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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug.

Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit]

A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). "MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES)". 
  2. ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 



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MarketWatch
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 16:03:41 -0700

The compound has been evaluated in CKD patients with hyperkalemia, including a two part Phase 3 program, a 12-month Phase 2 trial and a 48-hour Phase 1 onset-of-action trial. In all of those trials, Patiromer FOS met its efficacy endpoints and the ...
 
Medscape
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:07:30 -0700

The holy grail would be an agent that has a rapid onset of action, a predictable dose-response curve, high antithrombotic efficacy during PCI, and quick reversibility very soon after, Mehran elaborated. REG1, which is a combination of the anticoagulant ...
 
Seeking Alpha (registration)
Wed, 25 Mar 2015 05:11:15 -0700

The FDA designates Marinus Pharmaceuticals' (NASDAQ:MRNS) ganaxolone an Orphan Drug for the treatment of protocadherin 19 gene (PCDH19) female epilepsy. The product candidate is currently in Phase 2 development with initial data expected this ...

MedPage Today

MedPage Today
Sun, 22 Mar 2015 08:00:16 -0700

... Area and Severity Index (PASI-90) versus 40% of patients treated with ustekinumab (Stelara). BI-655066 demonstrated a rapid onset of action, as about 70% of patients had 50% improvement (PASI-50) by 4 weeks, increasing to more than 90% at 8 weeks.

BioPharma Dive

BioPharma Dive
Mon, 23 Mar 2015 06:58:41 -0700

In fact, at the 16-week mark, 44.3% of Cosentx-treated patients achieved completely clear skin (PAS100), compared with 28.4% of Stelara-treated patients (P<0.0001). But it didn't take 16 weeks to get a response. Cosentyx demonstrated rapid onset of ...
 
Business Wire (press release)
Mon, 23 Mar 2015 05:22:30 -0700

Originally developed as a cancer therapy, MTX has become the leading DMARD in most countries because of its rapid onset of action and low cost. MTX is an antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant actions. Its use for the treatment of RA ...
 
MarketWatch
Mon, 16 Mar 2015 05:22:30 -0700

The compound has been evaluated in CKD patients with hyperkalemia, including a two part Phase 3 program, a 12-month Phase 2 trial and a 48-hour Phase 1 onset-of-action trial. In all of those trials, Patiromer FOS met its efficacy endpoints and the ...
 
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Thu, 19 Mar 2015 03:30:00 -0700

Unfortunately, these approaches have many caveats: 1) they are difficult to implement 2) they may have delayed onset of action and/or transient effect and 3) they may induce undesirable side effects such as shivering or mild fluid buildup in the lungs ...
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