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Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question. Other methods of ingestion such as smoking or injection can take as little as seconds to minutes to take effect. The determination of the onset of action, however, is not completely dependent upon route of administration. There are several other factors that determine the onset of action for a specific drug, including drug formulation, dosage, and the patient receiving the drug.

Effect of Administration Route on the Onset of Action[edit]

A drug's pharmacological effects can only occur once it has been fully solubilized and has entered the blood stream. For most drugs administered orally, the drug must be ingested, pass through the stomach, and into the small intestine, where the drug molecules enter the blood stream through the villi and microvilli.[1] Gastric emptying time can vary from 0 to 3 hours,[2] and therefore plays a major role in onset of action for orally administered drugs. For intravenous administration, the pathway is much shorter because the drug is administered (usually already in solution) directly to the bloodstream.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pang, K. Sandy (2003). MODELING OF INTESTINAL DRUG ABSORPTION: ROLES OF TRANSPORTERS AND METABOLIC ENZYMES (FOR THE GILLETTE REVIEW SERIES). 
  2. ^ Bummer, Paul (2012). Gastro Intestinal Tract and Oral Drug Absorption. University of Kentucky. 



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BioNews Texas

BioNews Texas
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 04:37:30 -0700

Here, proof of concept, dose-ranging, and onset of action studies are performed for pharmaceutical and vaccine trials, whereas academic studies are performed to discover the basic immunologic mechanisms associated with allergic disorders. Essentially ...
 
Wall Street Journal
Wed, 09 Apr 2014 09:52:26 -0700

BioChaperone Lispro is significantly faster than Humalog in type I diabetic patients; onset of action is 30 per cent earlier and early metabolic effect is 69 per cent stronger -- The ultra-fast action of BioChaperone Lispro should make a positive ...
 
pharmabiz.com
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 01:36:48 -0700

The acceleration of insulin Lispro absorption translated into a significant acceleration of insulin action. The metabolic effect is triggered significantly earlier for BioChaperone Lispro than for Humalog with 30 per cent faster onset of action (Tonset ...

Proactive Investors USA & Canada

Proactive Investors USA & Canada
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 08:00:00 -0700

Rizatriptan, which provides a quick onset of action for migraine sufferers, is prescribed for the treatment of children and the elderly, two audiences likely to benefit from the ease of administration of the film formulation. The VersaFilm ...
 
News-Medical.net
Thu, 10 Apr 2014 06:07:30 -0700

This independent review of glycopyrronium shows that the medicine offers a long-acting effect over 24 hours with a rapid onset of action, within five minutes of inhalation. It has a comparable activity profile and rate of adverse events to the other ...
 
Wall Street Journal
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 03:52:30 -0700

MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA--(Marketwired - April 11, 2014) - VIVUS (NASDAQ: VVUS) today announced that a poster describing results of a clinical study examining onset of action of avanafil will be presented during the 29th Annual European Association of ...
 
News-Medical.net
Wed, 09 Apr 2014 23:45:00 -0700

The acceleration of insulin Lispro absorption translated into a significant acceleration of insulin action. The metabolic effect is triggered significantly earlier for BioChaperone Lispro than for Humalog with 30 per cent faster onset of action (Tonset ...

Anesthesiology News

Anesthesiology News
Tue, 08 Apr 2014 08:33:45 -0700

The onset of action is immediate, as there is free bupivacaine in the solution along with the microvesicular preparation. The Antidote? Recent FDA approval of the liposomal bupivacaine formulation has been granted for use in hemorrhoidectomies and ...
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