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Nelly Sachs
Nelly Sachs 1966.jpg
Nelly Sachs, 1966
Born Leonie Sachs
(1891-12-10)10 December 1891
Schöneberg, Germany
Died 12 May 1970(1970-05-12) (aged 78)
Stockholm, Sweden
Occupation Poet, Playwright
Nationality German
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Literature

Nelly Sachs, 1910

Nelly Sachs (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970) was a Jewish German poet and playwright whose experiences resulting from the rise of the Nazis in World War II Europe transformed her into a poignant spokeswoman for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. Her best-known play is Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels (1950); other works include the poems "Zeichen im Sand" (1962), "Verzauberung" (1970), and the collections of poetry In den Wohnungen des Todes (1947), Flucht und Verwandlung (1959), Fahrt ins Staublose (1961), and Suche nach Lebenden (1971).

Life and career[edit]

Born Leonie Sachs in the Schöneberg district of Berlin, Germany in 1891, to a wealthy manufacturer,[1] she was educated at home because of frail health. She showed early signs of talent as a dancer, but her protective parents did not encourage her to pursue a profession. She grew up as a very sheltered, introverted young woman and never married. She pursued an extensive correspondence with, and was friends with, Selma Lagerlöf and Hilde Domin. As the Nazis took power, she became increasingly terrified, at one point losing the ability to speak, as she would remember in verse: "When the great terror came/I fell dumb." Sachs fled with her aged mother to Sweden in 1940. It was her friendship with Lagerlöf that saved their lives: shortly before her own death Lagerlöf intervened with the Swedish royal family to secure their release from Germany. Sachs and her mother escaped on the last flight from Nazi Germany to Sweden, a week before Sachs was scheduled to report to a concentration camp.

Living in a tiny two-room apartment in Stockholm, Sachs cared alone for her mother for many years, and supported their existence by translations between Swedish and German. After her mother's death, Sachs suffered several nervous breakdowns characterized by hallucinations, paranoia, and delusions of persecution by Nazis, and she spent a number of years in a mental institution. She continued to write even while hospitalized. She eventually recovered sufficiently to live on her own, though her mental health would always be fragile. Her worst breakdown was ostensibly precipitated by hearing German speech during a trip to Switzerland to accept a literary prize. However, she maintained a forgiving attitude toward a younger generation of Germans, and corresponded with many German-speaking writers of the postwar period, including Hans Magnus Enzensberger and Ingeborg Bachmann.

In the context of the Shoah, her deep friendship with "brother" poet Paul Celan is often noted today. Their bond was described in one of Celan's most famous poems, "Zürich, Zum Storchen" ("Zürich, The Stork Inn").[2] Sachs and Celan shared their concern with the Holocaust and the fate of the Jews throughout history, their interest in Jewish and Christian mysticism, and their literary models; their imagery was often remarkably similar though developed independently. Their friendship had the unfortunate side effect of intensifying each other's paranoia. Celan also suffered from fears of persecution (he blamed Claire Goll's accusations of plagiarism on antisemitism) and frustration over the reception of his work. When Sachs met Celan she was embroiled in a long dispute with Finnish-Jewish composer Moses Pergament over his musical adaptation of her stage play Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels. Her relationship to Pergament became entangled with her paranoia, with Sachs repeatedly accusing Pergament of not believing her delusions of persecution. In Celan, she found someone who appeared to believe her. Sachs was first institutionalized shortly after her only visit to Celan.

Sachs' poetry is intensely lyrical and reflects some influence by German Romanticism, especially in her early work. The poetry she wrote as a young woman in Berlin is more inspired by Christianity than Judaism and makes use of traditional Romantic imagery and themes. Much of it concerns an unhappy love affair Sachs suffered in her teens, with a non-Jewish man who would eventually be killed in a concentration camp. After Sachs learned of her only love interest's death, she bound up his fate with that of her people and wrote many love lyrics ending not only in the beloved's death, but in the catastrophe of the Holocaust. Sachs herself mourns no longer as a jilted lover but as a personification of the Jewish people in their vexed relationship to history and God. Sachs' fusion of grief with subtly romantic elements is in keeping with the imagery of the kabbalah, where the Shekhinah represents God's presence on earth and mourns for the separation of God from His people in their suffering. Thus Sachs' Romanticism allowed her to develop self-consciously from a German to a Jewish writer, with a corresponding change in her language: still flowery and conventional in some of her first poetry on the Holocaust, it becomes ever more compressed and surreal, returning to a series of the same images and tropes (dust, stars, breath, stones and jewels, blood, dancers, fish suffering out of water, madness, and the ever-frustrated love) in ways that are sometimes comprehensible only to her readers, but always moving and disturbing. Though Sachs does not resemble many authors, she appears to have been influenced by Gertrud Kolmar and Else Lasker-Schüler in addition to Paul Celan.

In 1961 she became the inaugural winner of the Nelly Sachs Prize, a literary prize awarded biennially by the German city of Dortmund, and named in her honour. When, with Shmuel Yosef Agnon, she was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature, she observed that Agnon represented Israel whereas "I represent the tragedy of the Jewish people."

Following her death from intestinal cancer in 1970, Nelly Sachs was interred in the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. Her possessions were donated to the National Library of Sweden.[3]

A memorial plaque commemorates her birthplace, Maaßenstraße 12, in Schöneberg, Berlin; where there is also a park, in Dennewitzstraße, named after her. A park on the island of Kungsholmen in Stockholm also bears her name.


See also[edit]



Further reading[edit]

In English

  • Bower, Kathrin M. Ethics and remembrance in the poetry of Nelly Sachs and Rose Ausländer. Camden House, 2000. ISBN 1-57113-191-4
  • Barbara Wiedemann (ed.) Paul Celan, Nelly Sachs: Correspondence, trans. Christopher Clark. Sheep Meadow, 1998. ISBN 1-878818-71-6

In German

  • Ruth Dinesen (2005), "Sachs, Nelly", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German) (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot) 22: 336–337 
  • Walter A. Berendsohn: Nelly Sachs: Einführung in das Werk der Dichterin jüdischen Schicksals. Agora, Darmstadt 1974, ISBN 3-87008-046-9.
  • Gudrun Dähnert: Wie Nelly Sachs 1940 aus Deutschland entkam. Mit einem Brief an Ruth Mövius. In: Sinn und Form 2/2009, pp. 226–257
  • Ruth Dinesen: Nelly Sachs. Eine Biographie. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1992, ISBN 3-518-40426-1
  • Gabriele Fritsch-Vivié: Nelly Sachs. Monographie. Rowohlt, Reinbek, 3rd edition, 2001, ISBN 3-499-50496-0.
  • Petra Oelker: Und doch, am Ende steht wieder das Licht, wenn auch noch so fern. In: Charlotte Kerner: Nicht nur Madame Curie. Frauen, die den Nobelpreis bekamen. Beltz, Weinheim 1999, ISBN 3-407-80862-3.
  • Gerald Sommerer: Aber dies ist nichts für Deutschland, das weiß und fühle ich. Nelly Sachs – Untersuchungen zu ihrem szenischen Werk. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8260-3860-0.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelly_Sachs — Please support Wikipedia.
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105 news items

news aktuell (Pressemitteilung)
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 04:15:00 -0700

Bocholt (ots) - (fr) In der Zeit von Samstag, 14.30 Uhr, bis Sonntag, 13.00 Uhr, wurde auf dem Nelly-Sachs-Weg ein weißer Toyota Aygo angefahren und an der hinteren Stoßstange beschädigt. Trotz des angerichteten Schadens in einer Höhe von ca.
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 21:52:30 -0700

Allt från krigstraumatiserade poeter till dementa, syfilissjuka, narkomaner och schizofrena. Här skrev Nelly Sachs några av sina bästa dikter och här avled Sigrid Hjertén i sviterna efter en misslyckad lobotomering. – Den yngste patienten var bara fem ...
news aktuell (Pressemitteilung)
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 01:37:30 -0700

Willich-Wekeln (ots) - In Willich-Wekeln traten in der Nacht von Montag zu Dienstag mehrmals Navidiebe in Erscheinung. In der Zeit von 18:15 Uhr bis 08:00 Uhr brachen sie auf dem Langenfelsweg einen schwarzen VW Touran, auf dem Nelly-Sachs-Weg ...

Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger

Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 04:15:00 -0700

Die Arbeiten umfassen den Endausbau der Nelly-Sachs- und der Anne-Frank-Straße. Die Nelly-Sachs-Straße wird im südlichen Abschnitt in Pflasterbauweise, im nördlichen Teil in Asphaltbauweise als Verkehrsmischfläche gebaut. Hierbei handelt es sich um ...
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 08:33:45 -0700

În 2010 a primit distincţia „Commandeur dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres“ din partea guvernului francez, iar în 2011, prestigiosul premiu literar Nelly Sachs. În 2012, Uniunea Scriitorilor din România i-a decernat Premiul Naţional pentru Literatură.

Badische Zeitung

Badische Zeitung
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 13:03:14 -0700

So wie Fabian Braun (27) und 46 andere Menschen mit geistigen und körperlichen Behinderungen in fast jedem Alter, die in dem dreigeschossigen Neubau in der Nelly-Sachs-Straße 3 leben. Morgens braucht André Langen Ruhe. Er steht früh auf, um 6.30 ...

Badische Zeitung

Badische Zeitung
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 12:52:30 -0700

1965 kommt Ausländer nach Düsseldorf und zieht mit 71 Jahren ins Nelly-Sachs-Haus ein, das Elternheim der jüdischen Gemeinde Düsseldorf. Sie entwickelt dort eine unglaubliche Schaffenskraft und publiziert viel. Ab 1977 zieht sie sich vollständig von ...


Thu, 14 Aug 2014 06:31:37 -0700

Zwei Busse der Feuerwehr werden Betroffene in die Nelly-Sachs-Schule bringen, wo sie von Mitarbeitern des ASB betreut und vom THW versorgt werden. Der Shuttlebus hält an folgenden Straßenkreuzungen: Kirschgartenweg/Volckmarstraße, Horchheimer ...

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