digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Noun (disambiguation).
Examples
  • The cat sat on the mat.
  • Please hand in your assignments by the end of the week.
  • Cleanliness is next to godliness.
  • Plato was an influential philosopher in ancient Greece.
  • Please complete this assignment with black or blue pen only, and keep your eyes on your own paper.

A noun can co-occur with an article or an attributive adjective. Verbs and adjectives can't. In the following, an asterisk (*) in front of an example means that this example is ungrammatical.

  1. the name (name is a noun: can co-occur with a definite article the.)
  2. *the baptise (baptise is a verb: cannot co-occur with a definite article.)
  3. constant circulation (circulation is a noun: can co-occur with the attributive adjective constant.)
  4. *constant circulate (circulate is a verb: cannot co-occur with the attributive adjective constant.)
  5. a fright (fright is a noun: can co-occur with the indefinite article a.)
  6. *an afraid (afraid is an adjective: cannot co-occur with the article a.)
  7. terrible fright (The noun fright can co-occur with the adjective terrible.)
  8. *terrible afraid (The adjective afraid cannot co-occur with the adjective terrible.)


A noun (Latin: nōmen, "name"[1]) is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.[2][note 1] Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.[3]

Lexical categories are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language. In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

History[edit]

The English word noun comes from the Latin nōmen, meaning "name" or "noun",[4] a cognate of the Ancient Greek ónoma (also meaning "name" or "noun").[5]

Word classes like nouns were first described by Pāṇini in the Sanskrit language and by Ancient Greek grammarians, and were defined by the grammatical forms that they take. In Greek and Sanskrit, for example, nouns are categorized by gender and inflected for case and number.

Because nouns and adjectives share these three grammatical categories, grammarians sometimes do not distinguish between the two. For example, Dionysius Thrax uses the term ónoma for both, with words of adjectival type largely contained in the subclass that he describes as paragōgón (plural paragōgá),[6] meaning "derived".[7] See also the section on substantive below.

Definitions of nouns[edit]

Nouns have sometimes been defined in terms of the grammatical categories to which they are subject (classed by gender, inflected for case and number). Such definitions tend to be language-specific, since nouns do not have the same categories in all languages.

Nouns are frequently defined, particularly in informal contexts, in terms of their semantic properties (their meanings). Nouns are described as words that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, etc. However this type of definition has been criticized by contemporary linguists as being uninformative.[8]

There have been offered several examples of English-language nouns which do not have any reference: drought, enjoyment, finesse, behalf (as found in on behalf of), dint (in dint of), and sake (for the sake of).[9][10][11]

Linguists often prefer to define nouns (and other lexical categories) in terms of their formal properties. These include morphological information, such as what prefixes or suffixes they take, and also their syntax – how they combine with other words and expressions of particular types. Such definitions may nonetheless still be language-specific, since syntax as well as morphology varies between languages. For example, in English it might be noted that nouns are words that can co-occur with definite articles (as stated at the start of this article), but this would not apply in Russian, which has no definite articles.

There have been several attempts, sometimes controversial, to produce a stricter definition of nouns on a semantic basis. Some of these are referenced in the Further reading section below.

Gender[edit]

Main article: Grammatical gender

In some languages, nouns are assigned to genders, such as masculine, feminine and neuter (or other combinations). The gender of a noun (as well as its number and case, where applicable) will often entail agreement in words that modify or are related to it. For example, in French, the singular form of the definite article is le with masculine nouns and la with feminines; adjectives and certain verb forms also change (with the addition of -e with feminines). Grammatical gender often correlates with the form of the noun and the inflection pattern it follows; for example, in both Italian and Russian most nouns ending -a are feminine. Gender also often correlates with the sex of the noun's referent, particularly in the case of nouns denoting people (and sometimes animals). Nouns do not have gender in Modern English, although many of them denote people or animals of a specific sex.

Classification of nouns[edit]

Proper nouns and common nouns[edit]

Main article: Proper noun

A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities (such as Earth, India, Jupiter, Harry, or BMW), as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities (such as city, animal, planet, person or car).[12]

Countable and uncountable nouns[edit]

Main articles: Count noun and Mass noun

Count nouns or countable nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or counting quantifiers (e.g., one, two, several, every, most), and can take an indefinite article such as a or an (in languages which have such articles). Examples of count nouns are chair, nose, and occasion.

Mass nouns or uncountable (or non-count) nouns differ from count nouns in precisely that respect: they cannot take plurals or combine with number words or the above type of quantifiers. For example, it is not possible to refer to a furniture or three furnitures. This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between mass and count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns present these entities.[13][14]

Many nouns have both countable and uncountable uses; for example, beer is countable in "give me three beers", but uncountable in "he likes beer".

Collective nouns[edit]

Main article: Collective noun

Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include committee, herd, and school (of fish). These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for.

Concrete nouns and abstract nouns[edit]

Further information: Physical body and Abstract object

Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can, in principle at least, be observed by at least one of the senses (for instance, chair, apple, Janet or atom). Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts (such as justice or hatred). While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun art, which usually refers to a concept (e.g., Art is an important element of human culture) but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts (e.g., I put my daughter's art up on the fridge).

