan(17)[4]

History[edit]

A number of historians support the argument that the Pallar are the same community as that formerly called Mallar in the region.[5][6]

Origin[edit]

They claim to be the descendants of Devendran (the god of Marutham Land). Worship of the God Devendran was popular in ancient Tamil Nadu. Their ancestral linkage to the Sangam age God Devendran explains their rich heritage. Because these people were known for charity, heading and presiding village panchayat meetings, and being kind, they were referred to as kudumban. For their ability to control flood, on the other hand, they were Velallar. From the available research on ancient Tamil paddy history and evolution, there is a strong paddy culture prevailing in Tamil Nadu – Marutha Nilam and it is a continuation of 5000 years old paddy cultivation heritage by native people (pallars). Their age old customs, festivals and day-to-day life activities supports their claim to be the first cultivators of rice in Tamil Nadu.[citation needed] So these people prefer to call themselves Devendra Kula Vellalar.[7][8]

The ancient people were described as warriors and farmers. The leader of the group, called the vendan (Indran) was later called the god of their land.[9][10][11][12] The Pallars of today were most likely actually known as Mallar belonging to the Dravidian race about 2,300 years ago. These people were the rulers of Tamil country (Chera, Chola and Pandiya Trikings called Moovendhars - Vendhar or Vendhan). They are also most likely the descendants of Pallavas,who once ruled the Andhra and Tamil countries. Putting all these qualities together, the Mallar (Pallar) call themselves Devendra Kula Velalar. There are over 84 branches among Pallars. The Mallar were called Pallar only after the 15th century by more powerful tribes from other parts of South India with a view to degrading their social status.[7][8]

Ethnonym[edit]

Some of the Pallar consider the term Pallar to be derogatory, instead preferring to be known as Mallar (Tamil: மள்ளர்) (a term also used by an ancient tribe that lived in the region), or by the name Devendra Kula Vellalar (DKV), a name connoting they were created by Devendra.[13] They say that the Pallar term was introduced in the 17th century by Nayak kings to discriminate against them and that prior to this they were known as Mallar. In support of a name change to DKV, Pallars have undertaken hunger strikes and rallies. In January 2011, the government of Tamil Nadu appointed a one-man commission to consider this latest name change.[14]

The name of the caste was previously given as Pallan, however some caste members replaced the Tamil non-honorific terminal-"n" with an honorific "r", resulting in the name Pallar; a similar process was seen in the fellow Dalit Paraiyar (or Paraiyan) community.[15]

Alternately, the term Pallar may derive from the word pallam, meaning a pit or low-lying region. Accordingly the community may have been named at one point Pallam after the type of land they cultivated.[8]

In Tamil literature[edit]

Mallars are mentioned in Tamil literature from the ancient Sangam Literature to the recent 19th century poems, including Purananuru, Kamba Ramayanam, Thirumurukkatruppatai, Silapathigaram, Agananuru, Pathirtrupattu, Kurunthogai, Aingurunooru, Kalithogai, Natrinai, and Paripaadal.

The Mallar (farmer) are praised in the Tamil poem Tirukkuṛaḷ. The name Pallar is mentioned only in pallu poems and later poems.[16]

Pallu poetry[edit]

The Pallar are the focus of a genre of Tamil poetry known as pallu. The genre developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, and depicts the Pallar hero dealing with the jealousies of his two wives and the oppression of his landlord in a satirical depiction of Pallar zeitgeist. The pallu, while maintaining its basic storyline, developed into many forms, with the Mukkudal pallu the oldest, including depiction of the struggles between Shaivites and Vaishnavites.[17]

Among the Christian Tamils of Sri Lanka, the genre has been modified into nanapallu, a genre where the same story is told, but with the satirical and erotic elements replaced by Christian religious themes.[18]

Pallu poems are part of chitrilakiyangal in Tamil literature. Pallu poems were also known as 'aesal'(a kind of ironical poem). They were written during the Nayak rule. The first pallu poem was 'mukkoodar pallu'. Many pallu poems were written which include vaiyapuri pallu, sengottu pallu, thandigai kanagaraayan pallu.[clarification needed] All the Pallu poems consist of a Pallan who has got two wives. It also explains about the farming and the life of a Pallar farmer.[19]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tamil Nadu Date Highlights: The Scheduled Castes Census of India 2001 (pdf)
  2. ^ John R. Campbell; Alan Rew (20 February 1999). Identity And Affect: Experiences of Identity in a Globalising World. Pluto Press. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-0-7453-1423-5. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  3. ^ http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/Vol87No2/171.pdf
  4. ^ a b http://www.tnpsc.gov.in/communities-list.html
  5. ^ Durga, S.A.K. (25 July 2006). "Book Review: MARUDANILATHU MALLAR ISAI". The Hindu. 
  6. ^ Hanumanthan, K. R. (1979). Untouchability, A Historical Study up to 1500 A.D.: with special reference to Tamil Nadu. Koodal Publishers. p. 100. "The Pallas are also denoted by the title Kadaignar. The ancient heroic tribe called Mallar described in the Sangam classics were probably the ancestors of Pallas" 
  7. ^ a b Ramaiah, A. (1998). Protest Movement and Scheduled Caste Identity: The Impact of Constitutional Provisions on Scheduled Castes in Selected Villages of Tamil Nadu (Ph.D.). CSSS/SSS, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 
  8. ^ a b c Ramaiah, A. (2004). "Untouchability and Inter-Caste Relations in Rural India: The Case of Southern Tamil Villages". Journal of Religious Culture (70). 
  9. ^ N. Subrahmanian (1996). Śaṅgam polity: the administration and social life of the Śaṅgam Tamils. Ennes. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  10. ^ S. Viswanathan; S. Viswanathan (Journalist.) (2005). Dalits in Dravidian land: Frontline reports on Anti-Dalit violence in Tamil Nadu, 1995-2004. Navayana. ISBN 978-81-89059-05-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  11. ^ Sachchidanand Sinha (1982). Caste system: myths, reality, challenge. Intellectual Pub. House. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  12. ^ T. K. Venkatasubramanian (1986). Political Change and Agrarian Tradition in South India, C. 1600-1801: A Case Study. Mittal Publications. GGKEY:G5HUNAS9SN3. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  13. ^ Political Change and Agrarian Tradition in South India. Mittal Publications. pp. 51–. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  14. ^ "Tamil Nadu government constitutes panel to rechristen sub-castes – World News 133641". New Kerala News (Chennai). 27 January 2012. [dead link]
  15. ^ Leo Paul Dana (2007). Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Co-Evolutionary View on Resource Management. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 602–. ISBN 978-1-84542-733-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  16. ^ "Folk music genre". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 July 2006. 
  17. ^ Ayyappappanikkar; Sahitya Akademi (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 531–. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  18. ^ Jorge Manuel Flores; Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian (2007). Re-Exploring the Links: History and Constructed Histories Between Portugal and Sri Lanka. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-3-447-05490-4. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  19. ^ Gnanasekran, Thiru. Pallu ilakiyam maruvasippu. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallar — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
9732 videos foundNext > 

dalit Arunthathiyars are discriminated by pallar dalit caste.

speaking about the relation between arunthathiyars and pallars.

History of Devendra Kula Vellalar (Mallar/pallar) - part 1

The above video is the first part of devendrakulla vellalar history.the matter explained here is taken from many scholars, scientist research result. Mallar ...

Mallar / Pallar/ Devendrar History (Meendezhum Tamizhar Varalaru) Episode 1 Part 1.avi

Mallar History Episode 1 Part 1 Pallar History Episode 1 Part 1 Devevendra Kula Vellalar Episode 1 Part 1 Meendelum Tamilar Varalaru Episode 1 Part 1.

Lani Mo ft Kartellen & Meta Four - Pallar Inte Mera LYRICS ON SCREEN [HQ]

Lani Mo t Kartellen & Meta Four - Pallar inte mera || Lyrics On Screen || HQ || http://www.lanimo.blogspot.se Original:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luM-H9X...

Lani Mo Ft. Kartellen & Meta four - Pallar inte mera (OFFICIELL)

Lani Mo Ft. Kartellen(Sebbestakset) & Metafour - Pallar inte mera Producerat och mixat av : Kaynine Mastrat av: Sam-e for statecrown of sweden Texterna är sk...

