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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug.

Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit]

A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). "MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES)". 
  2. ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onset_of_action — Please support Wikipedia.
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737 news items

 
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Nature.com
Tue, 28 Jul 2015 06:41:17 -0700

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USA TODAY

MarketWatch
Sun, 26 Jul 2015 05:01:29 -0700

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MarketWatch
Fri, 24 Jul 2015 02:32:36 -0700

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PharmaTimes
Sun, 26 Jul 2015 13:03:45 -0700

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Fri, 24 Jul 2015 14:45:00 -0700

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Wed, 15 Jul 2015 07:57:59 -0700

Most antacids of this type (based mainly on calcium, magnesium, and/or aluminum), work by neutralizing stomach acid, and, says Jonathan Finegold, MD, a gastroenterologist with WESTMED Medical Group, “for the quickest onset of action, they work really ...
 
Medscape
Fri, 10 Jul 2015 05:48:16 -0700

And because formoterol is already approved for the acute treatment of asthma and comes in an inhaled formulation, it could provide direct access to the arterial circulation with rapid onset of action, Dr Belfort-DeAguiar and colleagues note. Although ...
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