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This article is about the order in the Commonwealth realms. For similarly named orders, see Order of Merit (disambiguation).
Order of Merit
Order of Merit Dorothy Hodgkin (cropped).jpg
Insignia of the Order of Merit presented to Dorothy Hodgkin, displayed in the Royal Society in London
Awarded by the
UK Arms 1837.svg
monarch of the United Kingdom
(foundation - 1931)
the
UK Arms 1837.svg
monarch of the United Kingdom and the Dominions
(1931 - 1952)
the
Royal Cypher of Elizabeth II as Head of the Commonwealth.svg
monarch of the Commonwealth realms
(since 1952)
Type Dynastic order
Motto FOR MERIT
Eligibility All living citizens of the Commonwealth realms
Awarded for At the monarch's pleasure
Status Currently constituted
First Sovereign King Edward VII
Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Member (OM)
Established 1902
Precedence
Next (higher) Dependent on state
Next (lower) Dependent on state
Galó de l'Orde del Mèrit (UK).png
Ribbon of the Order of Merit

The Order of Merit (French: Ordre du Mérite)[n 1] is a dynastic order recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by King Edward VII, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign, currently Edward VII's great-granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II, and is restricted to a maximum of 24 living recipients from the monarch's realms plus a limited number of honorary members.[1][2] While all members are awarded the right to use the post-nominal letters OM and a medallion for life,[3] the Order of Merit's precedence amongst other honours differs between realms.

History[edit]

The first mention of a possible Order of Merit was made following the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in correspondence between First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Barham and William Pitt, though nothing came of the idea.[4] Later, it was thought by Queen Victoria, her courtiers, and politicians alike,[5] that a new order, based on the Prussian order Pour le Mérite, would make up for the insufficient recognition offered by the established honours system to achievement outside of public service, in fields such as art, music, literature, industry, and science.[4] Victoria's husband, Albert, Prince Consort, took an interest in the matter; it was recorded in his diary that he met on 16 January 1844 with Robert Peel to discuss the "idea of institution of a civil Order of Merit" and three days later he conferred with the Queen on the subject.[6] The concept did not wither and, on 5 January 1888, British prime minister Lord Salisbury submitted to the Queen a draft constitution for an Order of Merit in Science and Art, consisting of one grade split into two branches of knighthood: the Order of Scientific Merit for Knights of Merit in Science, with the post-nominal letters KMS and the Order of Artistic Merit for Knights of Merit in Art, with the post-nominal letters KMA. However, Sir Frederic Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, advised against the new order, primarily because of its selection process.[7]

King Edward VII, founder of the Order of Merit

It was Victoria's son, King Edward VII, who eventually founded the Order of Merit on 26 June 1902 the date for which his coronation had been originally planned[8] as a means to acknowledge "exceptionally meritorious service in Our Navy and Our Army, or who may have rendered exceptionally meritorious service towards the advancement of Art, Literature and Science";[9] all modern aspects of the order were established under his direction, including the division for military figures.[3] From the outset, prime ministers attempted to propose candidates or lobbied to influence the monarch's decision on appointments, but the Royal Household adamantly guarded information about potential names.[3] After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent countries, equal in status to the UK, the Order of Merit continued as an honour open to all these realms and, in many, became a part of their national honours systems.[10][11] The order's statutes were amended in 1935 to include members of the Royal Air Force and, in 1969, the definition of honorary recipients was expanded to include members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

From its inception, the order has been open to women, Florence Nightingale being the first woman to receive the honour, in 1907. Several individuals have refused admission into the Order of Merit, such as Rudyard Kipling, A. E. Housman, and George Bernard Shaw. To date, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, remains the youngest person ever inducted into the Order of Merit, having been admitted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1968, when he was 47 years of age.[3]

Eligibility and appointment[edit]

All citizens of the Commonwealth realms are eligible for appointment to the Order of Merit.[10] There may be, however, only 24 living individuals in the order at any given time, not including honorary appointees, and new members are personally selected by the reigning monarch of the realms, currently Queen Elizabeth II, with the assistance of her private secretaries;[3] the order has thus been described as "quite possibly, the most prestigious honour one can receive on planet Earth."[12] Within the limited membership is a designated military division, with its own unique insignia; though it has not been abolished, it is currently unpopulated, Lord Mountbatten of Burma having been the last person so honoured.[3] Honorary members form another group, to which there is no numerical limit, though such appointments are rare; individuals from countries in the Commonwealth of Nations that are not headed by Elizabeth II are therefore considered foreigners, and thus are granted only honorary admissions, such as Nelson Mandela (South Africa) and Mother Teresa (India).[1]

