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Pallar/Mallar/pallan/Devendrakula vellalar
Total population
2,272,265 [1]
Regions with significant populations
Tamil Nadu
Languages
Tamil
Religion
Hindu, Christianity[2]

The Pallar[3] is a caste from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pallar are mostly agriculturalists in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, and most of them are still involved as agricultural labourers. They are spread across the Tamil diaspora demographic and densely populated in southern parts of Tamil Nadu.

The Pallar are distributed mostly in the districts of Thanjavur, Madurai and Ramanathapuram and, as of 2001, numbered around 2.2 million.[4]

Origin and name[edit]

The name of the caste has previously been spelled as Pallan, however some caste members replaced the Tamil non-honorific terminal-"n" with an honorific "r", resulting in the name Pallar; a similar process was seen in the fellow Dalit Paraiyar (or Paraiyan) community.[5]

The Pallar name may be derived from pallam, which means a pit or low-lying area. This aligns with their traditional occupation of cultivators of the low wetlands. However, there is literary evidence that suggests that pallars are farmers who produced large quantities of food grains.and they were traditional farmers.[6]

The change of name from Mallar to Pallar is thought to have been imposed upon them after the decline of the rule, when the leaders (nayaks) of competing tribes wanted to suggest a degradation in status. Some Pallars today prefer the Mallar name due to their belief that Pallar is a derogatory term.[7][6]

The ancient people were described as farmers and warriors . The leader of the group, called the vendan (Indran) was later called the god of their land.[8][9][10][11] Nowadays, community members prefer to refer to themselves as Devendra Kula Vellalar, a name connoting they were created by the god Devendra.[7] In support of a name-change to DKV, Pallars have undertaken hunger strikes and rallies. In January 2011, the government of Tamil Nadu appointed a one-man commission to consider this latest change mainly for their votes.[12] [6]

In Tamil literature[edit]

Mallars are mentioned in Tamil literature from the ancient Sangam Literature to the recent 19th century poems, including Purananuru, Kamba Ramayanam, Thirumurukkatruppatai, Silapathigaram, Agananuru, Pathirtrupattu, Kurunthogai, Aingurunooru, Kalithogai, Natrinai, and Paripaadal.

Pallu poetry[edit]

The Pallar are the focus of a genre of Tamil poetry known as pallu. The genre developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, and depicts the Pallar hero dealing with the jealousies of his two wives and the oppression of his landlord in a satirical depiction of Pallar zeitgeist. The pallu, while maintaining its basic storyline, developed into many forms, with the Mukkudal pallu the oldest, including depiction of the struggles between Shaivites and Vaishnavites.[13]

Among the Christian Tamils of Sri Lanka, the genre has been modified into nanapallu, a genre where the same story is told, but with the satirical and erotic elements replaced by Christian religious themes.[14]

