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Pala Empire

8th century–12th century
The Palas in comparison with other contemporary empires.
Capital
Languages Sanskrit, Prakrit (including Pali), Proto-Bengali
Religion Buddhism
Government Monarchy
King
 -  8th century Gopala
 -  12th century Govindapala
Historical era Medieval India
 -  Established 8th century
 -  Disestablished 12th century
Today part of  Bangladesh
 India
   Nepal

The Pala Empire was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India during the 8th to 12th century CE. The empire is named after its ruling dynasty, all of whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix -Pala ("protector"). The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. Their empire was centered around the present-day Bengal-Bihar region, and at times, included what are now Assam, Orissa and parts of North India.

The Palas ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in the Bengal region, which had been suffering from anarchy since the death of Shashanka. They were the followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. They created many temples and works of art, besides supporting the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. Somapura Mahavihara built by Dharmapala is the largest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian Subcontinent.

Gopala, the first ruler from the dynasty, came to power in the 750s, after being elected by a group of regional chieftains. The empire reached its peak under his successors Dharmapala and Devapala, who fought with the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas for the control of Kannauj. The death of Devapala ended the period of ascendancy of the Pala Empire, and several independent dynasties and kingdoms emerged during this time. The Pala rule was temporarily rejuvenated, first by Mahipala I and then by Ramapala. Subsequently, the Pala power declined, and the Palas were dethroned by the Senas.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. The Ramacharitam attests that Varendra (North Bengal) was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas. The ethnic origins of the dynasty are unknown, although the later records claim that he belonged to the solar dynasty. The Ballala-Carita states that the Palas were Kshatriyas, a claim reiterated by Taranatha in his History of Buddhism in India as well as Ghanaram Chakrabarty in his Dharmamangala (both written in the 16th century CE). The Ramacharitam also attests the fifteenth Pala emperor, Ramapala, as a Kshatriya. The Kamauli copper plate inscription of king Vaidyadeva of Kamarupa (Assam) connects the Palas to the Kshatriyas of "Mihirasya vamsa" ("solar lineage").[3] However, such claims of belonging to the solar dynasty are unreliable and clearly appear to be an attempt to cover up the humble origins of the dynasty.[4] The Pala dynasty has also been branded as Śudra in some sources; this might be because of their Buddhist leanings.[5][6][7][8][9] According to Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (in Ain-i-Akbari), the Palas were Kayasthas. There are even accounts that claim Gopala may have been from a Brahmin lineage.[10]

Establishment[edit]

After the fall of Shashanka's kingdom, the Bengal region was in a state of anarchy. There was no central authority, and there was constant struggle between petty chieftains. The contemporary writings describe this situation as matsya nyaya ("fish justice" i.e. a situation where the big fish eat the small fish). Gopala ascended the throne as the first Pala king during these times. The Khalimpur copper plate suggests that the prakriti (people) of the region made him the king.[4] Taranatha, writing nearly 800 years later, also writes that he was democratically elected by the people of Bengal. However, his account is in form of a legend, and is considered historically unreliable. The legend mentions that after a period of anarchy, the people elected several kings in succession, all of whom were consumed by the Naga queen of an earlier king on the night following their election. Gopal, however managed to kill the queen and remained on the throne.[11] The historical evidence indicates that Gopala was not elected directly by his citizens, but by a group of feudal chieftains. Such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region.[4][11]

Gopala's ascension was a significant political event as the several independent chiefs recognized his political authority without any struggle.[12]

Expansion[edit]