Upon admission into the Order of Merit, members are entitled to use the post-nominal letters OM, and are entrusted with the badge of the order, consisting of a golden crown from which is suspended a red enamelled cross, itself centred by a disk of blue enamel, surrounded by a gold laurel wreath, and bearing in gold lettering the words FOR MERIT;[13] the insignia for the military grouping is distinguished by a pair of crossed swords behind the central disk. The ribbon of the Order of Merit is divided into two stripes of red and blue; men wear their badges on a neck ribbon, while women carry theirs on a ribbon bow pinned to the left shoulder, and aides-de-camp may wear the insignia on their aiguillettes.[13] Since 1991, it has been required that the insignia be returned upon the recipient's death.[14]

Current members[edit]

Members[edit]

Member number Name Known for Date of appointment Age
1-(122)[n 2]   The Duke of Edinburgh KG KT OM GBE AC ONZ QSO GCL CC CMM PC PC(Can) AdC(P) royal consort[15] 10 June 1968[16] 93
2-(145) United Kingdom The Reverend Owen Chadwick OM KBE FBA ecclesiastical historian 11 November 1983[16] 98
3-(162) United Kingdom Sir Michael Atiyah OM FRS mathematician, Fields Medalist, Abel laureate, and former President of the Royal Society 17 November 1992[16] 85
4-(166) United Kingdom Sir Aaron Klug OM FRS biophysicist, Nobel laureate, and former President of the Royal Society 23 October 1995[16] 87
5-(169) United Kingdom The Lord Foster of Thames Bank OM architect and Pritzker laureate 25 November 1997[16] 79
6-(175) United Kingdom Sir Roger Penrose OM FRS mathematical physicist 9 May 2000[16] 82
7-(176) United Kingdom Sir Tom Stoppard OM CBE playwright 9 May 2000[16] 77
8-(177)   The Prince of Wales KG KT GCB OM AK QSO    heir to the throne 27 June 2002[16] 65
9-(178) Australia The Lord May of Oxford OM AC FRS ecologist and former President of the Royal Society 28 October 2002[16] 76
10-(179) United Kingdom The Lord Rothschild Bt OM GBE philanthropist 28 October 2002[16] 78
11-(180) United Kingdom Sir David Attenborough OM CH CVO CBE FRS broadcaster and naturalist 10 June 2005[16] 88
12-(181) United Kingdom The Baroness Boothroyd OM PC first female Speaker of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom 10 June 2005[16] 84
13-(182) United Kingdom Sir Michael Howard OM CH CBE MC FBA military historian 10 June 2005[16] 91
14-(183) United Kingdom The Lord Eames OM Primate of All Ireland and Archbishop of Armagh 13 June 2007[16] 77
15-(184) United Kingdom Sir Tim Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS inventor of the World Wide Web and Director of the World Wide Web Consortium 13 June 2007[16] 59
16-(185) United Kingdom The Lord Rees of Ludlow OM FRS Astronomer Royal and former President of the Royal Society 13 June 2007[16] 72
17-(186) Canada Jean Chrétien PC OM CC QC former Prime Minister of Canada 13 July 2009[17] 80
18-(187) United Kingdom Neil MacGregor OM AO art historian and Director of the British Museum 4 November 2010[18] 68
19-(188) United Kingdom David Hockney OM CH artist 1 January 2012[19] 77
20-(189) Australia John Howard OM AC SSI former Prime Minister of Australia 1 January 2012[19] 74
21-(190) United Kingdom Sir Simon Rattle OM CBE orchestral conductor 1 January 2014 [20] 59
22-(191) United Kingdom Martin Litchfield West OM FBA classicist and philologist 1 January 2014[20] 76
23-(192) United Kingdom Sir Magdi Yacoub OM cardiothoracic surgeon 1 January 2014[20] 78
24 Vacant    

Honorary members[edit]

There have been no honorary members of the Order of Merit since the death of the last such member, Nelson Mandela, in December 2013.

