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Myanmar Navy
Active 24 December 1947 – present
Country  Myanmar
Branch Navy
Size 19,000 personnel
Part of Myanmar Armed Forces
Headquarters Naypyidaw
Nickname Tatmadaw Yay
Commanders
Minister of Defence Lieutenant General Wai Lwin
Commander-in-Chief of Myanmar Armed Forces Senior General Min Aung Hlaing
Commander-in-Chief (Navy) Admiral Thura Thet Swe
Insignia
Ensign Naval Ensign of Myanmar.svg
Naval ensign (1948-1974) Naval Ensign of Burma (1948-1974).svg

The Myanmar Navy (Burmese: တပ်မတော် (ရေ); Burmese pronunciation: [taʔmədɔ̀ jè]) is the naval branch of the armed forces of Myanmar with 19,000 men and women. The Myanmar Navy currently operates more than 122 vessels. Before 1988, the Myanmar Navy was small and its role in the many counterinsurgency operations was much less conspicuous than those of the army and air force. Yet the navy has always been, and remains, an important factor in Myanmar's security and it was dramatically expanded in recent years to an external threat defence role in Myanmar's territorial waters.

History[edit]

Pre-independence[edit]

A Burmese war boat, in 1795

The naval arm of the Royal Armed Forces consisted mainly of river-faring war boats. Its primary missions were to control the Irrawaddy, and to protect the ships carrying the army to the front. The major war boats carried up to 30 musketeers and were armed with 6- or 12-pounder cannon.[1] By the mid-18th century, the navy had acquired a few seafaring ships, manned by European and foreign sailors, that were used to transport the troops in Siamese and Arakanese campaigns.

Note that the Arakanese and the Mon, from the maritime regions, maintained more seaworthy flotillas than inland riverborne "navy" of the Royal Burmese Army. The Arakanese in particular fielded a formidable seagoing navy that terrorized the coasts of Bay of Bengal during the 15th and 17th centuries.

Founding and WWII[edit]

The Myanmar Navy was formed as the Navy of Burma in 1940 and, although very small, played an active part in Allied operations against the Japanese during the Second World War.

Burma Independence[edit]

In December 1947, the Union of Burma Navy was formed with 700 men. The fleet initially consisted of a small but diverse collection of ships transferred from the Royal Navy under the arrangements made for Burma's independence in January 1948. It included UBS Mayu, ex-Royal Navy River class frigate and four Landing Craft Gun (Medium). Armed with two 25-pounder (88 mm) guns and two 2-pounder (44 mm) guns, these landing craft were used as support gunboats.[2]

1950s[edit]

In 1950 and 1951, the United States provided 10 coast guard cutters (CGC) under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program (MDAP). The Myanmar Navy played an important part in the government's fight against the ethnic and ideological insurgent groups which threatened the Union Government in its early days. The Myanmar Navy performed both defensive and offensive roles, protecting convoys, carrying supplies, ferrying troops and giving much-needed fire support. It was instrumental in relieving the port city of Moulmein, which was captured by Karen insurgents in 1948, and the Irrawaddy Delta town of Bassein. Although one armed patrol boat defected to the Karen insurgents, throughout the turbulent years of post independence in Myanmar, the navy was largely unopposed and managed to maintain control over Myanmar's crucial inland waterways.[3]

In 1956 and 1957, Myanmar government acquired five 50-long-ton (51 t) Saunders-Roe Dark class convertible motor torpedo/motor gunboats,[4] followed by an 1,040-long-ton (1,060 t) Algerine class minesweeper in 1958 from the United Kingdom.[5] In the late 1950s and early 1960s, United States sold Myanmar Navy six PGM type coastal patrol crafts and seven CGC type patrol boats.[6] In the mid-1960s, Myanmar Navy took delivery of ex-US Navy 640-long-ton (650 t) PCE-827 class[7] corvette and a 650-long-ton (660 t) Admirable class minesweeper, both of which were commissioned in the mid-1940s. In 1978, United States provided Myanmar Navy with six small river patrol crafts.[8] In 1958, Myanmar Navy took delivery of 10 Y-301 class river gunboats from Yugoslavia, followed by 25 smaller Michao class patrol crafts.