Some abstract nouns developed etymologically by figurative extension from literal roots. These include drawback, fraction, holdout, and uptake. Similarly, some nouns have both abstract and concrete senses, with the latter having developed by figurative extension from the former. These include view, filter, structure, and key.

In English, many abstract nouns are formed by adding noun-forming suffixes (-ness, -ity, -ion) to adjectives or verbs. Examples are happiness (from the adjective happy), circulation (from the verb circulate) and serenity (from the adjective serene).

Noun phrases[edit]

Main article: Noun phrase

A noun phrase is a phrase based on a noun, pronoun, or other noun-like word (nominal) optionally accompanied by modifiers such as determiners and adjectives. A noun phrase functions within a clause or sentence in a role such as that of subject, object, or complement of a verb or preposition. For example, in the sentence "The black cat sat on a dear friend of mine", the noun phrase the black cat serves as the subject, and the noun phrase a dear friend of mine serves as the complement of the preposition on.

Pronouns[edit]

Main article: Pronoun

Nouns and noun phrases can typically be replaced by pronouns, such as he, it, which, and those, in order to avoid repetition or explicit identification, or for other reasons. For example, in the sentence Janeth thought that he was weird, the word he is a pronoun standing in place of the name of the person in question. The English word one can replace parts of noun phrases, and it sometimes stands in for a noun. An example is given below:

John's car is newer than the one that Bill has.

But one can also stand in for bigger sub parts of a noun phrase. For example, in the following example, one can stand in for new car.

This new car is cheaper than that one.

Substantive as a word for noun[edit]

"Substantive" redirects here. For other uses, see Substance (disambiguation).

Starting with old Latin grammars, many European languages use some form of the word substantive as the basic term for noun (for example, Spanish sustantivo, "noun"). Nouns in the dictionaries of such languages are demarked by the abbreviation s. or sb. instead of n, which may be used for proper nouns instead. This corresponds to those grammars in which nouns and adjectives phase into each other in more areas than, for example, the English term predicate adjective entails. In French and Spanish, for example, adjectives frequently act as nouns referring to people who have the characteristics of the adjective. The most common metalanguage to name this concept is nominalization. An example in English is:

This legislation will have the most impact on the poor.

Similarly, an adjective can also be used for a whole group or organization of people:

The Socialist International.

Hence, these words are substantives that are usually adjectives in English.

In English, some linguistic scientists and usage commentators use the word substantive as a convenient hypernym that includes nouns (single words) and noun phrases (multiword units, also called noun equivalents) as its hyponyms.[15] The word substantive also serves well as a counterpart to attributive when distinguishing between a noun being used as a noun (that is, as a subject or object) and the same noun being used adjectivally (that is, serving as a noun adjunct). For example, one can talk about the noun knee in substantive position (as in my knee hurts or the box fell on my knee) versus in attributive position (as in the patient underwent knee replacement). The adverbial way of saying the same thing is that in the former examples, knee is used substantively, whereas in the latter ones, it is used attributively.

The word nominal also overlaps in meaning and usage with noun and adjective.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ nōmen. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  2. ^ "Noun". Merriam-Webster Dictionary (online). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. 2014. 
  3. ^ Loos, Eugene E., et al. 2003. Glossary of linguistic terms: What is a noun?
  4. ^ nōmen. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  5. ^ ὄνομα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  6. ^ Dionysius Thrax. τέχνη γραμματική (Art of Grammar), section ιβ' (10b): περὶ ὀνόματος (On the noun). Bibliotheca Augustana. εἴδη δὲ παραγώνων ἐστὶν ἑπτά· πατρωνυμικόν, κτητικόν, συγκριτικόν, ὑπερθετικόν, ὑποκοριστικόν, παρώνυμον, ῥηματικόν. "There are seven types of derived [nouns]: patronymic, possessive, comparative, superlative, diminutive, derived from a noun, [and] verbal."
  7. ^ παραγωγός in Liddell and Scott
  8. ^ Jackendoff, Ray (2002). "§5.5 Semantics as a generative system". Foundations of language: brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827012-7. 
  9. ^ pages 218, 225 and elsewhere in Quine, Willard Van Orman (2013) [1960 print]. "7 Ontic Decision". Word and Object. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 215–254. 
  10. ^ Reimer, Marga (May 20, 2009). Zaita, Edward N., ed. "Reference §3.4 Non-Referring Expressions"". Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition). Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  11. ^ English nouns with restricted non-referential interpretation in bare noun phrases
  12. ^ Lester, Mark; Larry Beason (2005). The McGraw-Hill Handbook of English Grammar and Usage. McGraw-Hill. p. 4. ISBN 0-07-144133-6. 
  13. ^ Krifka, Manfred. 1989. "Nominal Reference, Temporal Constitution and Quantification in Event Semantics". In R. Bartsch, J. van Benthem, P. von Emde Boas (eds.), Semantics and Contextual Expression, Dordrecht: Foris Publication.
  14. ^ Borer, Hagit. 2005. In Name Only. Structuring Sense, Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  15. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, "5.10: Noun-equivalents and substantives", The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press. 