Precedence[edit]

As the Order of Merit is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders, decorations, and medals, the order's place of precedence varies from country to country. While, in the United Kingdom, the order's postnominal letters follow those of Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, membership in the Order of Merit itself gives members no place in any of the orders of precedence in the United Kingdom. However, it has been claimed by Stanley Martin, in his book The Order of Merit 1902–2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour, that the Order of Merit is the pinnacle of the British honours system.[21] Similarly, though it was not listed in the Canadian order of precedence for honours, decorations, and medals until December 2010,[22] except relating to those who were appointed to the order prior to 1 June 1972,[23] Christopher McCreery, an expert on Canadian honours and secretary to the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, stated that the Order of Merit was the highest civilian award for merit a Canadian could receive.[24][25]

Some orders of precedence are as follows:

Country Preceding Following
Australia Australia
Order of precedence
Knight/Lady of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT/LT) Knight/Dame of the Order of Australia (AK/AD)
Canada Canada
Order of precedence
Cross of Valour (CV) Companion of the Order of Canada (CC)
New Zealand New Zealand
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB) Member of the Order of New Zealand (ONZ)[26]
United Kingdom United Kingdom Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB) Baronet's Badge (Bt)[27]

Past members[edit]

Substantive members[edit]

Number Country/ies Name Date of appointment Date of death
1.[n 3] United Kingdom The Earl Roberts[28] 26 June 1902 14 November 1914
2. United Kingdom The Viscount Wolseley[28] 26 June 1902 25 March 1913
3. United Kingdom The Lord Kitchener of Khartoum[28] 26 June 1902 5 June 1916
4. United Kingdom The Lord Rayleigh[28] 26 June 1902 30 June 1919
5. United Kingdom The Lord Kelvin[28] 26 June 1902 17 December 1907
6. United Kingdom The Lord Lister[28] 26 June 1902 10 February 1912
7. United Kingdom Sir Henry Keppel[28] 26 June 1902 17 January 1904
8. United Kingdom John Morley[28] 26 June 1902 23 September 1923
9. United Kingdom William Edward Hartpole Lecky[28] 26 June 1902 22 October 1903
10. United Kingdom Sir Edward Hobart Seymour[28] 26 June 1902 2 March 1929
11. United Kingdom Sir William Huggins[28] 26 June 1902 12 May 1910
12. United Kingdom George Frederic Watts[28] 26 June 1902 1 July 1904
13. United Kingdom Sir George Stuart White 30 June 1905 24 June 1912
14. United Kingdom Sir John Fisher 30 June 1905 10 July 1920
15. United Kingdom Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb 30 June 1905 9 December 1905
16. United Kingdom Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema 30 June 1905 25 June 1912
17. United Kingdom George Meredith 30 June 1905 18 May 1909
18. United Kingdom William Holman Hunt 30 June 1905 7 September 1910
22. United Kingdom The Earl of Cromer 29 June 1906 29 January 1917
23. United Kingdom James Bryce[29] 11 February 1907 22 January 1922
24. United Kingdom Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker 30 June 1907 10 December 1911
25. United Kingdom Florence Nightingale[30] 12 May 1907 13 August 1910
26. United Kingdom Henry Jackson 26 June 1908 25 September 1921
27. United Kingdom Alfred Russel Wallace[31] 26 June 1908 7 November 1913
28. United Kingdom Sir William Crookes[32] 8 July 1910 4 April 1919
29. United Kingdom Thomas Hardy[32] 8 July 1910 11 January 1928
30. United Kingdom Sir George Trevelyan, Bt 19 June 1911 17 August 1928
31. United Kingdom Sir Edward Elgar, Bt 19 June 1911 23 February 1934
32. United Kingdom Sir Arthur Wilson 8 March 1912 25 May 1921
33. United Kingdom Sir J. J. Thomson 15 March 1912 30 August 1940
34. United Kingdom Sir Archibald Geikie 1 January 1914 10 November 1924
35. United Kingdom Sir John French 3 December 1914 22 May 1925
36. United Kingdom The Viscount Haldane 26 May 1915 19 August 1928
37. United Kingdom Henry James 1 January 1916 28 February 1916
38. United Kingdom Sir John Jellicoe 31 May 1916 20 November 1935
