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Nelly Sachs
Nelly Sachs 1966.jpg
Nelly Sachs, 1966
Born Leonie Sachs
(1891-12-10)10 December 1891
Schöneberg, Germany
Died 12 May 1970(1970-05-12) (aged 78)
Stockholm, Sweden
Occupation Poet, Playwright
Nationality German
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Literature

Nelly Sachs, 1910

Nelly Sachs (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970) was a Jewish German poet and playwright whose experiences resulting from the rise of the Nazis in World War II Europe transformed her into a poignant spokeswoman for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. Her best-known play is Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels (1950); other works include the poems "Zeichen im Sand" (1962), "Verzauberung" (1970), and the collections of poetry In den Wohnungen des Todes (1947), Flucht und Verwandlung (1959), Fahrt ins Staublose (1961), and Suche nach Lebenden (1971).

Life and career[edit]

Born Leonie Sachs in the Schöneberg district of Berlin, Germany in 1891, to a wealthy manufacturer,[1] she was educated at home because of frail health. She showed early signs of talent as a dancer, but her protective parents did not encourage her to pursue a profession. She grew up as a very sheltered, introverted young woman and never married. She pursued an extensive correspondence with, and was friends with, Selma Lagerlöf and Hilde Domin. As the Nazis took power, she became increasingly terrified, at one point losing the ability to speak, as she would remember in verse: "When the great terror came/I fell dumb." Sachs fled with her aged mother to Sweden in 1940. It was her friendship with Lagerlöf that saved their lives: shortly before her own death Lagerlöf intervened with the Swedish royal family to secure their release from Germany. Sachs and her mother escaped on the last flight from Nazi Germany to Sweden, a week before Sachs was scheduled to report to a concentration camp.

Living in a tiny two-room apartment in Stockholm, Sachs cared alone for her mother for many years, and supported their existence by translations between Swedish and German. After her mother's death, Sachs suffered several nervous breakdowns characterized by hallucinations, paranoia, and delusions of persecution by Nazis, and she spent a number of years in a mental institution. She continued to write even while hospitalized. She eventually recovered sufficiently to live on her own, though her mental health would always be fragile. Her worst breakdown was ostensibly precipitated by hearing German speech during a trip to Switzerland to accept a literary prize. However, she maintained a forgiving attitude toward a younger generation of Germans, and corresponded with many German-speaking writers of the postwar period, including Hans Magnus Enzensberger and Ingeborg Bachmann.

In the context of the Shoah, her deep friendship with "brother" poet Paul Celan is often noted today. Their bond was described in one of Celan's most famous poems, "Zürich, Zum Storchen" ("Zürich, The Stork Inn").[2] Sachs and Celan shared their concern with the Holocaust and the fate of the Jews throughout history, their interest in Jewish and Christian mysticism, and their literary models; their imagery was often remarkably similar though developed independently. Their friendship had the unfortunate side effect of intensifying each other's paranoia. Celan also suffered from fears of persecution (he blamed Claire Goll's accusations of plagiarism on antisemitism) and frustration over the reception of his work. When Sachs met Celan she was embroiled in a long dispute with Finnish-Jewish composer Moses Pergament over his musical adaptation of her stage play Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels. Her relationship to Pergament became entangled with her paranoia, with Sachs repeatedly accusing Pergament of not believing her delusions of persecution. In Celan, she found someone who appeared to believe her. Sachs was first institutionalized shortly after her only visit to Celan.

Sachs' poetry is intensely lyrical and reflects some influence by German Romanticism, especially in her early work. The poetry she wrote as a young woman in Berlin is more inspired by Christianity than Judaism and makes use of traditional Romantic imagery and themes. Much of it concerns an unhappy love affair Sachs suffered in her teens, with a non-Jewish man who would eventually be killed in a concentration camp. After Sachs learned of her only love interest's death, she bound up his fate with that of her people and wrote many love lyrics ending not only in the beloved's death, but in the catastrophe of the Holocaust. Sachs herself mourns no longer as a jilted lover but as a personification of the Jewish people in their vexed relationship to history and God. Sachs' fusion of grief with subtly romantic elements is in keeping with the imagery of the kabbalah, where the Shekhinah represents God's presence on earth and mourns for the separation of God from His people in their suffering. Thus Sachs' Romanticism allowed her to develop self-consciously from a German to a Jewish writer, with a corresponding change in her language: still flowery and conventional in some of her first poetry on the Holocaust, it becomes ever more compressed and surreal, returning to a series of the same images and tropes (dust, stars, breath, stones and jewels, blood, dancers, fish suffering out of water, madness, and the ever-frustrated love) in ways that are sometimes comprehensible only to her readers, but always moving and disturbing. Though Sachs does not resemble many authors, she appears to have been influenced by Gertrud Kolmar and Else Lasker-Schüler in addition to Paul Celan.

In 1961 she became the inaugural winner of the Nelly Sachs Prize, a literary prize awarded biennially by the German city of Dortmund, and named in her honour. When, with Shmuel Yosef Agnon, she was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature, she observed that Agnon represented Israel whereas "I represent the tragedy of the Jewish people."

