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Not to be confused with Noma neonatorum.
Noma
Noma.png
A man afflicted with noma
Classification and external resources
ICD-9-CM 528.1
MedlinePlus 001342
MeSH D009625

Noma (also referred to as cancrum oris, fusospirochetal gangrene, necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, stomatitis gangrenosa)[1] is a rapidly progressive, polymicrobial, often gangrenous infection of the mouth or genitals.

Causes[edit]

Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia are thought to be key players in the process and interact with one or more other bacterial organisms (such as Borrelia vincentii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Staphylococcus aureus, and nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp).[2]

The reported predisposing factors include:[3][4]

Noma (1836)
  • malnutrition (particularly A-and B-vitamins) or dehydration
  • poor hygiene, particularly oral
  • unsafe drinking water
  • proximity to unkempt livestock
  • recent illness
  • an immunodeficiency disease, including AIDS

Presentation[edit]

The mucous membranes of the mouth develop ulcers, and rapid, painless tissue degeneration ensues, which can degrade tissues of the bones in the face.[5]

In a condition sometimes called noma pudendi, noma can also cause tissue damage to the genitals.

Prognosis[edit]

The disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality[6] and mainly affects children under the age of twelve in the poorest countries of Africa. Children in Asia and some countries of South America are also affected. Most children who get the disease are between the ages of two and six years old.[7] The WHO estimates that 500,000 people are affected, and that 140,000 new cases are reported each year.[8] The mortality rate is approximately 90 percent.[1]

Treatment[edit]

Known in antiquity to such physicians as Hippocrates and Galen, noma was once reported around the world, including Europe and the United States. With improvements in hygiene and nutrition, noma has disappeared from industrialized countries since the 20th century, except during World War II when it was endemic to Auschwitz and Belsen concentration camps.[9] The disease and treatments were studied by Berthold Epstein, a Czech physician and forced-labor prisoner who had recommended the study under Josef Mengele's direction.[9]

The progression of the disease can be halted with the use of antibiotics and improved nutrition; however, its physical effects are permanent and may require oral and maxillofacial surgery or reconstructive plastic surgery to repair. Reconstruction is usually very challenging and should be delayed until full recovery (usually about one year following initial intervention).[10]

Children and other noma survivors in Africa are helped by a few international charitable organizations, such as Facing Africa, a UK registered charity that helps Ethiopian sufferers. There is one dedicated noma hospital in Nigeria, the Noma Children Hospital Sokoto, staffed by resident and visiting medical teams. In other countries, such as Ethiopia, international charities work in collaboration with the local health care system to provide complex reconstructive surgery which can give back facial functions such as eating, speaking and smiling. Teams of volunteer medics coming from abroad are often needed to support the local capacity to address the most severe cases, which can be extremely challenging even for senior maxillofacial surgeons.[11] On 10 June 2010 the work of such volunteer surgeons was featured in a UK BBC Two documentary presented by Ben Fogle, Make Me a New Face: Hope for Africa's Hidden Children.[12][13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Marck, KW (2003). "A history of noma, the "Face of Poverty" (abstract)". Plast Reconstr Surg 111 (5): 1702–7. doi:10.1097/01.PRS.0000055445.84307.3C. PMID 12655218. 
  2. ^ Neville, Brad. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (3rd ed.). Saunders Book Company. pp. 062008. 5.11. 
  3. ^ Enwonwu CO (2006). "Noma--the ulcer of extreme poverty". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (3): 221–4. doi:10.1056/NEJMp058193. PMID 16421362. 
  4. ^ Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA, Phillips RS (2006). "Noma (cancrum oris)". Lancet 368 (9530): 147–56. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69004-1. PMID 16829299. 
  5. ^ "AllRefer Health - Noma (Cancrum Oris, Gangrenous Stomatitis)". Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  6. ^ Barmes DE, Enwonwu CO, Leclercq MH, Bourgeois D, Falkler WA (1997). "The need for action against oro-facial gangrene (noma)". Trop Med Int Health 2: 1111–1114. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.1997.d01-220.x. 
  7. ^ "The European Noma-Network". Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  8. ^ Bourgeois DM, Leclercq MH (1999). "The World Health Organization initiative on noma". Oral Dis 5: 172–174. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.1999.tb00085.x. 
  9. ^ a b Lifton, Robert Jay (1986). The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and Psychological Genocide. Basic Books. p. 361. ISBN 0-465-04905-2. 
  10. ^ Neville, Brad. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 3rd Ed. Saunders Book Company, 062008. 5.11.2
  11. ^ Medical care at Project Harar
  12. ^ "Make Me a New Face: Hope for Africa's Hidden Children". BBC. June 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2016. 
  13. ^ Fogle, Ben (July 6, 2010). "Ben’s Documentary on Noma - BBC2". BenFogle.com. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

The Surgical Treatment of noma by Kurt Boss and Klaas Marck. ISBN 978-90-71736-31-5

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noma_(disease) — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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NOMA

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44 news items

The Punch

The Punch
Sun, 03 Apr 2016 02:05:07 -0700

Noma disease is an oral infection that is sometimes described as the 'face of poverty and malnutrition,' as it affects mostly children in rural communities with high levels of poverty, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene and health care. The spread of the ...

VICE

VICE
Thu, 28 Feb 2013 10:31:47 -0800

Brace yourselves. A lot of readers will probably hate the photos in this article, but they're not meant to make you feel sad and scared, they're meant to make you understand something cool about your stupid face. One day I started thinking about ...

Mail & Guardian Africa

Mail & Guardian Africa
Sat, 04 Jul 2015 05:22:30 -0700

Countries like Laos and some South American nations have been affected. The last cases in Europe were during World War II in Nazi concentration camps. A young girl operated after suffering noma disease, poses for a photo at the health centre of the NGO ...

Newsday

Newsday
Tue, 29 Dec 2015 16:12:58 -0800

Two years after he was attacked by chimpanzees while playing in a forest in his native Congo, 8-year-old Dunia will have reconstructive surgery to his face on Monday, Jan. 4 at Stony Brook University Hospital. Dunia is being hosted by a Hauppauge ...

Auckland stuff.co.nz

Auckland stuff.co.nz
Tue, 13 Oct 2015 16:15:00 -0700

He went expecting to be repairing cleft lips, but ended up seeing some significant burn injuries and patients with noma disease. Noma is a type of gangrene infection that spreads to the skin. The tissues in the lips and cheeks die which can eventually ...

Axis of Logic

Axis of Logic
Tue, 17 Aug 2010 03:50:47 -0700

The following article is based on a report “The tragedy of Noma 1”, prepared by Mr. Jean Ziegler, Vice-President of the UN Human Rights Council Advisory Committee. Unless otherwise noted, the quotes in this article are excerpted from this report by Mr.

Manchester Evening News

Manchester Evening News
Sat, 20 Jun 2015 06:18:10 -0700

A woman who was 'so malnourished she couldn't pick up a cup' revealed how doctors thought she had a nose condition and an eating disorder – before realising she was suffering from a bowel disease. Lorna Haymes, 33, lost so much weight she was 'like a ...
 
Gulf Times
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 13:00:00 -0800

For this, he joined hands with 'Facing Africa', a charity to create awareness and raise money for NOMA disease patients in Western Africa. 0 COMMENTS. There are no comments. LEAVE A COMMENT Your email address will not be published. Required fields ...
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