39. United Kingdom Arthur Balfour 3 June 1916 19 March 1930
41. United Kingdom Sir David Beatty 3 June 1919 11 March 1936
42. United Kingdom Douglas Haig 3 June 1919 29 January 1928
44. United Kingdom David Lloyd George 5 August 1919 26 March 1945
45. United Kingdom Sir J. M. Barrie, Bt 2 January 1922 19 June 1937
46. United Kingdom F. H. Bradley 3 June 1924 18 September 1924
47. United Kingdom Sir Charles Scott Sherrington 3 June 1924 4 March 1952
48. United Kingdom Sir James George Frazer 1 January 1925 7 May 1941
49. New Zealand/United Kingdom Lord Rutherford of Nelson 1 January 1925 19 October 1937
50. United Kingdom Sir Charles Algernon Parsons 3 June 1927 11 February 1931
51. United Kingdom Sir George Abraham Grierson 4 June 1928 9 March 1941
52. United Kingdom Robert Seymour Bridges 3 June 1929 21 April 1930
53. United Kingdom John Galsworthy 3 June 1929 31 January 1933
54. Australia/United Kingdom Samuel Alexander 3 June 1930 13 September 1938
55. United Kingdom M. R. James 3 June 1930 12 June 1936
56. United Kingdom G. M. Trevelyan 3 June 1930 21 July 1962
57. United Kingdom Sir Charles Madden, Bt 1 January 1931 5 June 1935
58. United Kingdom Philip Wilson Steer 1 January 1931 18 March 1942
59. United Kingdom Sir William Henry Bragg 3 June 1931 10 March 1942
60. United Kingdom John William Mackail 1 January 1935 13 December 1945
61. United Kingdom John Edward Masefield 3 June 1935 12 May 1967
62. United Kingdom Ralph Vaughan Williams 3 June 1935 26 August 1958
63. United Kingdom Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins 3 June 1935 16 May 1947
64. United Kingdom Sir Philip Chetwode, Bt 1 January 1936 6 July 1950
65. United Kingdom Herbert Fisher 1 February 1937 18 April 1940
66. United Kingdom The Lord Baden-Powell 11 May 1937 8 January 1941
67. United Kingdom Sir Arthur Eddington 9 June 1938 22 November 1944
68. United Kingdom The Lord Chatfield 2 January 1939 15 November 1967
69. United Kingdom Sir James Hopwood Jeans 2 January 1939 16 September 1946
70. United Kingdom Sir Cyril Newall 29 October 1940 30 November 1963
71. Australia/United Kingdom Gilbert Murray 1 January 1941 20 May 1957
72. United Kingdom Sir Edwin Lutyens 1 January 1942 1 January 1944
73. United Kingdom Augustus John 11 June 1942 31 October 1961
74. United Kingdom Edgar Adrian 11 June 1942 4 August 1977
75. United Kingdom Sir William Searle Holdsworth 1 January 1943 2 January 1944
76. United Kingdom Sir Dudley Pound 3 September 1943 21 October 1943
77. United Kingdom The Lord Passfield 8 June 1944 13 October 1947
78. United Kingdom Sir Henry Hallett Dale 8 June 1944 23 July 1968
79. United Kingdom Sir Giles Gilbert Scott 8 June 1944 8 February 1960
80. United Kingdom/United States Alfred North Whitehead 1 January 1945 30 December 1947
82. United Kingdom Sir Winston Churchill 1 January 1946 24 January 1965
83. United Kingdom The Viscount Portal of Hungerford 1 January 1946 22 April 1971
84. United Kingdom The Viscount Alanbrooke 13 June 1946 17 June 1963
85. United Kingdom The Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope 13 June 1946 12 June 1963
86. United Kingdom The Earl of Halifax 13 June 1946 23 December 1959
87. South Africa Jan Smuts 1 January 1947 11 September 1950
89. Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King 17 November 1947 22 July 1950
90. United Kingdom T. S. Eliot 1 January 1948 4 January 1965
91. United Kingdom Sir Robert Robinson 9 June 1949 8 February 1975
92. United Kingdom The Earl Russell 9 June 1949 2 February 1970
93. United Kingdom Sir Alexander Cadogan 1 January 1951 9 July 1968
94. United Kingdom The Viscount Trenchard 1 January 1951 10 February 1956
95. United Kingdom G. E. Moore 7 June 1951 24 October 1958
96. United Kingdom Clement Attlee 5 November 1951 8 October 1967
97. Canada Wilder Penfield 1 January 1953 5 April 1976
98. United Kingdom Walter de la Mare 1 June 1953 22 June 1956
100. United Kingdom The Lord Hailey 31 May 1956 1 June 1969
101. United Kingdom Sir John Cockcroft 1 January 1957 18 September 1967
102. United Kingdom The Viscount Waverley 8 December 1957 4 January 1958
103. Australia Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet 12 June 1958 31 August 1985
104. United Kingdom The Viscount Samuel 21 November 1958 2 February 1963
105. United Kingdom The Earl Alexander of Tunis 23 April 1960 16 June 1969