Following her death from intestinal cancer in 1970, Nelly Sachs was interred in the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. Her possessions were donated to the National Library of Sweden.[3]

A memorial plaque commemorates her birthplace, Maaßenstraße 12, in Schöneberg, Berlin; where there is also a park, in Dennewitzstraße, named after her. A park on the island of Kungsholmen in Stockholm also bears her name.


See also[edit]



Further reading[edit]

In English

  • Bower, Kathrin M. Ethics and remembrance in the poetry of Nelly Sachs and Rose Ausländer. Camden House, 2000. ISBN 1-57113-191-4
  • Barbara Wiedemann (ed.) Paul Celan, Nelly Sachs: Correspondence, trans. Christopher Clark. Sheep Meadow, 1998. ISBN 1-878818-71-6

In German

  • Ruth Dinesen (2005), Sachs, Nelly, Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German) (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot) 22: 336–337 
  • Walter A. Berendsohn: Nelly Sachs: Einführung in das Werk der Dichterin jüdischen Schicksals. Agora, Darmstadt 1974, ISBN 3-87008-046-9.
  • Gudrun Dähnert: Wie Nelly Sachs 1940 aus Deutschland entkam. Mit einem Brief an Ruth Mövius. In: Sinn und Form 2/2009, pp. 226–257
  • Ruth Dinesen: Nelly Sachs. Eine Biographie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1992, ISBN 3-518-40426-1
  • Gabriele Fritsch-Vivié: Nelly Sachs. Monographie. Rowohlt, Reinbek, 3rd edition, 2001, ISBN 3-499-50496-0.
  • Petra Oelker: Und doch, am Ende steht wieder das Licht, wenn auch noch so fern. In: Charlotte Kerner: Nicht nur Madame Curie. Frauen, die den Nobelpreis bekamen. Beltz, Weinheim 1999, ISBN 3-407-80862-3.
  • Gerald Sommerer: Aber dies ist nichts für Deutschland, das weiß und fühle ich. Nelly Sachs – Untersuchungen zu ihrem szenischen Werk. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8260-3860-0.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelly_Sachs — Please support Wikipedia.
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97 news items

Thu, 09 Oct 2014 04:26:13 -0700

Nelly Sachs Sweden For her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov USSR for the artistic ...
Daily News & Analysis
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 03:17:43 -0700

8) The Nobel Prize in Literature has been shared between two individuals on four occasions – in 1904 between Frédéric Mistral and José Echegaray, in 1917 between Karl Gjellerup and Henrik Pontoppidan, in 1966 between Shmuel Agnon and Nelly Sachs ...

Nordic Style Magazine

Nordic Style Magazine
Wed, 15 Oct 2014 05:06:18 -0700

The recognition did not end there as P.O.Enquist went on to receive the Selma Lagerlof Prize in 1977, The Dobloug Prize in 1988, The Nelly Sachs Prize in 2003 and in 2010 he had the honour of being presented with the Swedish Academy's Nordic Prize, ...
Jüdische Allgemeine
Sat, 11 Oct 2014 15:07:19 -0700

Ich arbeite fast immer im Frühdienst. Um fünf Uhr klingelt mein Wecker, und um sechs fahre ich mit dem Rad los. Ich bin Stationsleiter im Nelly-Sachs-Haus, dem Elternheim der Jüdischen Gemeinde Düsseldorf. Dort bin ich für einen Bereich mit 26 ...

NewsWalk.info (Pressemitteilung)

NewsWalk.info (Pressemitteilung)
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:00:00 -0700

... Empfang bei Nikita Chruschtschow ist darin die Rede, dem der frischgebackene Büchnerpreisträger (er war damals 33 Jahre jung) als Mitglied einer Schriftstellerdelegation beiwohnte, von seiner Freundschaft mit Hans Werner Henze oder Nelly Sachs.
Dagens Nyheter
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 06:18:10 -0700

Beckomberga var mentalsjukhus mellan 1932 och 1995. En nutidshistoria. I somras skrev Karin Johannisson två artiklar, som visade två skilda slag av Beckomberga: stället där Sigrid Hjertén lobotomerades. Men detta var också stället där Nelly Sachs kände ...

Jüdische Allgemeine

Jüdische Allgemeine
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 14:56:15 -0700

Denn: »Das richtige Fleischprogramm können wir erst am Donnerstag bekommen, aber Nelly Sachs braucht unbedingt morgen was und die Budge-Stiftung auch, und die Mensa braucht 50 Kilogramm Hackfleisch und so was.« Demnach wurden also nicht ...

Freitag - Das Meinungsmedium

Freitag - Das Meinungsmedium
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 05:45:00 -0700

In Nelly Sachs Gedicht Hiob heißt es: "Und wenn diese meine Haut zerschlagen sein wird / so werde ich ohne mein Fleisch Gott schauen." Für Nazaret kann es diesen Gott nicht mehr geben. Oder [wieder Nelly Sachs:] "Zu den Würmern und Fischen ist deine ...

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