Gopala's empire was greatly expanded by his son Dharmapala and his grandson Devapala. Dharmapala was initially defeated by the Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja. Later, the Rashtrakuta king Dhruva defeated both Dharmapala and Vatsaraja. After Dhruva left for the Deccan region, Dharmapala built a mighty empire in the northern India. He defeated Indrayudha of Kannauj, and installed his own nominee Chakrayudha on the throne of Kannauj. Several other smaller states in North India also acknowledged his suzerainty. Soon, his expansion was checked by Vatsaraja's son Nagabhata II, who conquered Kannauj and drove away Chakrayudha. Nagabhata II then advanced up to Munger and defeated Dharmapala in a pitched battle. The Rashtrakuta king Govinda III then intervened, probably after Dharmapala sought his aid. The Rashtrakuta records show that both Chakrayudha and Dharmapala recognized the Rashtrakuta suzerainty. In practice, Dharmapala gained control over North India after Govinda III left for the Deccan. He adopted the title Paramesvara Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja.[12]

Dharmapala was succeeded by his son Devapala, who is regarded as the most powerful Pala ruler.[12] His expeditions resulted in the invasion of Pragjyotisha (present-day Assam) where the king submitted without giving a fight and the Utkala (present-day Orissa) whose king fled from his capital city.[13] The inscriptions of his successors also claim several other territorial conquests by him, but these are highly exaggerated (see the Geography section below).[4][14]

First period of decline[edit]

Following the death of Devapala, the Pala empire gradually started disintegrating. Vigrahapala, who was Devapala's nephew, abdicated the throne after a brief rule, and became an ascetic. Vigrahapala's son and successor Narayanapala proved to be a weak ruler. During his reign, the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha defeated the Palas. Encouraged by the Pala decline, the King Harjara of Assam assumed imperial titles and the Sailodbhavas established their power in Orissa.[12]

Naryanapala's son Rajyapala ruled for at least 12 years, and constructed several public utilities and lofty temples. His son Gopala II lost Bengal after a few years of rule, and then ruled only Bihar. The next king, Vigrahapala II, had to bear the invasions from the Chandelas and the Kalachuris. During his reign, the Pala empire disintegrated into smaller kingdoms like Gauda, Radha, Anga and Vanga. Kantideva of Harikela (eastern and southern Bengal) also assumed the title Maharajadhiraja, and established a separate kingdom, later ruled by the Chandra dynasty.[12] The Gauda state (West and North Bengal) was ruled by the Kamboja Pala dynasty. The rulers of this dynasty also bore names ending in the suffix -pala (e.g. Rajyapala, Narayanapala and Nayapala). However, their origin is uncertain, and the most plausible view is that they originated from a Pala official who usurped a major part of the Pala kingdom along with its capital.[4][12]

Revival under Mahipala I[edit]

Mahipala I recovered northern and eastern Bengal within three years of ascending the throne in 988 CE. He also recovered the northern part of the present-day Burdwan division. During his reign, Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire frequently invaded Bengal from 1021 to 1023 CE in order to get Ganges water and in the process, succeeded to humble the rulers, acquiring considerable booty. The rulers of Bengal who were defeated by Rajendra Chola were Dharmapal, Ranasur and Govindachandra, who might have been feudatories under Mahipala I of the Pala Dynasty.[4]:45 Mahipala also gained control of north and south Bihar, probably aided by the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni, which exhausted the strength of other rulers of North India. He may have also conquered Varanasi and surrounding area, as his brothers Sthirapala and Vasantapala undertook construction and repairs of several sacred structures at Varanasi. Later, the Kalachuri king Gangeyadeva annexed Varanasi after defeating the ruler of Anga, which could have been Mahipala I.[12]

Second period of decline[edit]

Nayapala, the son of Mahipala I, defeated the Kalachuri king Karna (son of Ganggeyadeva) after a long struggle. The two later signed a peace treaty at the mediation of the Buddhist scholar Atiśa. During the reign of Nayapala's son Vigrahapala III, Karna once again invaded Bengal but was defeated. The conflict ended with a peace treaty, and Vigrahapala III married Karna's daughter Yauvanasri. Vigrahapala III was later defeated by the invading Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. The invasion of Vikramaditya VI saw several soldiers from South India into Bengal, which explains the southern origin of the Sena Dynasty.[15] Vigrahapala III also faced another invasion led by the Somavamsi king Mahasivagupta Yayati of Orissa. Subsequently, a series of invasions considerably reduced the power of the Palas. The Varmans occupied eastern Bengal during his reign.[4][12]