1960s[edit]

Efforts were made to produce locally made Naval vessels with assistance from Yugoslavia. In 1960, Myanmar Navy commissioned two 400-long-ton (410 t) Nawarat Class corvettes. Their armaments include 25-pounder field gun and 40 mm Bofors Anti-Aircraft gun.[9] Myanmar shipyards also built the navy a number of smaller patrol crafts and a number of landing crafts. Landing crafts and auxiliary ships are usually armed with Oerlikon 20 mm cannons, 40mm Bofors Anti-Aircraft guns and Heavy machine guns.[10]

1970s[edit]

Although the Myanmar Navy expanded rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, however, the navy was unable to keep pace with loss or deterioration of older vessels in the 1970s until naval replacement program was initiated by BSPP Government in 1979. In 1980, the Myanmar Navy acquired six Carpentaria class inshore patrol boats from Australia followed by three 128-ton Swift type coastal patrol boats from Singapore and three 385-ton Ospery class offshore patrol vessels built in Denmark. The Ospery and Swift class boats have a range of 4,500 and 1,800 miles (7,200 and 2,900 km) respectively and were armed with Oerlikon 20 mm cannons and 40mm Bofors Anti-Aircraft guns. In the early years of the 1980s, Myanmar shipyards built three 128-ton PGM type patrol boats based upon US PGM Class patrol boats. Each boat was armed with two 40mm Bofors Anti-Aircraft guns and two 12.7 mm Heavy machine guns.

1990s[edit]

The Myanmar Navy bought 6 Missile Escort Boats & 10 Submarine Chaser from China. Since 1998, the navy has built two77m Corvettes (771 and 772) and four FACs (551-554).

May 2008 Cyclone Nargis[edit]

As many as 25 Burmese naval ships may have been sunk in the storm caused by Cyclone Nargis in May 2008, while an unknown number of naval personnel and their family members were killed or are listed as missing.[11] The Network for Democracy and Development [1], in Thailand, reported that 30 officers and 250 Burmese naval personnel have been declared missing, while 25 vessels were destroyed by the cyclone in three naval regional command centers: Panmawaddy Regional Command on Hainggyi Island; Irrawaddy Regional Command; and Danyawaddy Regional Command in Sittwe in Arakan State.

Attacks on civilians[edit]

Attacks on Bangladeshi Fishermen[edit]

On October 7, 1998 between three and five Bangladeshi fishermen were killed by Burmese Navy forces just off the coast of St. Martin's Island.[12]

Attacks on Thai Fishermen and civilians[edit]

In May 1998, Colonel Zaw Min, landed on Christie Island and found 59 people living there to gather wood and bamboo, in violation of Burmese law. The order came down from General Than Shwe that they were to be "eliminated" and they were all subsequently murdered.[13]

A few days later, members of the Burmese Navy captured a Thai fishing boat that had strayed close to Christie Island. The 22 fishermen on board were shot and buried on the island.[13]

Former and current Commanders-in-Chief since independence[edit]

  • 1. Commander Khin Maung Bo
  • 2. Commodore Than Pe
  • 3. Commodore Thaung Tin
  • 4. Rear-Adm. Chit Hlaing
  • 5. Rear-Adm. Maung Maung Win
  • 6. Vice-Adm. Maung Maung Khin
  • 7. Vice-Adm. Than Nyunt
  • 8. Vice-Adm. Tin Aye
  • 9. Vice-Adm. Nyunt Thein
  • 10. Vice-Adm. Kyi Min
  • 11. Vice-Adm. Soe Thein
  • 12. Adm. Nyan Tun
  • 13. Adm. Thura Thet Swe

Adm Nyan Tun took an official visit to Bangladesh from 12 to 15 Dec 2011 on invitation from Bangladesh Naval Chief Vice Adm Zahir Uddin Ahmed. He visited Naval Headquarters and Chittagong Naval Area. He called on President and Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The visit will open an avenue to greater maritime cooperation between the two neighbouring countries.

Commanders of Naval Region Command[edit]

Naval Region Command Commanding Officer
Irrawaddy Naval Region Command Comodore Maung Oo Lwin
Danyawaddy Regional Command Comodore Htay Naing
Panmawaddy Regional Command Comodore Aung Zaw Hlaing
Mawyawaddy Regional Command Comodore Nay Win
Tanintharyi Regional Command Comodore Moe Aung
No(1) Naval Training School Comodore Min Thein Tin
Naval Dorckyard Headquarters Comodore Myint Oo
No(1)Squadron (Yangon) Captain Ye Min Oo
No(2)Squadron (Heinzae) Captain Htein Win
No(3)Squadron ( Kyut Phyu) Captain Kyaw Shwe Htun

Modernization Program[edit]

Frigates[edit]

Myanmar Navy has started its modernization program in 2001 in an attempt to replace older ships and equipments. In 2012, Myanmar Navy has taken delivery of two Type 053H1 class frigates from China. These two ships were upgraded extensively by Myanmar Navy. Upgrades to frigates include the replacing of HY 2 anti ship missiles by more lethal C-802 missiles and installing of new sensors. First indigenous frigate, Aung Zeya has entered service in 2011 and took part in joint exercise with Indian Navy ships of Visakhapatnam in early 2013. Second ship, Kyan Sitthar enters service in 2012 and is the Myanmar Navy’s first stealth frigate. Third ship is under construction and expected to enter service in 2014. Myanmar Navy plans to build 6 frigates. Myanmar Navy frigates combine Russia, India, China and western weapon system. These ships are equipped with Kh-35E anti-ship missiles, OTO Melara 76 mm Super Rapid Cannons, AK-630 6-barrel 30mm CIWS guns and Chinese ASW rockets and torpedoes. Radars and electronic systems are mainly from Bharat Electronics of India. Myanmar acquired Surface-to-air missiles and Anti-ship missile from China for its newly built frigates and OPVs. Myanmar Navy Shipyard which is acquired from china in late 1990s is one of the most modern shipyards in the region. Many Myanmar naval engineers underwent shipbuilding training in China and Russia.

Light Frigates and FAC (Stealth)[edit]

In early 2011, two corvettes, 771 and 772, are upgraded to Light Frigates by installing C-802 missiles, SAMs, sonar, RBU 1200 ASW rockets and new surface and air search radars. The most significant development for Myanmar Navy is the launching of new FAC (Stealth) (pennant number P 491) which is 49 meter long and armed with 4 x C 802 missiles and a single AK 630 CIWS. Second ship of this class is under construction and expected to be completed by early 2014. Myanmar Navy plan to build 10 ships of this class.

Twenty 45-meter class FACs (Guns and Missiles) are backbone of Myanmar Navy but Myanmar Navy experienced these ships are too small for new weapons and electronic systems. This is the main reason for initiating of 49 meter class FAC (Stealth). Older Hainan class FAC (Submarine Chaser) will be degraded to Category B reserve by 2016.

Submarines[edit]

Myanmar Navy intended to establish a submarine fleet by 2015. Myanmar Navy is in the process of negotiating to buy 2 Kilo-class submarines and Kamov ASW helicopters for new frigates.

Future Plan[edit]

Ships 2013 2015 2020 Remarks
Submarine - 2* 4* *in the process of negotiating to buy Kilo Submarines from Russia
Frigate 4 6 8* * 6 indigenous frigates and 2 Type 053H1 frigates
Light Frigate 2 2 2 -
FAC(Stealth) 1 4 10 49 meter FAC(Stealth)(C 802A SSMs)
FAC (Missile) 17 17 17 6 Houxin class with C 801,5 45-meter class with C 801, 6 45-meter class with C 802
FAC (Gun) 9 11 15 45 meter FAC(Gun)
FAC (Submarine Chaser) 9 9 - will be degraded to Category B reserve by 2016
Patrol Craft 34 34 24
LCM 4* 6 9** *1 old LCM and 3 Type 1611 LCMs. **5 Type 1611 LCMs are to built.

Organization[edit]

Administrative and Support Units[edit]

  • Naval headquarters, Ministry of Defence (Naypyidaw)
  • Strategic Naval Command (headquarters in Naypyidaw)
  • Naval Training Command (Seikkyi)
  • Naval Shipyard Headquarters (Yangon)
  • Central Naval Hydrographic Depot (Yangon)
  • Central Naval Diving and Salvage Depot (Yangon)
  • Central Naval Engineering Depot (botataung,Yangon)
  • Central Naval Stores Depot (Yangon)
  • Central Naval Communications Depot (Yangon)
  • Central Naval Armaments Deport (Seikkyi)

Naval Regional Commands and Bases[edit]

  • Irrawaddy Regional Command (headquarters in Yangon)
    • Thanhklyet Soon Naval Base
    • Bassein Naval Base
    • Coco Island Base (Naval Radar Unit)
  • Danyawaddy Regional Command (headquarters in Sittwe)
    • Kyaukpyu Naval Base
    • Thandwe (Sandoway) Naval Base
  • Panmawaddy Regional Command (headquarters on Hainggyi Island)
  • Mawyawaddy Regional Command (headquarters in Moulmein)
  • Tanintharyi Regional Command (headquarters in Mergui)
    • Zadetkyi Island Naval Base
    • Mali (Tavoy) Naval Base
    • Palai Island Naval Base
    • Kadan Naval Base
    • Sakanthit Naval Base
    • Lambi Naval Base
    • Pearl Island Naval Base
    • Zadetkale Naval Base (Radar Unit)

Naval Infantry[edit]

The Myanmar Navy formed a naval infantry battalion of 800 men in 1964, and a second battalion in 1967. Third and fourth battalions may have also been raised. They battalions traditionally are deployed mainly in the Arakan, Tenasserim and Irrawaddy delta coastal regions primarily to assist in the army's counter-insurgency operations.

Naval Base Air Defense Force[edit]

Myanmar Naval Air defence Force are used Bofors 40mm & ZPU-2 AAA For Navy Bases. Images [2]

Ships[edit]

Frigate[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Kyan Sittha Class Naval Dockyard
(Myanmar) Burma
F12 - Kyansittha
F14 - Sinbyushin
2014
2015
Oto Melara 76 mm Super Rapid Cannons
4 x AK-630 6-barrel 30 mm CIWS guns
6 × SA-N-5 SAM ( F 12 is to be fitted with TY-90)
8 x Kh-35E anti-ship missiles
Triple 324 mm YU-7 ASW torpedoes
Rocket Launchers, possibly ASW rockets or decoy rockets
Stealth shaping, with helicopter hangar, 6 planned
Aung Zeya Class[14] Naval Dockyard
(Myanmar) Burma
F11 - Aung Zeya 2008
Oto Melara 76 mm Super Rapid Cannons
4 x AK-630 6-barrel 30 mm CIWS guns
6 × SA-N-5 SAM
8 x Kh-35E anti-ship missiles
Triple 324 mm YU-7 ASW torpedoes
Rocket Launchers, possibly ASW rockets or decoy rockets
Jianghu-II Class
Type 053H1
Hudong Shipyard
(People's Republic of China) China
F21 - Mahar Bandoola
F23 - Mahar Thiha Thura
2012 2 x 100 mm gun
4 x dual 37 mm AA guns
8 x C-802 anti ship Missile
2 x Type 81 (RBU-1200) 5-tube ASW RL (30 rockets), or 2 x Type 3200 6-tube ASW RL (36 rockets)
2 x Type 62 5-tube A/S mortar launchers
2 x depth charge (DC) racks & projector

Corvette[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Anawratha Class Myanma Shipyard(Sinmalike) Burma 771 - UMS Anawratha
772 - UMS Bayinnaung
1996–2007[14] 1 × Oto Melara 76 mm Super Rapid Cannons
1 × Type 69/AK-230 twin-barrel 30 mm CIWS gun
2 × Type 58/ZPU 2 Anti-aircraft Gun
6 × SA-N-5 SAM
4 × C-802 Surface-to-Surface Missile
2 × RBU-1200 or Type 81 ASW rocket launchers
1 helipad

FAC - Stealth[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Stealth ship Naval Dockyard (Myanmar) Burma 491
492
[15]
2012-2013[16] 1 × AK-630 six-barrel 30 mm CIWS gun
4 × SA-N-5 SAM
4 x C-802A anti-ship missile

FAC - Missile[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Houxin class[17] Qiuxin Shipyards, Shanghai, China 471 - MaGa
472 - SaitTra
473 - DuWa
474 - ZeyHta
475 - HanTha
476 - BanDa
1995,1996,1997 2 × 30 mm AK 230
2 × Type 69 14.5 mm twin Anti-Aircraft Guns
4 × C-802 Surface-to-Surface Missile
5-Series class[18][19] Naval Dockyard (Myanmar) Burma 556
557
558
559
560
2004 2 × 30 mm AK 230
2 × Type 69 14.5 mm twin Anti-Aircraft Guns
6 × SA-N-5 SAM
4 × C-802 Surface-to-Surface Missile
5-Series class[18][19] Naval Dockyard (Myanmar) Burma 561
562
567
568
569
570
2008, 2012
2 × 30 mm AK 230
2 × Type 69 14.5 mm twin Anti-Aircraft Guns
6 × SA-N-5 SAM
2 x C-802A Surface to Surface Anti-ship Missile

Mine Sweeper[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Admirable-class minesweeper United States 42 - Yan Gyi Aung 1967 1x76mm Cannon
2x 40mm Bofer Anti Aircraft Gun
4xAuliGun
Hedgehog Anti Submarine Destroyer
Ex US Navy USS Creddock (AM-356)[18]

FAC - Submarine Chaser[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Hainan[20] Dalian, Qiuxin and Huangpu Shipyard, China 442-Yan Htet Aung
443-Yan Nyein Aung
444-Yan Khwinn Aung
445-Yan Min Aung
446-Yan Ye Aung
447-Yan Pang Aung
448-Yan Win Aung
449-Yan Aye Aung
450-Yan Zwe Aung
1991,1993 2 × Type 66 - 57mm twin guns
2 × Type 87 - 25 mm twin guns
2 × Type 69 14.5 mm twin Anti-Aircraft Guns
RBU
441, Yan Sit Aung was sunk by cyclone Nargis[21]
1991, Six Crafts and 1993, four crafts

FAC - GUN[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
5-Series class[18][19] Naval Dockyard (Myanmar) Burma 551
552
553
554
555
563
564
565
566
1996,2013 1 × 37 mm AA gun
2 × Type 87 - 25 mm twin guns
2 × Type 69 14.5 mm twin Anti-Aircraft Guns

Large Patrol Combatants[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Osprey Class-50[18][19][22] Danyard A/S, Frederikshavn,  Denmark 55 (Indaw)
57 (Inya)
1982 1 / 40mm 60-cal. Bofors AA
2 / 20mm 70-cal. Oerlikon AA

Coastal Patrol Craft[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
PGM 43 class [18][20][22] Marinette Marine, Wisconsin; last two by Peterson Builders, Sturgeon Bay, WI,  United States 401
402
403
404
405
406
1959–1961 1x40mm Bofor, 2 dual 20mm OA, 2x12.7mm MG
Y311 class - modified Y301[18][20][22] Sinmalaik, Burma Burma Y311 1967 2x40mm Bofor, 2X20mm OA Y-312 was reported sunk by cyclone Nargis[21])
Y Series class[18][20][22] Uljanik SY, Pola, Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
1957–1960 2x40mm Bofor, 2X20mm OA

Cruiser Patrol Craft[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Swift class[18][20][22] Swiftships, Morgan City, LA / Vosper, Singapore 422
423
1980 2 40 mm, 2 20 mm, 2 12.7 mm machine gun, Pathfinder Radar 421 lost in the sea

Patrol Craft[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Carpentaria class[18][20][22] Australia Australia 112
113
114
115
116
117
[18]
1978–1980 MK10 AA, radar, 20mm 70cal
412 class[18][20][22] Burma Naval Dockyard, Rangoon Burma 412
413
414
416
1983–1984 2x40mm AA, 2x12.7mm machine gun 415 was sunk
PB-90 [18][20][22] Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 424
425
426
1990 M-75 AA, Radar, 2x quadruplet 20mm cal

