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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug.

Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit]

A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES). 
  2. ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 



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27 news items

 
HealthCanal.com
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 03:18:45 -0700

“Co-administration of morphine in the ambulance may have delayed ticagrelor's onset of action,” noted Professor Montalescot. “To what extent this interaction may have affected our results remains unknown at this stage.” For secondary outcomes, there ...
 
Diabetes In Control
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 17:48:15 -0700

In the Phase 1 Study 3-150, the results of which were released in February 2014, BIOD-531 administered to non-diabetic, obese volunteers demonstrated ultra-rapid absorption and onset of action in comparison with Humalog Mix 75/25 and Humulin R U-500, ...
 
FierceBiotech
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 07:03:45 -0700

CEO Mark Iwicki also declined an earlier invitation to talk when the company announced back in April that its Phase II study had delivered positive results, hitting the primary endpoints by demonstrating that the therapy "provided onset of action by 10 ...
 
Zacks.com
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:00:49 -0700

We note that Auxilium Pharma is looking to expand Stendra's label to include the 15-minute onset of action claim. The FDA is expected to render a final decision on Sep 20, 2014. The product's fast onset of action and a favorable side effect profile ...
 
NASDAQ
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:00:00 -0700

We note that Auxilium Pharma is looking to expand Stendra's label to include the 15-minute onset of action claim. The FDA is expected to render a final decision on Sep 20, 2014. The product's fast onset of action and a favorable side effect profile ...

Medscape

Medscape
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 12:51:31 -0700

Per the manufacturer, the amount of insulin delivered to the lung depends on individual patient factors. It is considered an ultra-rapid-acting insulin because the onset of action is 12-15 minutes, with a peak of about 60 minutes and duration of ...
 
CNNMoney
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:03:45 -0700

This formulation was chosen based on its potential for rapid onset of action, long duration with once-a-day dosing and target pharmacokinetic profile as demonstrated in a Phase 1 trial. In addition, this product candidate utilizes a small capsule size ...
 
Zacks.com
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 07:07:28 -0700

Meanwhile, Auxilium has submitted a supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for Stendra to include the 15-minute onset of action data in the label. The FDA is expected to render a decision by Sep 20, 2014. We believe Stendra's fast action could help ...
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