Mahipala II, the successor of Vigrahapala III, brought a short-lived reign of military glory. His reign is well-documented by Sandhyakar Nandi in Ramacharitam. Mahipala II imprisoned his brothers Ramapala and Surapala II, on the suspicion that they were conspiring against him. Soon afterwards, he faced a rebellion of vassal chiefs from the Kaibarta (fishermen). A chief named Divya (or Divvoka) killed him and occupied the Varendra region. The region remained under the control of his successors Rudak and Bhima. Surapala II escaped to Magadha and died after a short reign. He was succeeded by his brother Ramapala, who launched a major offensive against Divya's grandson Bhima. He was supported by his maternal uncle Mathana of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, as well as several feudatory chiefs of south Bihar and south-west Bengal. Ramapala conclusively defeated Bhima, and killing him and his family in a cruel manner.[4][12]

Revival under Ramapala[edit]

After gaining control of Varendra, Ramapala tried to revive the Pala empire with limited success. He ruled from a new capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the dynasty's end. He reduced taxation, promoted cultivation and constructed public utilities. He brought Kamarupa and Rar under his control, and forced the forced the Varman king of east Bengal to accept his suzerainty. He also struggled with the Ganga king for control of present-day Orissa; the Gangas managed to annex the region only after his death. Ramapala maintained friendly relations with the Chola king Kulottunga to secure support against the common enemies: the Ganas and the Chalukyas. He kept the Senas in check, but lost Mithila to a Karnataka chief named Nanyuadeva. He also held back the aggressive design of the Gahadavala ruler Govindacharndra through a matrimonial alliance.[4][12]

Final decline[edit]

Ramapala was the last strong Pala ruler. After his death, a rebellion broke out in Assam during his son Kumarapala's reign. The rebellion was crushed by Vaidyadeva, but after Kumarapala's death, Vaidyadeva practically created a separate kingdom.[12] According to Ramacharitam, Kumarapala's son Gopala III was murdered by his uncle Mandapala. During Madanapala's rule, the Varmans in east Bengal declared independence, and the Eastern Gangas renewed the conflict in Orissa. Madanapala captured Munger from the Gahadavalas, but was defeated by Vijayasena, who gained control of southern and eastern Bengal. A ruler named Govindapala ruled over the Gaya district around 1162 CE, but there is no concrete evidence about his relationship to the imperial Palas. The Pala dynasty was replaced by the Sena dynasty.[4]

Geography[edit]

The borders of the Pala Empire kept fluctuating throughout its existence. Though the Palas conaquered a vast region in North India at one time, they could not retain it for long due to constant hostility from the Gurjara-Pratiharas, the Rashtrakutas and other less powerful kings.[16]:4

No records are available about the exact boundaries of original kingdom established by Gopala, but it might have included almost all of the Bengal region.[12] The Pala empire extended substantially under Dharmapala's rule. Apart from Bengal, he directly ruled the present-day Bihar. The kingdom of Kannauj (present-day Uttar Pradesh) was a Pala dependancy at times, ruled by his nominee Chakrayudha.[12] While installing his nominee on the Kannauj throne, Dharmapala organized an imperial court. According to the Khalimpur copper plate issued by Dharmapala, this court was attended by the rulers of Bhoja (possibly Vidarbha), Matsya (Jaipur region), Madra (East Punjab), Kuru (Delhi region), Yadu (possibly Mathura, Dwarka or Simhapura in the Punjab), Yavana, Avanti, Gandhara and Kira (Kangra Valley).[4][17] These kings accepted the installation of Chakrayudha on the Kannauj throne, while "bowing down respectufully with their diadems trembling".[18]:38 This indicates that his position as a sovereign was accepted by most rulers, although this was a loose arrangement unlike the empire of the Mauryas or the Guptas. The other rulers acknowledged the military and political supremacy of Dharmapala, but maintained their own territories.[4] The poet Soddhala of Gujarat calls Dharmapala an Uttarapathasvamin ("Lord of the North") for his suzerainty over North India.[16]:39–40