106. United Kingdom Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood 23 April 1960 9 October 1967
107. United Kingdom Graham Sutherland 23 April 1960 17 February 1980
108. United Kingdom Sir Geoffrey de Havilland 23 November 1962 21 May 1965
109. United Kingdom Sir Basil Spence 23 November 1962 19 November 1976
110. Australia Sir Owen Dixon 29 May 1963 7 July 1972
112. United Kingdom George Peabody Gooch 16 August 1963 31 August 1968
113. United Kingdom Henry Moore 16 August 1963 31 August 1986
114. United Kingdom Benjamin Britten 23 March 1965 4 December 1976
115. United Kingdom Dorothy Hodgkin 23 March 1965 29 July 1994
116. United Kingdom The Earl Mountbatten of Burma 15 July 1965 27 August 1979
117. Australia/United Kingdom The Lord Florey 15 July 1965 21 February 1968
118. United Kingdom Patrick Blackett 20 November 1967 13 July 1974
119. United Kingdom Sir William Walton 20 November 1967 8 March 1983
120. United Kingdom Ben Nicholson 23 April 1968 6 February 1982
121. South Africa/United Kingdom Sir Solly Zuckerman 23 April 1968 1 April 1993
123. United Kingdom E. M. Forster 1 January 1969 7 June 1970
124. United Kingdom Malcolm MacDonald 14 July 1969 11 January 1981
125. United Kingdom The Lord Penney 14 July 1969 3 March 1991
126. United Kingdom Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor 14 July 1969 27 June 1975
127. United Kingdom Dame Veronica Wedgwood 14 July 1969 9 March 1997
128. New Zealand John Cawte Beaglehole 21 March 1970 10 October 1971
129. Canada Lester B. Pearson 20 May 1971 27 December 1972
130. United Kingdom Sir Isaiah Berlin 20 May 1971 5 November 1997
131. United Kingdom Sir George Edwards 20 May 1971 2 March 2003
132. United Kingdom Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin 17 April 1973 20 December 1998
133. United Kingdom Paul Dirac 17 April 1973 20 October 1984
134. United Kingdom Harold Macmillan 2 April 1976 29 December 1986
135. United Kingdom The Lord Hinton of Bankside 2 April 1976 22 June 1983
136. United Kingdom The Lord Clark 2 April 1976 21 May 1983
137. New Zealand/United Kingdom Sir Ronald Syme 2 April 1976 4 September 1989
138. United Kingdom The Lord Todd 24 October 1977 10 January 1997
139. United Kingdom The Lord Franks 24 October 1977 15 October 1992
140. United Kingdom Sir Frederick Ashton 24 October 1977 18 October 1988
141. United Kingdom J. B. Priestley 24 October 1977 14 August 1984
142. United Kingdom The Lord Olivier 6 February 1981 11 July 1989
143. United Kingdom Sir Peter Medawar 6 February 1981 2 October 1987
144. United Kingdom Leonard Cheshire 6 February 1981 31 July 1992
146 United Kingdom Sir Andrew Huxley 11 November 1983 30 May 2012
147. Australia Sir Sidney Nolan 11 November 1983 28 November 1992
148. United Kingdom Sir Michael Tippett 11 November 1983 8 January 1998
150. United Kingdom Graham Greene 11 February 1986 3 April 1991
151. United Kingdom Frederick Sanger 11 February 1986 19 November 2013
152. United Kingdom Sir Frank Whittle 11 February 1986 9 August 1996
153. United Kingdom Sir Yehudi Menuhin 25 February 1987 12 March 1999
154. United Kingdom Sir Ernst Gombrich 15 February 1988 3 November 2001
155. United Kingdom Max Perutz 15 February 1988 6 February 2002
156. United Kingdom Dame Cicely Saunders 30 November 1989 14 July 2005
157. United Kingdom Sir George Porter 30 November 1989 31 August 2002
158. United Kingdom The Lady Thatcher 7 December 1990 8 April 2013
159. Australia Dame Joan Sutherland 29 November 1991 10 October 2010
160. United Kingdom Francis Crick 27 November 1991 28 July 2004
161. United Kingdom Dame Ninette de Valois 17 November 1992 8 March 2001
163. United Kingdom Lucian Freud 6 December 1993 20 July 2011
164. United Kingdom The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead 6 December 1993 5 January 2003
167. United Kingdom Sir John Gielgud 9 December 1996 21 May 2000
168. United Kingdom The Lord Denning 25 November 1997 5 March 1999
170. United Kingdom Sir Denis Rooke 25 November 1997 2 September 2008
171. United Kingdom Ted Hughes 10 August 1998 28 October 1998
172. United Kingdom Basil Hume 25 May 1999 17 June 1999
173. United Kingdom Sir James W. Black 9 May 2000 22 March 2010
174 United Kingdom Sir Anthony Caro 9 May 2000 23 October 2013

