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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug.

Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit]

A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES). 
  2. ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 



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Seeking Alpha
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 05:56:15 -0700

The implication of this proprietary delivery platform is that it is suitable for additional drugs as well. (Image Source). Focusing on this particular area under the tongue may improve the results when it comes to rapid onset of action and enhanced ...
 
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 09:25:55 -0700

The primary endpoint of the study is to assess the speed of glucagon absorption and onset of action of G-Pump™ (glucagon infusion) in raising blood glucose at three doses as compared to GlucaGen®. Xeris plans to use G-Pump™ (glucagon infusion) in a ...
 
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 13:03:32 -0700

Biodel has studied its proprietary insulin formulations in more than ten clinical trials, including Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies, which have shown Biodel's formulation technology to be safe and offer a faster absorption and onset of action of ...
 
Techsonian (press release)
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 04:37:30 -0700

Las Vegas, NV – April 24, 2014 — (TechSonian) – VIVUS, Inc. (NASDAQ:VVUS) posted that a poster describing results of a clinical study examining onset of action of avanafil will be presented during the 29th Annual European Association of Urology (EAU) ...

MedPage Today

MedPage Today
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 13:47:12 -0700

He said the onset of action is immediate and there is no unbound dabigatran at the 1 g or 4 g dose. "It completely binds all the available dabigatran. It essentially sucks dabigatran out of the peripheral compartment and binds it." Reilly said there ...
 
Techsonian (press release)
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 04:37:30 -0700

VIVUS, Inc. (VVUS) posted that a poster describing results of a clinical study examining onset of action of avanafil will be presented during the 29th Annual European Association of Urology (EAU) Congress at Stockholmsmässan in Stockholm, Sweden. VIVUS ...
 
Techsonian (press release)
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 04:25:57 -0700

VIVUS, Inc. (NASDAQ:VVUS) reported that a poster describing results of a clinical study examining onset of action of avanafil will be presented during the 29th yearly European Association of Urology Congress at Stockholmsmässan in Stockholm, Sweden.

Philly.com

Philly.com
Sun, 20 Apr 2014 00:05:30 -0700

They are tasteless and odorless and have a rapid onset of action, causing him to become wildly disoriented and agitated. The robbery was completed and the woman was not to be found. The ED administers an antidote, called physostigmine, designed to ...
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