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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug.

Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit]

A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). "MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES)". 
  2. ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onset_of_action — Please support Wikipedia.
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728 news items

 
Montana Standard
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 17:56:15 -0700

"The Legislature intended that the barbiturate used have an almost immediate onset of action in that unconsciousness occurs quickly," Sherlock wrote. Both sides are planning to present testimony from medical experts who could shed light on the effects ...
 
Diabetes In Control
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 07:15:00 -0700

Long-acting insulin, such as glargine, has an onset of action is about an hour and is stable for 24 hours. Given the duration of action of glargine, it seems that adding long-acting insulin to standard therapy improves the recovery of the patients. The ...
 
Great Falls Tribune
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 08:22:30 -0700

“The Legislature intended that the barbiturate used have an almost immediate onset of action in that unconsciousness occurs quickly,” District Judge Jeffrey Sherlock wrote. Both sides are planning to present testimony from medical experts who could ...
 
PR Newswire (press release)
Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:30:00 -0700

The white paper details previously completed clinical studies demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of Generex Oral-lyn™, including rapidity of both absorption and onset of action, and improved metabolism of glucose when compared to injection.

Medical Daily

Medical Daily
Mon, 24 Aug 2015 16:32:56 -0700

Source: Vasiliki Mitsia V, Terzia D, Purushothaman I, et al. RGS9-2–controlled adaptations in the striatum determine the onset of action and efficacy of antidepressants in neuropathic pain states. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences. 2015. OK.
 
WMC Action News 5
Thu, 20 Aug 2015 21:41:15 -0700

More than a dozen deaths in the state are linked to heroin overdoses. It's a growing problem nationwide. A recent report from the CDC shows heroin overdose deaths have nearly quadrupled over the past decade. If nothing changes, Mississippi is on pace ...

EMS1.com

EMS1.com
Wed, 26 Aug 2015 10:37:30 -0700

Fentanyl and Midazolam both have a very short onset of action. Lipid soluble Fentanyl rapidly crosses the blood brain barrier and leads to rapid clinical benefit. The 2010 paper by Saunders and Adelgais concluded that an Intranasal fentanyl dose of 2 ...
 
Healio
Tue, 25 Aug 2015 06:18:45 -0700

Onset of action after 14 weeks and a sustained year-round treatment effect were demonstrated.” – by Ryan McDonald. Disclosure: Demoly reports receiving consultancy fees from Allergopharma, ALK, DBV, Chiesi, Circassia, Pierre Fabre Medicaments, ...
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