digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a state.[1] Nationality normally confers some protection of the person by the state, and some obligations on the person towards the state. What these rights and duties are vary from country to country.[2] It differs technically and legally from citizenship, although in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state and all citizens are nationals of the state.[1]

Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election.

The noun national can include both citizens and non-citizens. By custom and international conventions, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are.[3] Such determinations are part of nationality law. In some cases, determinations of nationality are also governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality.

In English, the same word is used in the sense of an ethnic group (a group of people who share a common ethnic identity, language, culture, descent, history, and so forth). This meaning of nationality is not defined by political borders or passport ownership and includes nations that lack an independent state (such as the Scots, Welsh, English, Basques, Kurds, Tamils, Hmong, Inuit and Māori).

Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status which have ceded some power to a larger government. Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."

Nationality versus ethnicity[edit]

Nationality is sometimes used simply as an alternate word for ethnicity, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationality are identical.[4] In some countries, the cognate word for nationality in local language may be understood as a synonym of ethnicity. To determine citizenship, the nations in these areas of the world follow the principle of jus sanguinis rather than jus soli. These countries determine the person's nationality by his ethnicity, rather than his citizenship.

In several areas of the world, the term nationality can be defined based on ethnicity, as well as cultural and family-based self-determination rather than on relations with a state or current government. For example, there are people who would say that they are Kurds, i.e., of Kurdish nationality, even though no such Kurdish sovereign state exists at least at this time in history. In the context of former Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, nationality is often used as translation of the Russian nacional'nost' and Serbo-Croatian narodnost terms used for ethnic groups and local affiliations within those (former) states.

Even today the Russian Federation, as an example, consists of various people whose nationality is other than Russian, but who are considered to be Russian subjects and comply with the laws of the federation. Similarly, the term "nationalities of China" refers to cultural groups in China. Spain is one nation, made out by nationalities, which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation. Spanish law recognises the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Galicia and the Basque Country as "nationalities" (nacionalidades).[5]

Nationality versus citizenship[edit]

In a number of countries, nationality is legally a distinct concept from citizenship, or nationality is a necessary but not sufficient condition to exercise full political rights within a state or other polity.[1] Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state, and nationality is a matter of international dealings.[6]

United States nationality law defines some persons born in U.S. outlying possessions as U.S. nationals but not citizens. British nationality law defines six classes of British national, among which "British citizen" is one class (and the only one having the right of abode in the United Kingdom). Similarly, in the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, the status of national without household registration applies to people who have Republic of China nationality, but do not have an automatic entitlement to enter or reside in the Taiwan Area, and do not qualify for civic rights and duties there. Under the nationality laws of Mexico, Colombia, and some other Latin American countries, nationals do not become citizens until they turn 18.

Nationality versus national identity[edit]

National identity is a person's subjective sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. A person may be a national of a state, in the sense of having a formal legal relationship with it, without subjectively or emotionally feeling a part of that state. Conversely, a person may feel that he belongs to one state without having any legal relationship to it. For example, children who were brought to the U.S. illegally when quite young and grow up there in ignorance of their immigration status often have a national identity of feeling American, despite legally being nationals of a different country.

Dual nationality[edit]

Dual nationality is when a single person has a formal relationship with two separate, sovereign states.[6] This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country claims all offspring of the mother's as their own nationals, but the father's country claims all offspring of the father's.

Nationality, with its historical origins in allegiance to a sovereign monarch, was seen originally as a permanent, inherent, unchangeable condition, and later, when a change of allegiance was permitted, as a strictly exclusive relationship, so that becoming a national of one state required rejecting the previous state.[6]

Dual nationality was considered a problem that caused conflict between states and sometimes imposed mutually exclusive requirements on affected people, such as simultaneously serving in two countries' military forces. Through the middle of the 20th century, many international agreements were focused on reducing the possibility of dual nationality. Since then, many accords recognizing and regulating dual nationality have been formed.[6]

Statelessness[edit]

Statelessness is an international problem in which an individual has no formal or protective relationship with any state. This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country rejects all offspring of mothers married to foreign fathers, but the father's country rejects all offspring born to foreign mothers. Although this person may have an emotional national identity, he or she may not legally be the national of any state.

International law[edit]

Nottebohm (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala) is a 1955 case that is cited for its definitions of nationality.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Vonk, Olivier (March 19, 2012). Dual Nationality in the European Union: A Study on Changing Norms in Public and Private International Law and in the Municipal Laws of Four EU Member States. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 19–20. ISBN 90-04-22720-2. 
  2. ^ Weis, Paul. Nationality and Statelessness in International Law. BRILL; 1979 [cited 19 August 2012]. ISBN 9789028603295. p. 29–61.
  3. ^ Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws. The Hague, 12 April 1930. Full text. Article 1, "It is for each State to determine under its own law who are its nationals...".
  4. ^ Oommen, T. K. (1997). Citizenship, nationality, and ethnicity: reconciling competing identities. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-7456-1620-8. 
  5. ^ Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2012. Spain. Steven L. Denver (ed.), Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues, Vol. 3. Armonk, NY: M .E. Sharpe, pp. 674-675.
  6. ^ a b c d Turner, Bryan S; Isin, Engin F. Handbook of Citizenship Studies. SAGE; 2003-01-29. ISBN 9780761968580. p. 278–279.
  7. ^ Boll, Alfred Michael. Multiple Nationality And International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 2007 [cited 20 August 2012]. ISBN 9789004148383. p. 13.
  • White, Philip L. (2006). "Globalization and the Mythology of the Nation State," In A.G.Hopkins, ed. Global History: Interactions Between the Universal and the Local Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 257–284. [1]

