digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

"Pagi" redirects here. For the Greek city, see Pagoi.
Pagi in Burgundy, 9th century

In the later Western Roman Empire, following the reorganization of Diocletian, a pagus (compare French pays, Spanish pago, "a region, terroir") became the smallest administrative district of a province. By that time the word had long been in use with various meanings. Smith's Dictionary says of it, "The meaning of this word cannot be given in precise and absolute terms, partly because we can have no doubt that its significance varied greatly between the earliest and the later times of Roman history, partly because its application by Latin writers to similar, but not identical, communities outside Italy ..."[1]

Etymology[edit]

Pāgus is a native Latin word from a root pāg-, a lengthened grade of Indo-European *pag-, a verbal root, "fasten" (English peg), which in the word may be translated as "boundary staked out on the ground."[2] In semantics, *pag- used in pāgus is a stative verb with an unmarked lexical aspect of state resulting from completed action: "it is having been staked out," converted into a noun by -us, a type recognizable in English adjectives such as surveyed, defined, noted, etc. English does not use the noun: "the surveyed," but Latin characteristically does. Considering that the ancients marked out municipal districts with boundary stones, the root meaning is nothing more than land surveyed for a municipality with stakes and later marked by boundary stones, a process that has not changed over the millennia.

Earlier hypotheses concerning the derivation of pāgus suggested that it is a Greek loan from either πήγη, "village well," or πάγος, "hill-fort." William Smith opposed these on the grounds that neither the well nor the hill-fort appear in the meaning of pāgus.[1]

Roman usage[edit]

In classical Latin, pagus referred to a country district or to a community within a larger polity;[3] Julius Caesar, for instance, refers to pagi within the greater polity of the Celtic Helvetii.[4]

The pagus and vicus (a small nucleated settlement or village) are characteristic of pre-urban organization of the countryside. In Latin epigraphy of the Republican era, pagus refers to local territorial divisions of the peoples of the central Apennines and is assumed to express local social structures as they existed variously.[5]

As an informal designation for a rural district, pagus was a flexible term to encompass the cultural horizons of "folk" whose lives were circumscribed by their locality: agricultural workers, peasants, slaves. Within the reduced area of Diocletian's subdivided provinces, the pagi could have several kinds of focal centers. Some were administered from a city, possibly the seat of a bishop; other pagi were administered from a vicus that might be no more than a cluster of houses and an informal market; yet other pagi in the areas of the great agricultural estates (latifundia) were administered through the villa at the center.

The historian of Christianity Peter Brown has pointed out that in its original sense paganus meant a civilian or commoner, one who was excluded from power and thus regarded as of lesser account; away from the administrative center, whether that was the seat of a bishop, a walled town or merely a fortified village, such inhabitants of the outlying districts, the pagi, tended to cling to the old ways and gave their name to "pagans"; the word was used pejoratively by Christians in the Latin West to demean those who declined to convert from the traditional religions of antiquity.[6]

Post-Roman pagus[edit]

The pagus survived the collapse of the Empire of the West, retained to designate the territory controlled by a Merovingian or Carolingian count (comes). Within its boundaries, the smaller subdivision of the pagus was the manor. The majority of modern French pays are roughly coextensive with the old counties (e.g., county of Comminges, county of Ponthieu, etc.) To take an instance, at the beginning of the 5th century, when the Notitia provinciarum was drawn up, the Provincia Gallia Lugdunensis Secunda formed the ecclesiastical province of Rouen, with six suffragan sees; it contained seven cities (civitates). For civil purposes, the province was divided into a number of pagi: the civitas of Rotomagus (Rouen) formed the pagus Rotomagensis (Roumois); in addition there were the pagi Caletus (Pays de Caux), Vilcassinus (the Vexin), the Tellaus (Talou); Bayeux, the pagus Bajocassinus (Bessin), and the Otlinga Saxonia; that of Lisieux the pagus Lexovinus (Lieuvin); that of Coutances the p. Corilensis and p. Constantinus (Cotentin); that of Avranches the p. Abrincatinus (Avranchin); that of Sez the p. Oximensis (Hiémois), the p. Sagensis and p. Corbonensis (Corbonnais); and that of Evreux the p. Ebroicinus (Evrecin) and p. Madriacensis (pays de Madrie) (EB "Normandy").

The pagus was the equivalent of what English-speaking historians sometimes refer to as the "Carolingian shire", which in German is the Gau. In Latin texts, a canton of the Helvetic Confederacy is rendered pagus.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Smith, William; Wayte, William; Marindin, George Eden (1891). "Pagus". A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Volume 2 (Third ed.). London: John Murray. pp. 309–311. 
  2. ^ Watkins, Calvert (1992). Indo-European Roots. "pag-". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Third ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  3. ^ Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1982, 1985 printing), entry on pagus, p. 1283.
  4. ^ Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.12.4: nam omnis civitas Helvetia in quattuor pagos divisa est ("for the Helvetian nation as a whole was divided into four cantons"). Pagus in this sense is sometimes translated "tribe"; the choice of "canton" may be influenced by later usage of the word in regard to Helvetia.
  5. ^ Guy Jolyon Bradley, Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 56 online.
  6. ^ Peter Brown, entry on "Pagan," Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, edited by G.W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, and Oleg Grabar (Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 625 online: "The adoption of paganus by Latin Christians as an all-embracing, pejorative term for polytheists represents an unforeseen and singularly long-lasting victory, within a religious group, of a word of Latin slang originally devoid of religious meaning. The evolution occurred only in the Latin west, and in connection with the Latin church. Elsewhere, 'Hellene' or 'gentile' (ethnikos) remained the word for 'pagan'; and paganos continued as a purely secular term, with overtones of the inferior and the commonplace."

