digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Necklacing is the practice of summary execution and torture carried out by forcing a rubber tire, filled with petrol, around a victim's chest and arms, and setting it on fire. The victim may take up to 20 minutes to die, suffering severe burns in the process.

In South Africa[edit]

The practice appears to have begun in the Cape area of South Africa in the mid-1980s. One incident sometimes cited as the first recorded instance of necklacing took place in Uitenhage on 23 March 1985 when a group of people killed Benjamin Kinikini, a local councillor who was accused of having links to a vigilante group. Kinikini and members of his family were dragged out of their house, stabbed to death, and their bodies set on fire.[1] Two of those judged to be the perpetrators, Wellington Mielies, 26, and Moses Jantjies, 23, were hanged on 1 September 1987.[2] But in this case the victims were killed by stabbing, and not by burning tyres.

Something similar seems to have happened in the killing of Matthew Goniwe and his fellow anti-apartheid activists by the police in July 1985.[3]

Necklacing "sentences" were sometimes handed down against alleged criminals by "people's courts" established in black townships as a means of enforcing their own judicial system. Necklacing was also used by the black community to punish its members who were perceived as collaborators with the apartheid government. These included black policemen, town councilors and others, as well as their relatives and associates. The practice was often carried out in the name of the African National Congress, although the ANC executive body condemned it.[4][5] In 1986 Winnie Mandela, then-wife of the imprisoned Nelson Mandela, stated "With our boxes of matches and our necklaces we shall liberate this country" which was widely seen as an implicit endorsement of necklacing,[6] which at the time caused the ANC to distance itself from her,[7] although she later took on a number of official positions within the party.[7] The number of deaths per month in South Africa related to political unrest as a whole from 1992 through 1995 ranged from 54 to 605 and averaged 244.[8] These figures are inclusive of massacres as well as deaths not attributed to necklacing.

The first victim of necklacing, according to the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, was a young girl, Maki Skosana, in July 1985.[9]

Photojournalist Kevin Carter was the first to photograph a public execution by necklacing in South Africa in the mid-1980s. He later spoke of the images

He went on to say:

Author Lynda Schuster writes,

Archbishop Desmond Tutu once famously saved a near victim of necklacing when he rushed into a large gathered crowd and threw his arms around a man accused of being a police informant, who was about to be killed. Tutu's actions, which were caught on film,[13] caused the crowd to release the man.

Necklacing returned to South Africa in 2008 when black South Africans turned against black immigrants from the rest of Africa. The influx of immigrants led to violence, looting, and murder in some of South Africa’s poorest areas; this violence included necklace lynching.[14] This raised concerns that the latent practice might return once more as a form of public protest in the wake of service delivery failures by the ruling ANC.[15]

Some commentators have noted that the practice of necklacing served to escalate the levels of violence during the township wars of the 1980s and early 1990s as security force members became brutalized and afraid that they might fall victim to the practice.[16]

In other countries[edit]

This practice of lynching is found in the Caribbean country of Haiti. It was prominently used against supporters of Jean-Claude Duvalier's dictatorship at the beginning of the democratic transition, from 1986 to 1990.[citation needed] There were about 45 or so at the close of 2010, including about 40 in Grand'Anse Department.[17]

In the early 1990s, university students in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire were plagued by burglars stealing from their dormitories. The students took matters into their own hands by capturing the alleged thieves, and then executed them by placing tyres around their necks and setting the tyres on fire. Ivorian police, powerless to stop these necklacings, could do nothing but stand by and watch.[18]

In 2006, at least one person died in Nigeria by necklacing in the deadly Muslim protests over satirical cartoon drawings of Muhammad.[19]

The practice is widely used by drug dealers in Brazil, where it's called micro-ondas[20][21] (allusion to the microwave oven).[22] Journalist Tim Lopes was a notable victim.

Necklacing was also widely used in the armed insurrection led by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in Sri Lanka. A graphic description of one such necklacing appears in the book The Island of Blood by journalist Anita Pratap.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parker, Peter, In the Shadow of Sharpeville: Apartheid and Criminal Justice, p. 263, ISBN 9780814766590 
  2. ^ Parks, Michael (1987-09-02), "S. Africa Hangs 2 Blacks for Murder", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 2013-12-14 
  3. ^ Dixon, Norm (1993), "South African cops invented 'necklace' murders", Green Left Weekly, retrieved 2013-12-14 
  4. ^ "The Black Struggle for Political Power: Major Forces in the Conflict". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  5. ^ Fihlani, Pumza (2011-10-12). "Is necklacing returning to South Africa?". BBC News. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  6. ^ David Beresford (27 January 1989). "Row over 'mother of the nation' Winnie Mandela". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  7. ^ a b . AfricaFiles http://www.africafiles.org/article.asp?ID=3791. Retrieved 2013-12-07.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ Elirea Bornman, René van Eeden, Marie Wentzel (1998). Violence in South Africa: A Variety of Perspectives. HSRC Publishers. p. 19. ISBN 0796918589. 
  9. ^ "Truth And Reconciliation Commission". Doj.gov.za. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  10. ^ "Truth Commission Looks At First "Necklace" Murder". SAPA. 4 February 1997. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  11. ^ Tim Porter (18 February 2003). "Covering War in a Free Society". Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  12. ^ Lynda Schuster (2004). A Burning Hunger: One Family's Struggle Against Apartheid. Ohio University Press. p. 453. ISBN 9780821416525. 
  13. ^ Cowell, Alan (1985-07-11). "Bishop Tutu Saves Man From Crowd". The New York Times. 
  14. ^ Violence erupts in South-Africa, Blackademics, 2008
  15. ^ http://www.environment.co.za/documents/water/KeynoteAddressCSIR2008.pdf
  16. ^ Turton, A.R. 2010. Shaking Hands with Billy. Durban: Just Done Publications. http://www.shakinghandswithbilly.com
  17. ^ "Protests over Haiti's cholera outbreak turn violent". CNN. 15 November 2010. 
  18. ^ Kaplan, Robert D. (1996). The Ends of the Earth: A Journey to the Frontiers of Anarchy. New York: Random House. p. 14. ISBN 0-679-75123-8. 
  19. ^ Musa, 'Njadvara (19 February 2006). "Muslims' rage over cartoons hits Nigeria". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  20. ^ Fábio Grellet (24 May 2010). "Autorizado a visitar família, condenado por morte de Tim Lopes foge da prisão" (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Folha de S. Paulo. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  21. ^ O Globo (18 September 2008). "Polícia encontra 4 corpos que seriam de traficantes queimados com pneus" (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Federação Nacional dos Policiais Federais. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  22. ^ "micro-ondas". WordReference. Retrieved 2013-07-06. .