The epigraphic records credit Devapala with extensive conquests in hyperbolic language. The Badal pillar inscription of his successor Narayana Pala states that by the wise counsel and policy of his Brahmin minister Darbhapani, Devapala became the suzerain monarch or Chakravarti of the whole tract of Northern India bounded by the Vindhyas and the Himalayas. It also states that his empire extended up to the two oceans (presumably the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal). It also claims that Devpala defeated Utkala (present-day Orissa), the Hunas, the Dravidas, the Kamarupa (present-day Assam), and the Gurjaras.[12]

  • The Gurjara adversary may have been Mihira Bhoja, whose eastward expansion was checked by Devapala
  • The identity of the Huna king is uncertain.
  • The identity of the Kamboja prince is also uncertain. While an ancient country with the name Kamboja was located in what is now Afghanistan, there is no evidence that Devapala's empire extended that far. Kamboja, in this inscription, could refer to the Kamboja tribe that had entered North India (see Kamboja Pala dynasty).
  • The Dravida king is usually identified with the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha. Some scholars believe that the Dravida king could have been the Pandya ruler Shri Mara Shri Vallabha, since "Dravida" usually refers to the territory south of the Krishna river. According to this theory, Devapala could have been helped in his southern expedition by the Chandela king Vijaya. In any case, Devapala's gains in the south, if any, were temporary.

The claims about Devapala's victories are exaggerated, but cannot be dismissed entirely: there is no reason to doubt his conquest of Utkala and Kamarupa. Besides, the neighbouring kingdoms of Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas were weak at the time, which might have helped him extend his empire.[19] Devapala is also believed to have led an army up to the Indus river in Punjab.[12]

The empire started disintegrated after the death of Devapala, and his successor Narayanapala lost control of Assam and Orissa. He also briefly lost control over Magadha and north Bengal. Gopala II lost control of Bengal, and ruled only from a part of Bihar. The Pala empire disintegrated into smaller kingdoms during the reign of Vigrahapala II. Mahipala recovered parts of Bengal and Bihar. His successors lost Bengal again. The last strong Pala ruler, Ramapala, gained control of Bengal, Bihar, Assam and parts of Orissa.[12] By the time of Madanapala's death, the Pala kingdom was confined to parts of central and east Bihar along with northern Bengal.[12]

Administration[edit]

The Pala rule was monarchial. The king was the centre of all power. Pala kings would adopt imperial titles like Parameshwara, Paramvattaraka, Maharajadhiraja. Pala kings appointed Prime Ministers. The Line of Garga served as the Prime Ministers of the Palas for 100 years.

  • Garga
  • Darvapani (or Darbhapani)
  • Someshwar
  • Kedarmisra
  • Bhatta Guravmisra

Pala Empire was divided into separate Bhuktis (Provinces). Bhuktis were divided into Vishayas (Divisions) and Mandalas (Districts). Smaller units were Khandala, Bhaga, Avritti, Chaturaka, and Pattaka. Administration covered widespread area from the grass root level to the imperial court.[18]:122–124