Pallu poems are part of chitrilakiyangal in Tamil literature. Pallu poems were also known as 'aesal' (a kind of ironical poem). They were written during the Nayak rule. The first pallu poem was 'mukkoodar pallu'. Many pallu poems were written which include vaiyapuri pallu, sengottu pallu, thandigai kanagaraayan pallu.[clarification needed] All the Pallu poems consist of a Pallan who has got two wives. It also explains about the farming and the life of a Pallar farmer.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nadu.pdf Tamil Nadu Date Highlights: The Scheduled Castes Census of India 2001 (pdf)
  2. ^ Mosse, David (2012). The Saint in the Banyan Tree: Christianity and Caste Society in India. University of California Press. p. 385. ISBN 0520273494. 
  3. ^ John R. Campbell; Alan Rew (20 February 1999). Identity And Affect: Experiences of Identity in a Globalising World. Pluto Press. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-0-7453-1423-5. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  4. ^ http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/Vol87No2/171.pdf
  5. ^ Leo Paul Dana (2007). Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Co-Evolutionary View on Resource Management. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 602. ISBN 978-1-84542-733-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Ramaiah, A. (2004). "Untouchability and Inter-Caste Relations in Rural India: The Case of Southern Tamil Villages" (PDF). Journal of Religious Culture (70). 
  7. ^ a b Political Change and Agrarian Tradition in South India. Mittal Publications. p. 51. Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  8. ^ N. Subrahmanian (1996). Śaṅgam polity: the administration and social life of the Śaṅgam Tamils. Ennes. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  9. ^ S. Viswanathan; S. Viswanathan (Journalist.) (2005). Dalits in Dravidian land: Frontline reports on Anti-Dalit violence in Tamil Nadu, 1995-2004. Navayana. ISBN 978-81-89059-05-7. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  10. ^ Sachchidanand Sinha (1982). Caste system: myths, reality, challenge. Intellectual Pub. House. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  11. ^ T. K. Venkatasubramanian (1986). Political Change and Agrarian Tradition in South India, C. 1600-1801: A Case Study. Mittal Publications. GGKEY:G5HUNAS9SN3. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Tamil Nadu government constitutes panel to rechristen sub-castes – World News 133641". New Kerala News (Chennai). 27 January 2012. [dead link]
  13. ^ Ayyappappanikkar; Sahitya Akademi (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 531–. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  14. ^ Jorge Manuel Flores; Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian (2007). Re-Exploring the Links: History and Constructed Histories Between Portugal and Sri Lanka. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-3-447-05490-4. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Gnanasekran, Thiru. Pallu ilakiyam maruvasippu. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallar — Please support Wikipedia.
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12842 news items

Smålandsposten

Smålandsposten
Fri, 05 Feb 2016 06:35:46 -0800

En person, som arbetat inom vården i över 40 år, berättar om tankar på att sluta jobba i förtid. – Jag hade kunnat tänka mig att jobba några år till. Men jag pallar inte. Hela vår grupp mår psykiskt dåligt. Vi är stressade, uppjagade och missar saker ...

Barometern-OT

Barometern-OT
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:45:00 -0800

Jag har mest spikat pallar, men andra jobbar med annat; lastar pallarna på lastbilar och så. I 20-talet år har Göte Svensson varit Loffes gode man. – Loffe är en mycket uppskattad person här i Vissefjärda och han känner de flesta. Vi har haft mycket ...
 
Sun.Star
Fri, 05 Feb 2016 07:18:14 -0800

CVO's Chief of Animal Disease Prevention and Control Unit Dr. Gay Pallar, in a phone interview with Sun.Star Davao Friday, said that team from their office sent to Sibulan to investigate the deaths did not find symptoms of the disorder in the backyard ...

LaRepública.pe

LaRepública.pe
Fri, 15 Jan 2016 17:18:42 -0800

La azafata Oriele Canales Álvarez, asegura que el pallar es el rey en la cocina iqueña. En ese sentido, la chef Karina Oliva Torres del restaurante El Pallar de Ica, encandila con sus sabrosos platos de picante de pallares verdes con costillas de ...
 
Inquirer.net
Sun, 07 Feb 2016 08:41:15 -0800

Dr. Gay Pallar said a team from the CVO went to one farm to investigate some chicken deaths but did not find any symptom of NDV affliction. Several poultry farms had began vaccinating their chickens as a precautionary step. “Only vaccine can control ...

indiatvnews.com (press release) (blog)

indiatvnews.com (press release) (blog)
Fri, 20 Feb 2015 06:48:45 -0800

Chennai: When 800 Dalits of the Pallar caste which included 200 out of total 300 families in Meenakshipuram village of Tamil Nadu, converted to Islam on February 19, 1981, the incident of mass conversion brought this small village at the foothills of ...

LaRepública.pe

LaRepública.pe
Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:42:14 -0800

Empero, el producto agrario que sustenta la culinaria iqueña es el pallar, conocido entre los lugareños como "gallina blanca". El estudioso Toribio Mejía Xespe apuntaba que en Nasca existen varias especies de pallar silvestre. Y hay muchos platos ...
 
Skogsaktuellt
Mon, 08 Feb 2016 02:24:37 -0800

Enligt Jordbruksverket, som är kontrollinstans, har man vid ett tillfälle hittat en levande långhorning i just emballage. De har även hittat andra levande organismer i pallar som är märkta som om de skulle vara behandlade. Jag undrar hur stort ...
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