In Flames - Pallar Anders Visa

In Flames - Pallar Anders Visa Music From CKY 3, The bee music.

pallar or mallar 3

2011 mariamman thiruvila.

In Flames - Cover - Pallar Anders Visa

http://www.thiscoldlife.net http://www.facebook.com/thiscoldlife Morning people, normally this song is tuned to Normal C# I played it in Normal D# Gear: Kirk...

IN FLAMES - Pallar Anders Visa

The sixth track from the album Colony, released in 1999. "Pallar Anders Visa" means "The Ballad of Thief Anders" in swedish. * Jesper Strömblad -- guitar * B...

KARTELLEN BLODSPAKT "PALLAR INTE MERA" (OFFICIELL)

4. "PALLAR INTE MERA" Producerad av: Kaynine Text av: Sebbe Staxx, Lani Mo, Metafour Artist: Lani Mo, Metafour, Sebbe Staxx FACEBOOK https://www.facebook.com...

9732 videos foundNext > 

180 news items

Svenska Dagbladet

Svenska Dagbladet
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 01:26:15 -0700

”Hoppas domarna pallar för trycket”. Först repris på VM-finalen 2002. Sedan på finalen 1978. Fyra tungviktare gör upp om VM-guldet. Nu hoppas jag att domarna pallar för trycket. Det tuffa spelet i högt tempo väcker frågan om det är dags för fotbollen ...

Periodismo en Linea

Periodismo en Linea
Sun, 29 Jun 2014 14:00:00 -0700

Gracias a la mayor demanda de Estados Unidos, la Unión Europea y de algunos países asiáticos, la Asociación de Exportadores (ADEX) señaló que entre enero y abril del 2014, la exportación nacional de pallar registró un superávit de 86.7% frente al ...
 
Aftonbladet
Tue, 24 Jun 2014 00:43:50 -0700

Anna-Karin Pettersson, 32, i Sveg har gjort en lastpallssoffa utanför sina föräldrars altan.”Jag såg en massa soffor på Facebook och olika inredningssajter. Sen gjorde en kompis på jobbet en och då blev jag ännu mer inspirerad. Det fattas några kuddar ...
 
Smålandsposten
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 21:35:13 -0700

27-åring misstänks ha stulit flera pallar med datorer. Växjö 2014-07-09 | Uppdaterad 2014-07-09. Polisen är på väg att klara upp den mycket omfattande datorstölden från Alwex Lager och Logistik på Stora Räppevägen i Växjö. En 27-årig man har häktats på ...
 
Expressen
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 05:05:20 -0700

Matta, 799 kronor, Åhléns. Konstrottinggrupp, en soffa och två fåtöljer med dynor, för både inom- och utomhusbruk (inklusive ett bord som inte syns i bild), 7 995 kronor, pallar och bord, 895 kronor styck, orange kudde, 695 kronor, rosa pläd, 1 500 ...
 
Mynewsdesk (pressmeddelande)
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:26:15 -0700

Det vi har att erbjuda är bord, bänkar, soffor, köksstolar, pallar, klockor, lampor, mattor och accessoarer. Vi erbjuder många färgmöjligheter på våra möbler för att det ska bli enklare att kunna inreda. Vår främsta inspirationskälla var paret Eames ...
 
Expressen
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 05:00:00 -0700

Matta, 799 kronor, Åhléns. Konstrottinggrupp, en soffa och två fåtöljer med dynor, för både inom- och utomhusbruk (inklusive ett bord som inte syns i bild), 7 995 kronor, pallar och bord, 895 kronor styck, orange kudde, 695 kronor, rosa pläd, 1 500 ...
 
Dalarnas Tidningar
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 03:18:45 -0700

"Piraten" har svenska rekordet på distansen, så det pallar han för. Taktiken? – Det är helt upp till kusken (Erik Adielsson). Men han är startsnabb och det verkar som om de innanför inte har för avsikt att ladda. Det kan bli ett lopp i spets? – Jag ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Pallar

You can talk about Pallar with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!