Honorary members[edit]

Countries[n 4] Name Date of appointment Date of death
19. Japan Prince Yamagata Aritomo[33] 21 February 1906 1 February 1922
20. Japan Prince Ōyama Iwao[33] 21 February 1906 10 December 1916
21. Japan Marquess Tōgō Heihachirō[33] 21 February 1906 30 May 1934
40. France Ferdinand Foch 29 November 1918 20 March 1929
43. France Joseph Joffre 26 June 1919 3 January 1931
81. United States Dwight D. Eisenhower 12 June 1945 28 March 1969
88. United States John Gilbert Winant 1 January 1947 3 November 1947
99. France Albert Schweitzer 25 February 1955 4 September 1965
111. India Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 12 June 1963 17 April 1975
149. Albania/India Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa) 18 November 1983 5 September 1997
165. South Africa Nelson Mandela 21 March 1995 5 December 2013

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For use in Canada, in accordance with the country's policy of official bilingualism.
  2. ^ The number shown in brackets is the individual's place in the wider order of appointment since the Order of Merit's inception.
  3. ^ The number shown is the individual's place in the wider order of appointment since the Order of Merit's inception.
  4. ^ Flags denote country of origin and country or countries of later residence, respectively.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Royal Household. "The Queen and the UK > Queen and Honours > Order of Merit". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 
  2. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. "It's an Honour > Orders > Order of Merit". Queen's Printer for Canada. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Jackson, Michael D. (2007). "The Order of Merit 1902–2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Summer 2007 (26): 15. Retrieved 28 July 2009. [dead link]
  4. ^ a b Martin 2007, p. 11
  5. ^ Martin 2007, p. 12
  6. ^ Martin 2007, p. 13
  7. ^ Martin 2007, pp. 18–20
  8. ^ Martin 2007, p. 1
  9. ^ Mountbatten, Philip (2007). "Foreword". written at London. In Martin, Stanley. The Order of Merit: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-1-86064-848-9. Retrieved 14 October 2009. 
  10. ^ a b Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Orders > Order of Merit". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  11. ^ McCreery, Christopher (2005). The Canadian Honours System. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 98. ISBN 9781550025545. 
  12. ^ Editorial Board (15 July 2009). "Order Worthy?". National Post. Retrieved 29 July 2009. [dead link]
  13. ^ a b Clarence House. "For Children > Medals and Uniforms > Medals > Picture 4: The Order of Merit". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  14. ^ Martin 2007, p. 56
  15. ^ Curry, Bill Prince Philip first Royal to be awarded Order of Canada The Globe and Mail, Ottawa, 26 April 2013
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p The Royal Household. "The Queen and the UK > Queen and Honours > Order of Merit > List of current members". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  17. ^ "Queen gives Chrétien Order of Merit". CBC. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  18. ^ Buckingham Palace. "Mr Neil MacGregor appointed to the Order of Merit, 4 November 2010". The Royal Household. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "Appointments to the Order of Merit". Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  20. ^ a b c "New Year Honours 2013: The Full List". The Guardian. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  21. ^ Jackson, Michael D. (2007). "The Order of Merit 1902–2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour by Stanley Martin, CD". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Summer 2007 (26): 15. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  22. ^ Government of Canada (8 December 2010). "Order of Merit (O.M.) Order". Canada Gazette (Queen's Printer for Canada) 144 (25). SI/2010-88. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  23. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Order of Precedence". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 
  24. ^ McCreery, Christopher (2005). The Order of Canada: Its Origins, History and Development. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3940-5. 
  25. ^ Taber, Jane (15 July 2009). "Chrétien 'thrilled' by rare honour from Queen". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 
  26. ^ New Zealand Defence Force. "Medals Home > general medals information > order of wear". Queen's Printer for New Zealand. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  27. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 56878. p. 3351. 17 March 2003.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The London Gazette: no. 27470. p. 5679. 2 September 1902.
  29. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27994. p. 963. 12 February 1907.
  30. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28084. p. 8331. 29 November 1907.
  31. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 28194. p. 8162. 9 November 1908.
  32. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 28393. p. 4857. 8 July 1910.
  33. ^ a b c The London Gazette: no. 27913. p. 3323. 15 May 1906.

References[edit]

External links[edit]


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