Further reading[edit]

For definitions of nouns based on the concept of "identity criteria":

  • Geach, Peter. 1962. Reference and Generality. Cornell University Press.

For more on identity criteria:

  • Gupta, Anil. 1980, The logic of common nouns. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

For the concept that nouns are "prototypically referential":

  • Croft, William. 1993. "A noun is a noun is a noun — or is it? Some reflections on the universality of semantics". Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. Joshua S. Guenter, Barbara A. Kaiser and Cheryl C. Zoll, 369-80. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

For an attempt to relate the concepts of identity criteria and prototypical referentiality:

  • Baker, Mark. 2003, Lexical Categories: verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
221441 videos foundNext > 

Schoolhouse Rock -WHat is a Noun

70's Schoolhouse Rock video on Noun.

Noun Song from Grammaropolis - "Noun Town"

Classroom accounts now available for teachers! Visit http://edu.grammaropolis.com/noun.php for songs, books, games, quizzes, and individual student tracking!...

Noun Song - Have Fun Teaching

Get This Song on CD or MP3: http://havefunteaching.com/songs/grammar-songs/noun-song/ Watch this video on Have Fun Teaching: http://havefunteaching.com/video...

Best Noun Song Ever!!

From the School Rocks! album available on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/school-rocks!-vol.-1-ep/id427376027 https://play.google.com/store/music/a...

Basic English Grammar - Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb

http://www.engvid.com/ What is a noun? What is a verb? What is an adjective? AHHHHH!!! Learn how to recognize nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in this i...

How to change a verb into a noun!

http://www.engvid.com/ With the simple addition of '-ment' or '-ion' to a verb, it becomes a noun! Learn how to change a verb into a noun in this grammar les...

BrooklynVegan Presents - Noun - Studio Sessions

BrooklynVegan Studio Presents: Noun Track Listing 1. "I Don't Love Anybody" 2. "I Need Someone To Lean On" 3. "Feel the Darkness" 4. "Misery" Noun is: Mariss...

Noun Song

Songs for Kids: http://havefunteaching.com/songs/songs-for-kids/ The Noun Song Download is a Grammar song that teaches noun as a word that names a person, pl...

The Kids Block Nouns Episode

This episode of the Kids Block was designed to inspire early basic reading & writing skills for preschool children through music and rhythmic learning. www.1...

What Are Nouns? | Learn English | Grammar

Learn more at http://linguaspectrum.com/do_the_quiz.php?id=94 My pronunciation course is at http://soundsbritish.com What are nouns? If you want to know more...

221441 videos foundNext > 

39150 news items

Slate Magazine (blog)

Slate Magazine (blog)
Mon, 08 Dec 2014 15:19:42 -0800

Mathematics qualifies instead as a mass noun (there goes another deadbeat S): The word may gesture toward quantity, but it is uncountable. Some mass nouns—anger, music, countryside—are too abstract to be divisible. Others—sushi, furniture ...

Leadership Newspapers

Leadership Newspapers
Mon, 01 Dec 2014 19:30:11 -0800

Deputy senate president, Ike Ekweremadu has secured N300 million from the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND) for the development of infrastructure at the National Open University of Nigeria(NOUN) in Awgu in Animri local government area of Enugu ...
 
Huffington Post
Mon, 08 Dec 2014 11:52:30 -0800

"What's a 'kleptocracy,' Dad?" asked my 12-year-old son in response to hearing a news story on the car radio. I took the opportunity to explain different types of government to him. Their names roll trippingly off the tongue: monarchy, autocracy ...

io9

io9
Wed, 10 Dec 2014 13:33:45 -0800

The first is that "buffalo" is a verb as well as a noun and the name of a place. To buffalo someone is to confuse or fluster a person. There's also a missing "that." Under normal circumstances, we can sometimes drop a "that" from a sentence, as long as ...

Mason City Globe Gazette

Mason City Globe Gazette
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 20:24:56 -0800

126: Double Forfeit 132: Jeremiah Colon (NECA) over Brady Anderson (NOUN) (Fall 0:18) 138: Jacob Smith (NECA) over (NOUN) (For.) 145: Jace Leininger (NECA) over Andrew Schiltz (NOUN) (Fall 0:53) 152: Tristan Caulder (NECA) over Josh Braddock ...

Nigerian Tribune

The Guardian
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 01:11:52 -0800

Enugu — The Federal Government has pledged to give every Nigerian irrespective of location, access to quality education just as the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), Awgu Study Centre, Enugu State throws its doors open. Deputy President of ...

spyghana.com

spyghana.com
Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:03:45 -0800

L-R: Vice Chancellor, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), Prof. Vincent Tenebe; Deputy President of the Senate, Sen. Ike Ekweremadu; Member of House of Representatives, Hon. Toby Okechukwu; and the Special Adviser to the DSP on Public ...
 
Cartilage Free Captain (blog)
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 13:00:00 -0800

This past [day of the weekend] Tottenham Hotspur were [past tense verb] by Chrstian Eriksen with his [adjective] winner. This is beginning to become [adjective] for Spurs as the Danish [noun] finds ways to score [adjective] goals, [ing verb] his team ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight