The local urban bodies (ULBs) of India are the constitutionally provided administrative units that provide basic infrastructure and services in cities and towns. As of the 1991 census, there were 3,255 ULBs in the country classified into four major categories:
Large urban areas are governed by nagar nigams, often simply called corporations, abbreviated "M.Corp." The area under a corporation is further divided up into wards. Individual wards or collections of wards within a corporation sometimes have their own administrative body known as ward committees. To qualify as a nagar nigam a city must have a population of a million or more.
Smaller urban areas are governed by nagar palika, which are often referred to simply as municipalities, abbreviated "C.M.C.". Municipalities are also divided into wards, which may be grouped together into ward councils. One or more representatives are elected to represent each ward. To qualify as a nagar palika a city must have a population of 100,000 or more up to one million.
Large towns are governed by a town council, (T.M.C.) To qualify as a nagar panchayat a town must have a population of 25,000 but less than 100,000. In a somewhat confusing manner, these are sometimes also referred to as municipalities.
- a minimum population of 5,000
- density of at least 400 people per square kilometer
- at least 75% of the working male populace must be engaged in non-agricultural work
- Class I: 100,000 and above,
- Class II: 50,000 to 99,999,
- Class III: 20,000 to 49,999,
- Class IV: 10,000 to 19,999,
- Class V: 5,000 to 9,999, and
- Class VI: less than 5,000 persons.
In addition the 2001 Census introduced the term "Urban Agglomeration" (U.A.) for a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths (OGs) or two or more physically contiguous towns together and any adjoining urban outgrowths of such towns. Adjoining urban outgrowths (OGs) are built-up areas near a city or statutory town but that are outside its mandated jurisdiction; they include such areas as growth around railway stations, university campuses, and port areas.
- Tiwari, D. P. "Challenges in Urban Planning for Local Bodies in India". Archived from the original on 24 October 2002.
- "Census Data 2001 / Metadata: 24. Abbreviations Used". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 17 June 2007.
- "Definitions of Town/City and Urban Agglomeration as adopted in Census of India, 2001". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
- Sharma, A. K. (2012). Population and Society. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 120. ISBN 978-81-8069-818-7.
- "2001 Census of India: Alphabetical list of towns and their population: Delhi". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007.
- "Kerala: Urban Local Government Institutions/Municipalities".
- "निगम का संगठन तथा शासन (Local bodies in Uttar Pradesh: Organization and governance of the corporation)" (in Hindi).
A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.