The Pala copperplates mention following administrative posts:[18]:111–122

  • Raja
  • Rajanyaka
  • Ranaka (possibly subordinate chiefs)
  • Samanta and Mahasamanta (Vassal kings)
  • Mahasandhi-vigrahika (Foreign minister)
  • Duta (Head Ambassador)
  • Rajasthaniya (Deputy)
  • Aggaraksa (Chief guard)
  • Sasthadhikrta (Tax collector)
  • Chauroddharanika (Police tax)
  • Shaulkaka (Trade tax)
  • Dashaparadhika (Collector of penalties)
  • Tarika (Toll collector for river crossings)
  • Mahaksapatalika (Accountant)
  • Jyesthakayastha (Dealing documents)
  • Ksetrapa (Head of land use division) and Pramatr (Head of land measurements)
  • Mahadandanayaka or Dharmadhikara (Chief justice)
  • Mahapratihara
  • Dandika
  • Dandapashika
  • Dandashakti (Police forces)
  • Khola (Secret service). Agricultural posts like Gavadhakshya (Head of dairy farms)
  • Chhagadhyakshya (Head of goat farms)
  • Meshadyakshya (Head of sheep farms)
  • Mahishadyakshya (Head of Buffalo farms) and many other like Vogpati
  • Vishayapati
  • Shashtadhikruta
  • Dauhshashadhanika
  • Nakadhyakshya

Culture[edit]

Religion[edit]

Nalanda University is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. It reached its height under the Palas.
Atisha was a Buddhist teacher, who helped establish the Sarma lineages of Tibetan Buddhism.

The Palas were patrons of Mahayana Buddhism. A few sources written much after Gopala's death mention him as a Buddhist, but it is not known if this is true.[2]:39 The subsequent Pala kings were definitely Buddhists. Taranatha states that Gopala was a staunch Buddhist, who had built the famous monastery at Odantapuri.[20] Dharmapla made the Buddhist philosopher Haribhadra his spiritual preceptor. He established the Vikramasila monastery and the Somapura Mahavihara. Taranath also credits him with establishing 50 religious institutions and patronizing the Buddhist author Hariibhadra. Devapala restored and enlarged the structures at Somapura Mahavihara, which also features several themes from the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. Mahipala I also ordered construction and repairs of several sacred structures at Saranath, Nalanda and Bodh Gaya.[12] The Mahipala geet ("songs of Mahipala"), a set of folk songs about him, are still popular in the rural areas of Bengal.

The Palas developed the Buddhist centers of learnings, such as the Vikramashila and the Nalanda universities. The Nalanda University, considered one of the first great universities in recorded history, reached its height under the patronage of the Palas. Noted Buddhist scholars from the Pala period include Atisha, Santaraksita, Saraha, Tilopa, Bimalamitra, Dansheel, Dansree, Jinamitra, Jnanasrimitra, Manjughosh, Muktimitra, Padmanava, Sambhogabajra, Shantarakshit, Silabhadra, Sugatasree and Virachan.

As the rulers of Gautama Buddha's land, the Palas acquired great reputation in the Buddhist world. Balaputradeva, the Sailendra king of Java, sent an ambassador to him, asking for a grant of five villages for the construction of a monastery at Nalanda.[21] The request was granted by Devapala. He appointed the Brahmin Viradeva (of Nagarahara, present-day Jalalabad) as the head of the Nalanda monastery. The Budhdist poet Vajradatta (the author of Lokesvarashataka), was in his court.[12] The Buddhist scholars from the Pala empire travelled from Bengal to other regions to propagate Buddhism. Atisha, for example, preached in Tibet and Sumatra, and is seen as one of the major figures in the spread of 11th-century Mahayana Buddhism.

The Palas also supported the Saiva ascetics, typically the ones associated with the Golagi-Math.[16]:19 Narayana Pala himself established a temple of Shiva, and was present at the place of sacrifice by his Brahmin minister.[16]:100 Queen of King Madanapaladeva, namely Chitramatika, made a gift of land to a Brahmin named Bateswara Swami as his remuneration for chanting the Mahabharata at her request, according to the principle of the Bhumichhidranyaya.[citation needed] Besides the images of the Buddhist deities, the images of Vishnu, Siva and Sarasvati were also constructed during the Pala dynasty rule.[22]

Literature[edit]

The Palas patronized several Sanskrit scholars, some of whom were their officials. The Gauda riti style of composition was developed during the Pala rule. Many Buddhist Tantric works were authored and translated during the Pala rule. Besides the Buddhist scholars mentioned in the Religion section above, Jimutavahana, Sandhyakar Nandi, Madhava-kara, Suresvara and Chakrapani Datta are some of the other notable scholars from the Pala period.[12]

The notable Pala texts on philosophy include Agama Shastra by Gaudapada, Nyaya Kundali by Sridhar Bhatta and Karmanushthan Paddhati by Bhatta Bhavadeva. The texts on medicine include

  • Chikitsa Samgraha, Ayurveda Dipika, Bhanumati, Shabda Chandrika and Dravya Gunasangraha by Chakrapani Datta
  • Shabda-Pradipa, Vrikkhayurveda and Lohpaddhati by Sureshwara
  • Chikitsa Sarsamgraha by Vangasena
  • Sushrata by Gadadhara Vaidya
  • Dayabhaga, Vyavohara Matrika and Kalaviveka by Jimutavahana

Sandhyakar Nandi's semi-fictional epic Ramacharitam (12th century) is an important source of Pala history.

A form of the proto-Bengali language can be seen in the Charyapadas composed during the Pala rule.[12]

Art and architecture[edit]

The Pala school of sculptural art is recognised as a distinct phase of the Indian art, and is noted for the artistic genius of the Bengal sculptors.[23] It is influenced by the Gupta art.[24]

As noted earlier, the Palas built a number of monasteries and other sacred structures. The Somapura Mahavihara in present-day Bangladesh is a World Heritage Site. It is a monastery with 21 acre (85,000 m²) complex has 177 cells, numerous stupas, temples and a number of other ancillary buildings. The gigantic structures of other Viharas, including Vikramshila, Odantapuri, and Jagaddala are the other masterpieces of the Palas. These mammoth structures were mistaken by the forces of Bakhtiar Khilji as fortified castles and were demolished.[citation needed] The art of Bihar and Bengal during the Pala and Sena dynasties influenced the art of Nepal, Burma, Sri Lanka and Java.[25]

List of Pala rulers[edit]

Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, the various historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[2]:32-37

RC Majumdar (1971)[26] AM Chowdhury (1967)[27] BP Sinha (1977)[28] DC Sircar (1975-76)[29]
Gopala I 750–770 756-781 755-783 750-775
Dharmapala 770-810 781-821 783-820 775-812
Devapala 810-c. 850 821-861 820-860 812-850
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.)
Shurapala I 850-853 861-866 860-865 850-858
Vigrahapala I 858-60
Narayanapala 854-908 866-920 865-920 860-917
Rajyapala 908-940 920-952 920-952 917-952
Gopala II 940-957 952-969 952-967 952-972
Vigrahapala II 960-c. 986 969-995 967-980 972-977
Mahipala I 988-c. 1036 995-1043 980-1035 977-1027
Nayapala 1038-1053 1043-1058 1035-1050 1027-1043
Vigrahapala III 1054-1072 1058-1075 1050-1076 1043-1070
Mahipala II 1072-1075 1075-1080 1076-1078/9 1070-1071
Shurapala 1075-1077 1080-1082 1071-1072
Ramapala 1077-1130 1082-1124 1078/9-1132 1072-1126
Kumarapala 1130-1125 1124-1129 1132-1136 1126-1128
Gopala III 1140-1144 1129-1143 1136-1144 1128-1143
Madanapala 1144-1162 1143-1162 1144-1161/62 1143-1161
Govindapala 1155-1159 NA 1162-1176 or 1158-1162 1161-1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165-1199

Note:[2]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Military[edit]

The highest military officer in the Pala empire was the Mahasenapati (commander-in-chief). The Palas recruited mercenary soldiers from a number of kingdoms, including Malava, Khasa, Huna, Kulika, Kanrata, Lata, Odra and Manahali. According to the contemporary accounts, the Rashtrakutas had the best infantry, the Gurjara-Pratiharas had the finest cavalry and the Palas had the largest elephant force. The Arab merchant Sulaiman states that the Palas had an army bigger than those of the Balhara (possibly the Rashtrakutas) and the king of Jurz (possibly the Gurjara-Pratiharas). He also states that the Pala army employed 10,000-15,000 men for fueling and washing clothes. He further claims that during the battles, the Pala king would lead 50,000 war elephants. Sulaiman's accounts seem to be based on exaggerated reports; Ibn Khaldun mentions the number of elephants as 5,000.[18]:139–143

Since Bengal did not have a good native breed of horses, the Palas imported their cavalry horses from the foreigners, including the Kambojas. They also had a navy, used for both mercantile and defence purposes.[18]:143–144

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

The main sources of information about the Pala empire include:[16]:2–3

Pala accounts
  • Various epigraphs, coins, sculptures and architecture
  • Ramacharita, a Sanskrit work by Abhinanda (9th century)
  • Ramacharitam, a Sanskrit epic by Sandhyakar Nandi (12th century)
  • Subhasita Ratnakosa, a Sanskrit compilation by Vidyakara (towards the end of the Pala rule)
Other accounts
  • Silsiltut-Tauarikh by the Arab merchant Suleiman (951 CE), who referred to the Pala kingdom as Ruhmi or Rahma
  • Dpal dus khyi 'khor lo'i chos bskor gyi byung khungs nyer mkh (History of Buddhism in India) by Taranatha (1608), contains a few traditional legends and hearsays about the Pala rule
  • Ain-i-Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl (16th-century)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael C. Howard (23 February 2012). Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel. McFarland. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7864-9033-2. 
  2. ^ a b c d Susan L. Huntington (1 January 1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-06856-2. 
  3. ^ Epigraphia Indica, XXIV, p 43, Dr N. G. Majumdar
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nitish K. Sengupta (1 January 2011). "The Imperial Palas". Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. Penguin Books India. pp. 39–49. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4. 
  5. ^ Op cit., p 37, Jhunu Bagchi; The Indian Antiquary, Vol IV, 1875, pp 365–66; Corpus of Bengal Inscriptions, Mukerjee and Maity, p 11
  6. ^ Caste and Chronology of the Pala kings of Bengal, J. C. Ghosh, The IHQ, IX, 1983, pp 487–90
  7. ^ The Caste of the Palas, The Indian Culture, Vol IV, 1939, pp 113–14, B Chatterji
  8. ^ Social Change in Modern India, 1995, p 9, M N Srinivas
  9. ^ Modern India: An Interpretive Antholog, 1971, p 115, Thomas R. Metcalf – History
  10. ^ Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1990, p 265, André Wink; History of Medieval India, 1940, p 20, fn, Ishwari Prasad – India.
  11. ^ a b Biplab Dasgupta (1 January 2005). European Trade and Colonial Conquest. Anthem Press. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-1-84331-029-7. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 277–287. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0. 
  13. ^ Bhagalpur Charter of Narayanapala, year 17, verse 6, The Indian Antiquary, XV p 304.
  14. ^ George E. Somers (1977). Dynastic History Of Magadha. Abhinav Publications. p. 185. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4. 
  15. ^ The Cambridge Shorter History of India p.10
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  17. ^ George E. Somers (1 January 1977). Dynastic History Of Magadha. Abhinav Publications. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4. 
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  20. ^ History of Buddhism in India, Translation by A Shiefner
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  24. ^ Rustam Jehangir Mehta (1 December 1981). Masterpieces of Indian bronzes and metal sculpture. Taraporevala. p. 21. 
  25. ^ Stella Kramrisch (1 January 1994). Exploring India'S Sacred Art Selected Writings Of Stella Kramrisch Ed. & With A Biographical Essay. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 208. ISBN 978-81-208-1208-6. 
  26. ^ History of Ancient Bengal, pp. 161-162, 1971
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  29. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Indian History IX: 209–10. 

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