Further reading[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationality — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
137180 videos foundNext > 

Moorish Civics Basics Nationality & Birthright feat. Taj Tariq Bey Part 1 of 2

Video filmed in a class for Moors teaching Birthright and Nationality and the particulars of both. Moorish Civic is a main focus of the Moorish Science Templ...

BLACK STATUS VS. MOORISH AMERICAN NATIONALITY & THE ISSUE OF REPARATIONS

www.moorishsciencetemple.org This video is designed to tap into the psyche of those whom call themselves Black people and/or African American, Negro and Colo...

Taj Tarik Bey-Nationality is The Key to Freedom but "BLACK" people can Never be a Nation

for full dvd over four hours long go to www.undergroundrailroadnet.com.

Minister Enqi Nationality vs Genetics... Is Nutrition the new Religion?

www.theamberinstitute.com www.chaselight.com.

NATIONALITY - Mongstar - 2013 Soca [Local Riddim] Prod. by Dutch Productions & Satish Mathurin

Comment,rate,like!!] DOWNLOAD: http://www.hulkshare.com/harvxzov1x4w In 2010, Marley "Mongstar" James won the inaugural Piton Soca Starz competition. One ...

Emir Taj Tarik Bey 2009 - Nationality

Nationality is the State and quality of one belonging to a Nation. The Nature of Nationality is much broader than commonly assumed, mainly due to Socializati...

"Everyone has the right to a nationality!"

Join the cause and sign a petition to protect 600000 stateless people who live in Europe today. http://www.statelessness.eu/act-now-on-statelessness Animate...

Morning Glory - Nationality Anthem

Artist: Morning Glory Album: Always Alone (Split with Off With Their Heads) Year: 2013.

What is Your Nationality?

Explain how your Nationality? African American? American? Black? The Bible tells us that you are the Seed of your Father. He determines your Nationality. Now...

Farah Chamma - The Nationality | فرح شما - الجنسية

Poet: Farah Chamma Translation: Fawwaz Abu-Ghazaleh Video/Audio: Yazen.

137180 videos foundNext > 

22351 news items

 
UNHCR (press release)
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 06:52:30 -0700

Life seemed good, but in 1991 the Soviet Union disintegrated and Railya and tens of thousands of other people fell through the cracks as newly independent states like Kazakhstan passed their own nationality legislation. "Our minds just could not ...
 
Tribune-Review
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 13:37:49 -0700

St. Rita Christian Mothers Nationality Day, an annual gathering famous for food and more food, will return on Friday. Christian Mothers President Rita Pratt said Nationality Day has been around for more than 30 years, when the city used to celebrate ...
 
The Yucatan Times
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 10:15:00 -0700

What do actor Jet Li, opera singer Maria Callas, writer T.S. Eliot, financier John Templeton, actress Elizabeth Taylor, and Queen Noor of Jordan all have in common? They are all former US citizens who went through the formal process of relinquishing or ...
 
Peace Research Institute Oslo
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 04:37:30 -0700

​​The conference Hispaniola 2014 – justice, nationality and migration, organized by the University of Oslo (UiO), the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim (NTNU) and the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) will take place on ...

NPR (blog)

NPR (blog)
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 04:03:45 -0700

Here's a puzzle I bet you've never pondered. Imagine you are very, very pregnant. For the purposes of this mind game, you are a married American woman (with an American spouse) and you are about to board a plane and, pregnant as you are, they let you ...
 
Bleeding Cool News
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 12:52:30 -0700

After posting the higher percentage of female creators for six straight months, DC was finally toppled by Marvel in June. DC took a tumble while Marvel gained slightly, and it all was enough for Marvel to finally regain the top spot after a lengthy dry ...

AsiaOne

AsiaOne
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 16:48:45 -0700

SINGAPORE - Social media is alive and kicking among the uncles and aunties in the heartland. The reason I say this? Because there was an amazing amount of opinion and chatter about THAT Facebook video, which showed a middle-aged man standing ...
 
Al-Manar TV
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 02:11:15 -0700

Dutch "Jihadist" Dutch Foreign Minister Evo Opstelten announced Friday that his country plans to withdraw the nationality from the "jihadist" fighters who have joined terrorist groups, even without prior judiciary condemnation. The local authorities ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Nationality

You can talk about Nationality with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!