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necklacing — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1114 videos foundNext > 

ANC violence in South Africa - Adult content! Not for sensitive viewers!

This was taken around 80's or 90's by a Dutch film crew. I was a 'white' soldier which was part of 80 soldiers sent into dangerous places to keep peace just ...

necklace thief in Lagos Nigeria

Don't imitate what these people are doing because it is very wrong and a sin in the sight of God.

South Africans Execute INNOCENT KUJIRICHITA for being Zimbabwean

WATCHING THE MURDER OF AN INNOCENT MAN — POWERFUL TALE OF MOB VIOLENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA. CONCERNS DEATH OF AN INNOCENT ZIMBABWEAN, FARAI KUJIRICHITA, AND ...

You do not want a Winnie Mandela necklace.

See more at: http://www.wretched.tv.

Deyah Boo - Necklacing

horrorcore bitches pa'tu coxis.

Nelson Mandela Freedom Fighter or Terrorist ?

Nelson Mandela Madiba did not go to prison for throwing stones in protest.Nelson the ANC terrorist.

Necklacing Nancy - A Tribute to Nelson Mandela

RAMZPAUL is proud to offer a commemorative doll, Necklacing Nancy, as a tribute to the memory of Nelson Mandela. Below is one of the videos of one of Mandela...

Mob Justice In South Africa

More http://the-salfordian.com/mob-justice-in-south-africa/

DIY: Straight Knot Necklace.

This was my first go at making the necklace and I do hope you have a go too! Thumbs up for more DIY Videos! :D Tools Jersey Fabric (0.25m x 0.75m) Chains (Wi...

Necklacing

Burning of Necklacing Sculpture. 12' tall. Steel, brass, aluminum, and tire. Took 20 minutes to burn which is about how long it can take a person to die from...

1114 videos foundNext > 

620 news items

Independent Online

Independent Online
Fri, 28 Nov 2014 00:26:15 -0800

Cape Town -. The bail of four people convicted of murder – among them an activist – for the necklacing of an alleged TV thief was reinstated on Thursday as the Western Cape High Court set in motion a process of restorative justice. This process is ...

News24

News24
Thu, 02 Oct 2014 00:33:06 -0700

Cape Town - On Wednesday, Judge Robert Henney found Social Justice Coalition activist Angy Peter and her co-accused guilty of premeditated murder. Their bail was withdrawn and they will remain in police custody until sentencing on 24 November, unless ...

Citizen

Citizen
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 02:45:00 -0700

Hello Kitty dictionary teaches kids about necklacing. Citizen Reporter. The 'offensive' Hello Kitty Dictionary has been pulled from sale. When buying a Hello Kitty dictionary for your little girl the last thing you'd expect to find is a definition for ...
 
WND.com
Mon, 09 Dec 2013 17:02:30 -0800

Necklacing 'sentences' were sometimes handed down against alleged criminals by 'people's courts' established in black townships as a means of enforcing their own judicial system. Necklacing was also used by the black community to punish members of ...

Independent Online

Independent Online
Sun, 22 Jun 2014 06:52:30 -0700

Cape Town - Social Justice Coalition (SJC) member Dustin Kramer has no idea who sent him a threatening SMS on Friday, but is taking no chances and has reported it to both police and the Western Cape High Court. Kramer is the deputy general secretary ...

Independent Online

Independent Online
Tue, 10 Jun 2014 02:34:49 -0700

Cape Town - The four people accused of necklacing a man in Khayelitsha two years ago, have applied to the Western Cape High Court to have the charges against them dropped. Defence lawyers for Social Justice Coalition activist Angy Peter, her husband, ...

Independent Online

Independent Online
Wed, 21 May 2014 02:33:45 -0700

Cape Town - The burns on a man necklaced allegedly at the hands of a well-known activist and three others were so severe that it would have been a miracle if he was not in shock after the attack. This was the testimony of forensic expert David Klatzow ...
 
Scoop.co.nz (press release)
Sun, 30 Nov 2014 16:00:00 -0800

Let's be clear, the beheadings and slaughtering of fellow humans by ISIS barbarians are evil - Just as evil as the “necklacing” of alleged informers during the Apartheid liberation struggle. There should be no respite in bringing these evil ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight