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Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Нижегородская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: None[1]
Coordinates: 56°29′N 44°32′E / 56.483°N 44.533°E / 56.483; 44.533Coordinates: 56°29′N 44°32′E / 56.483°N 44.533°E / 56.483; 44.533
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Volga[2]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka[3]
Established January 14, 1929 (first),[4]
December 5, 1936 (second)[4]
Administrative center Nizhny Novgorod[5]
Government (as of February 2014)
 - Governor[7] Valery Shantsev[6]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[7]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8]
 - Total 76,900 km2 (29,700 sq mi)
Area rank 40th
Population (2010 Census)[9]
 - Total 3,310,597
 - Rank 10th
 - Density[10] 43.05 /km2 (111.5 /sq mi)
 - Urban 78.9%
 - Rural 21.1%
Population (January 2014 est.)
 - Total 3,281,008[11]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[12]
ISO 3166-2 RU-NIZ
License plates 52, 152
Official languages Russian[13]
Official website

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russian: Нижегоро́дская о́бласть, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), also known in English as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. Population: 3,310,597 (2010 Census).[9] In 1932—1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast.

The oblast is crossed by the Volga River. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area, the biggest city is Arzamas. Near the town of Sarov there is the Serafimo-Diveyevsky Monastery, one of the largest convents in Russia, established by Saint Seraphim of Sarov. The Makaryev Monastery opposite of the town of Lyskovo used to be the location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe. Other historic towns include Gorodets and Balakhna, located on the Volga to the north from Nizhny Novgorod.

Geography[edit]

The oblast covers an area of 76,900 square kilometers (29,700 sq mi), which is approximately equal to the entire area of the Benelux countries. Agricultural land occupies 41% of this area; forests, 48%, lakes and rivers, 2%; and other lands, 9%. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast borders Kostroma Oblast (N), Kirov Oblast (NE), the Mari El Republic (E), the Chuvash Republic (E), the Republic of Mordovia (S), Ryazan Oblast (SW), Vladimir Oblast (W), and Ivanovo Oblast (NW).

Natural resources[edit]

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is not rich in natural resources, which are, mostly, limited to commercial deposits of sand (including titanium-zirconium sands), clay, gypsum, peat, mineral salt, and timber.

Politics[edit]

Nizhny Novgorod House of Legislative Assembly in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, 2007

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorki) CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Sights[edit]

Map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

The unique architectural construction—the 128-meter (420 ft) steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929—is located near the town of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka River.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 3,310,597 (2010 Census);[9] 3,524,028 (2002 Census);[14] 3,714,322 (1989 Census).[15]

According to the 2010 Census,[9] ethnic Russians at 3,109,661 made up 95.1% of the oblast's population. Other ethnic groups included Tatars (44,103, or 1.4%), Mordva (19,138, or 0.6%), Ukrainians (17,657, or 0.5%), and various smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total. Additionally, 42,349 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[16]

  • Births (2011): 36,315 (11.0 per 1000)
  • Deaths (2011): 54,184 (16.4 per 1000)

Deaths decreased by 8.5% in 2011 compared to 2010.[17]

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 38 881 (11.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 52 771 (16.0 per 1000) [18]
  • Total fertility rate:[19]

2009 - 1.43 | 2010 - 1.42 | 2011 - 1.44 | 2012 - 1.55 | 2013 - 1.56(e)

According to the Federal Migration Service, 20,450 foreign citizens were registered in the oblast in 2006. The actual number of foreigners residing in the oblast as of June 1, 2006 was estimated to be over 22,000.[20]

Economy[edit]

A shopping center in Fedyakovo

The oblast ranks seventh in Russia in industrial output, while the processing industry predominates in the local economy. More than 650 industrial companies employ nearly 700 000 people, or 62% of the workforce involved in material production. Industry generates 83% of the regional GDP and accounts for 89% of all material expenditures. The leading sectors are engineering and metalworking, followed by chemical and petrochemical industries and forestry, woodworking, and paper industries. The first three sectors account for about 75% of all industrial production.

The oblast has traditionally been attractive to investors. In 2002, Moody's rating agency confirmed a Caa1rating based on the region's long-term foreign currency liabilities.[21]

Peat Briquette Factory

The region maintains trade relations with many countries and has an export surplus. The largest volume of exports goes to Ukraine, Belarus, Switzerland, Kazakhstan, Belgium, and France. Imports come mainly from Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Austria, Netherlands, China, and the United States.

The stock market infrastructure is quite well developed in Nizhny Novgorod, and the exchange business is expanding. Companies and organizations registered in the region include 1153 joint-stock companies, 63 investment institutions, 34 commercial banks, 35 insurance companies, 1 voucher investment fund, 1 investment fund, 17 nongovernmental pension funds, 2 associations of professional stock market dealers, and 3 exchanges (stock, currency, and agricultural). The oblast is noted for having relatively highly developed market relations. Today, the region needs serious partners interested in equitable, long-term, mutually beneficial partnerships.

There are 650+ industrial companies in the region,[22] most of them engaged in the following sectors:

  • Machine-building and engineering
  • Chemical & petrochemical
  • Fuel & energy
  • Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
  • Construction materials
  • Glass
  • Wood and paper
  • Cloth-making
  • Food & food processing
  • Medical & pharmaceuticals
  • Printing & publishing.
  • Peat extraction.

These key industries are supplemented by other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, trade, services, communications and transport.

Transportation[edit]

Narrow gauge railways in the region:

Religion[edit]

Savior's Church in Balakhna


Circle frame.svg

Religion in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (2012)[23][24]

  Russian Orthodox (69.2%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (2%)
  Other Orthodox (2%)
  Rodnover (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (15%)
  Atheist (10%)
  Other or undeclared (0.8%)

According to a 2012 official survey[23] 69.2% of the population of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 1% to Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism). In addition, 15% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, and 0.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[23]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Article 1.3 of the Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast states that the oblast may have its own anthem; however, as of 2014 no anthem has been adopted.
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ a b "Нижегородская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 января 1992 г.". ГИПП "Нижполиграф", Нижний Новгород, 1993, стр. 5
  5. ^ Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 5.5
  6. ^ Official website of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Valery Pavlinovich Shantsev, Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
  7. ^ a b Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 21
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  11. ^ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2014 года и в среднем за 2013 год (Russian)
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  17. ^ "Росстат. Демография". Gks.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  18. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  19. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  20. ^ Дарья ВЛАДИМИРОВА, "Стройки под особым контролем", Rakurs, 30 June 2006
  21. ^ http://russiatrek.org/r_nnovgorod.shtml
  22. ^ "Nizhny Novgorod News Network - NN.NN.RU". Government.nnov.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  23. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  24. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Нижегородской области. №219-З 30 декабря 2005 г. «Нижегородская область. Устав», в ред. Закона №19-З от 3 марта 2014 г. «О поправке к статье 41 Устава Нижегородской области». Вступил в силу 28 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Правовая среда" (приложение к газете "Нижегородские новости"), №3(676), 18 января 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. #219-Z December 30, 2005 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Charter, as amended by the Law #19-Z of March 3, 2014 On Amending Article 41 of the Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Effective as of January 28, 2006.).

External links[edit]

Shukhov towers built in Nizhny Novgorod suburbs near Dzerzhinsk in 1927–1929

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