Bibliography[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagus — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
2620 videos foundNext > 

Hotel Pagus 2011, wyspa Pag, chorwacja, film z podróży

Ecletnica Pagus - Mainarde

Pescara, Auditorium 'L. Petruzzi', 28 settembre 2010.

Ecletnica Pagus - Danza di Mastro Gerardo

Una zampogna atipica in grado di produrre 12 accordi, contro i 2 di una zampogna tradizionale. Un ensemble di strumenti "classici" ad accompagnarla. Da ascol...

Hotel Pagus, Pag, Chorwacja

http://www.esky.pl/hotele - na naszym kanale YouTube udostępniamy filmy z hoteli w najpopularniejszych miejscowościach turystycznych, kręcone podczas pobytów...

Portugos, pagus pulcher

Pórtugos es una villa de La Alpujarra, de casas blancas, calles empinadas y zigzagueantes. Con fuentes varias y en particular, la de aguas ferruginosas. Camp...

Hotel Pagus - Norddalmatien

Reise TV Video "Hotel Pagus - Norddalmatien - Reise 463 ". Mehr zu diesem Beitrag auf http://www.reise-tv.com/ unter http://www.reise-tv.com/ondemand/play.ph...

Ecletnica pagus a Sereno Variabile

Ecletnica Pagus a Sereno Variabile del 6 Dicembre 2008 Salone Angioino della Corte Normanna Castello Baronale De Jorio - Frisari Macchia D'Isernia (Is) Eclet...

Ntv Pagus Werbung

Werbevideo über die Firma. Ausgestrahlt auf Ntv.

pagus croatia

Pagus - In A Fury Of Armageddon

BlackMetal From The Netherlands --Bass / Vocals : E Duran --Guitar : L Wiltens --Drums : B Van Der Stel.

2620 videos foundNext > 

109 news items

Techno-science.net

Techno-science.net
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 03:04:37 -0700

La Commission européenne publie aujourd'hui des lignes directrices visant à aider les États membres à tirer parti de la révision de la directive concernant la réutilisation des informations du secteur public (dite "directive ISP"). Ces lignes ...
 
Techno-science.net
Sun, 20 Jul 2014 02:56:15 -0700

Rosetta est une mission de l'ESA (avec le support de ses pays (Pays vient du latin pagus qui désignait une subdivision territoriale et tribale d'étendue restreinte (de l'ordre de quelques centaines de km²), subdivision...) membres) et de la NASA (La ...

La Stampa

La Stampa
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 01:03:45 -0700

In prossimità del centro storico si trova l'Hotel Pagus (Setaliste Ante Starcevica 1, Tel. +385 21542233, www.hotel-pagus-hr), un quattro stelle con vista sulla baia di Pago ed una bellissima Spa di oltre 1000 metri quadri dove concedersi un'esperienza ...
 
iDNES.cz
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 00:18:45 -0700

20% sleva na výlet lodí se společností Agentura Sunturist Pagus. Info: parkování: parkoviště v ceně. Domácí zvíře: ne. Lázeňská taxa: cca 1 € den/osoba, děti 12-17 let 0,50 €/den, platba na místě. Ubytování zahrnuje: elektřinu, vodu ...
 
Zadarski List
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 14:00:00 -0700

Karnevalska će povorka u petak, 25. srpnja, u 20.30 sati krenuti od hotela Pagus, a po dolasku na gradski trg obavit će se i primopredaja vlasti, te će tako gradom pod karnevalskim barjakom zavladati maškare. Svi posjetitelji moći će do kasnih sati ...

Il Faro - quotidiano telematico

Il Faro - quotidiano telematico
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 16:03:45 -0700

Sarà possibile degustare i vini pregiati delle cantine CASALE DEL GIGLIO, TERRA DELLE GINESTRE e TORRE DEL PAGUS e le Olive di Gaeta dell'azienda agricola COSMO DI RUSSO, sulla terrazza della Pinacoteca in Via De Lieto, 2, in una cornice di ...
 
El Universo
Sun, 06 Jul 2014 22:02:04 -0700

País viene del latín pagus, pueblo o aldea. De allí también viene pago, que se usa más en el Cono Sur con el mismo sentido. País es sobre todo un territorio, pero no solo eso, se lo supone habitado por un pueblo determinado. Su significación es análoga ...
 
Techno-science.net
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 08:03:36 -0700

Le pays (Pays vient du latin pagus qui désignait une subdivision territoriale et tribale d'étendue restreinte (de l'ordre de quelques centaines de km²),...) est vaste et inexploré - J'imagine qu'il y a toutes sortes de découvertes passionnantes qui ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Pagus

You can talk about Pagus with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!