Coastal Land Craft Mechanized[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
LCM Naval Engineering Depot Burma[18] 709
710
1967
LCM Naval Engineering Depot Burma[23] 1611 2005
LCM Naval Engineering Depot Burma[23] 1612
1613
2013

Coastal Land Craft Utility[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
LCU Naval Dock Burma 605[18] 1984
LCU United States 603[18] 1963–1968

Coastal Survey Ship[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Survey ship [18][20] Tito SY, Belgrade, Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 801 Thutaythi 1965 helipad
2 x40 mm, 2x 20 mm machine gun[24]

Coastal Logistics and tanker Ship[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
coastal tanker[18][20][22] Watenabe Zosen K.K., Hakata, Japan  Japan 608 1991 None
coastal tanker[18][20][22] Shimoda Dockyard, Shimoda, Japan  Japan 609 class 1986 None
coastal logistics ship[18][20][22]  Germany 601 Pyi Daw Aye (1) 1975 None
coastal logistics ship[18][20][22]  Japan 602 Pyi Daw Aye (2) 2002 None
coastal logistics ship[18][20][22] A/S Nordsovaerftet, Ringkobing,  Norway Ayidawaya 1991 None
coastal transport[18][20][22]  Burma 612
613
615
618
1990 AA Gun
Yadanabon[18][20][22]  Burma VIP Transport 1990

River Patrol Craft[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
PBR class  United States[18] 211
212
213
214
215
216
1978–1982 1 × twin M2HB .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns (forward in a rotating tub)
1 × single M2HB (rear)
1 or 2 × M60 7.62 mm machine gun(s) (side-mounted)
1 × 40 mm Mk 19 grenade launcher
Yan Naing class[18] Doone Htay,Burma 501
510
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
1970 Machine Gun, OA
Michao Class[18] Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
011
012
013
014
015
016
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
1963–1968 2x20mm OA
PCE Class[20] Naval Dockyard, Burma 217
218
219
220
1989 machine gun, Bofor, AA Number of Built 4 crafts

Floating dry dock[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Floating dry dock  China FD01[23] 2013

Naval Aviation[edit]

Class Builder Serial Number Year Entered Service Armament Note
Harbin Z-9 Chinese Helicopter Lands on HMS Cornwall MOD 45150752.jpg  China ASW
SAR
C 4 ASW.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lieberman, pp. 164–167
  2. ^ p.28, Janes Fighting Ships 1963-64
  3. ^ Hugh Tinker, Union of Burma, p.325
  4. ^ British Military Powerboat Trust
  5. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 1963-1964 p.28
  6. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 1982-83 p.60
  7. ^ http://www.navsource.org/archives/12/120282701.jpg
  8. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 1997-1998 p.79
  9. ^ Janes Fighting Ships 1997-98 p.79
  10. ^ Janes Fighting Ships 1997-98 p.82
  11. ^ http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=11980
  12. ^ http://www.burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/199810/msg00195.html, REUTERS: MYANMAR GUARDS KILL TWO BANGLADESHIS, 8 October 1998
  13. ^ a b http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/defector-tells-of-burmese-atrocity/story-e6frg6t6-1111116576033, Defector tells of Burmese atrocity , The Australian, June 09, 2008
  14. ^ a b AMR NAVAL DIRECTORY 2011
  15. ^ http://mmmilitary.blogspot.com
  16. ^ http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=478244362217724&set=pb.438995926142568.-2207520000.1356654312&type=3&theater
  17. ^ http://mmmilitary.blogspot.com/
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Maung Aung Myoe, Building the Tamadaw
  19. ^ a b c d mmmilitary.blogspot.com
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q mmmilitary.blogspot.com/
  21. ^ a b Burmese Navy Decimated in Cyclone
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships By Eric Wertheim
  23. ^ a b c http://www.myawady.com.mm/photonews/item/11344-2013-04-10-13-50-55
  24. ^ bangladeshdefence1945.blogspot.com/2010/11/ships-of-myanmar-navy_22.html

External links[edit]


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